Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution MOI"— Presentation transcript:
1The American Revolution 1775-1783 MOI Evolution of WarfareThe American RevolutionMOI
2Learning ObjectivesContrast/compare the expressions “strategy of attrition” and “partisan warfare,” and apply them to the American RevolutionDiscuss British and American strategy and objectives, and note how they changed during the course of the American RevolutionContrast the Continental Army with the professional armies of the 18th century and show how this difference dictated Washington’s strategyExplain how French intervention tipped the balance in favor of America in the War for Independence
4Causes Two causes Taxation Quartering of troops to defend against Indian forays after expulsion of FrenchBritish felt colonists should payActs of Trade & Navigation ignored(smuggling)Stamp Act, Revenue Act, Quartering Act“No Taxation, without Representation!”Colonists required to provide barracks/supplies for British troopsNavigation ActsThey had as their purpose the expansion of the English carrying trade, the provision from the colonies of materials England could not produce, and the establishment of colonial markets for English manufactures. The rise of the Dutch carrying trade, which threatened to drive English shipping from the seas, was the immediate cause for the Navigation Act of 1651, and it in turn was a major cause of the First Dutch War . It forbade the importation of plantation commodities of Asia, Africa, and America except in ships owned by Englishmen. European goods could be brought into England and English possessions only in ships belonging to Englishmen, to people of the country where the cargo was produced, or to people of the country receiving first shipment. the acts hindered the development of manufacturing in the colonies and were a focus of the agitation preceding the American Revolution. Vigorous attempts to prevent smuggling in the American colonies after 1765 led to arbitrary seizures of ships and aroused hostility.
5CausesReal causesColonists had intellectual differences with British government (king vs. parliament)Colonists had spirit of self-independence brought about by frontier lifeColonists believed in democratic form of government vice oligarchy
6Other factors Colonist goals distinct from mother country British victory in French/Indian War freed colonists of need for protection from FrenchBritish move to tighten imperial control (station 10,000 soldiers along American colonist expense)Seven year’s warThe North American phase of this conflict is known in the United States as the French and Indian War. Many of the Indians (Native Americans/First Nations) sided with France although some did fight with the British. The name "Seven Years' War" is used in the United States to refer only to the European portions of the conflict ( ), not the nine-year North American conflict or the Indian campaigns which lasted 15 years.
7Definition of Terms Attrition - gradual weakening Partisan - “irregular” troopsGuerilla warfare - “irregular” troops fighting small-scale, limited actions against larger orthodox military forces
8Application of TermsStrategy of Attrition - adopted by Washington due to economylong lines of communicationEnglish enemies in Europe (need to protect homeland)popular support in England for colonies (prospect of long war might cause England to abandon cause)Down side - division in colonies
9Application of Terms Partisan Warfare local militias supported nucleus of continental soldierstactics well suited to means and background (Cowpens is classic example)Irregular troops- citizen soldiers
10American Strategy and Objectives Population - 1/3 rebel, 1/3 loyalist, 1/3 indifferent.Loyalists provided more support to England than rebels provided to Continental ArmyTwo wars - foreign war against major European power & civil warStrategic defensive for most of war
11Lexington & Bunker Hill Lexington gave impetus to siege of Boston & battle of Bunker HillBunker Hill affected military policy:convinced that regular military was unnecessaryGen Howe henceforth failed to press victoriesThe battle served to prove to the American people that the British Army was not invincible. It became a symbol of national pride and a rally point of resistance against British rule.The Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775 was the first engagement or battle of the American Revolutionary War. Eight hundred British regulars, mainly from the flank and grenadier companies, marched from Boston to Lexington and Concord, and drove the Minutemen from the towns. But, they were decimated during their return march, and the Siege of Boston began. In terms of accomplishments and casualties this was not a major battle. With 1,800 men engaged, the British losses were 73 dead, 26 missing, and 174 wounded or 273 total casualties. Estimated rebel losses for 4,000 men were 49 killed, 5 missing and 41 seriously wounded for a total of 95 casualties. But, the Revolutionary War had begun. And the British assumption that they had enough force at Boston to overwhelm the rebels was questioned. The next battle, at Bunker Hill would shatter that assumption completely. The Army of resistance continued to grow as surrounding colonies sent men and supplies. The Continental Congress would adopt and sponsor these men into the beginnings of the Continental Army.Battle of Bunker HillBunker Hill was a battle of the American Revolutionary War that took place on June 17, 1775 during the Siege of Boston. Although it is known as Bunker Hill, most of the action was on Breed's Hill. British forces under General Howe drove the American militia from fortified positions on Breed's Hill and Bunker Hill. The battle was a Pyrrhic victory for Howe. His immediate objective was achieved, but the attack demonstrated the American will to stand in pitched battle, caused substantial British casualties, and did not change the status of the siege. After the battle, British General Thomas Gage is said to have remarked that "One more victory like that will destroy us." The British had taken the ground, but at a cost; 1,054 had been shot (226 dead and 828 wounded). and a disproportionate number of these were officers. The American losses were only about 450, of whom 140 were killed (including Joseph Warren), and 30 captured. Most American losses came during the withdrawal
12Concord and Lexington Concord Col Barrett on the North Bridge3 companies of minutemen and one alarm company under PrescottBritish opened fire on the approaching rebelsBritish won initial battle but a 16 mile gauntlet was formed by militiaBroke the British disciplineRuthless on both sidesLosses: British: 273 Rebels: 93
13Battles Concord and Lexington Apr 1775 Paul Revere “One if by land, two if by sea”Left at 2200 at nightLexingtonRebels tried to leave and were fired upon, did not lay down weaponsCapt Jonas Parker and 7 others killedOne British soldier wounded
14Battles Militia Proved its value Entire population was under arms and fought the British (Lord Percy) back to BostonBritish lost 259 menMilitia Proved its valueResult was that Gage was not surrounded on BostonContinental Congress formed the “Army of the United Colonies under WashingtonBenedict Arnold EmergedBenedict Arnold (January 14, June 14, 1801), born in Norwich, Connecticut, was originally a rebel who became a general in the Continental Army In 1777, Arnold was passed over by Congress for a promotion to a major generalship. Without a command of his own, he still played a role in defeating the British at the Battle of Saratoga. He almost lost his leg in the battle In 1780, he negotiated with British General Henry Clinton to hand over the American fort at West Point, New York to the British for 20,000 sterling (about $1,000,000 today). His plans were discovered when his courier, British Major John André, was captured with incriminating documents. Learning of André's capture, Arnold escaped and joined the British forces. He was appointed Brigadier General and led several subsequent attacks on American forces. On January 5, 1781 Richmond, Virginia was burned by British naval forces led by Arnold.
15Battles Bunker Hill Cost: British 1,054 Rebels 441 British – Gage wanted the rebels off the hill (Bunker and Breeds)Ordered Howe to take Bunker HillHowe attacked Breed’s hill twice without success and finally a third time and was successful (rebels out of ammo)Cost: British 1,054 Rebels 441Very heavy % for both
17General WashingtonAfter Bunker Hill he was forced to change to more Fabian Tactics by avoiding battle whenever he could.Fabian tactics: tactics involving harassment and attrition rather than head-on battlesWashington was commissioned in 1754 as an Colonel in the Virginia Militia and built a series of Forts in the western frontier of Virginia. He accompanied the Braddock Expedition of the British Army during the French and Indian War. On July 3, 1775 he assumed command of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. After successfully driving the British out of Boston, Washington lost the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and retreated to Valley Forge, outside of British-held Philadelphia, where the American forces recovered. On December 25, 1776, Washington led the American forces crossing the Delaware to attack Hessian forces in Trenton, New Jersey. The successful attack built morale among the pro-independence colonists.Washington retained an army in being throughout the Revolution, keeping British forces tied down in the center of the country while Generals Gates and Benedict Arnold won the battle of Saratoga in This victory led to French recognition of the United States.In 1781, Washington, commanding both American and French forces, besieged General Cornwallis at the Battle of Yorktown in Virginia. The British surrender there was the effective end of British attempts to quell the Revolution. In 1783, by means of the Treaty of Paris, the Kingdom of Great Britain recognized American independence. As a result, on November 2 of that year at Rocky Hill, New Jersey General Washington gave his "Farewell Address to the Army". Then at Fraunces Tavern in New York City on December 4, General Washington formally bid his officers farewell.
18Battles Saratoga Campaign Ticonderoga LtCol St. Clair 2500 plus 900 militiaBurgoyne for the British with a force of British, Germans and JagersBritish landed and occupied the high groundSt Clair withdrew to SaratogaThe British force drove the Americans back into the fort, then hauled cannon to the top of undefended Mt. Defiance, which overlooked the fort. Faced with bombardment, Arthur St. Clair ordered Ticonderoga abandoned on July 5. Burgoyne's troops moved in the next day. The colonials quickly withdrew across the Lake to Fort Independence on the Vermont side of the Lake. They soon abandoned that fort as well and retreated south in disarray. The rear guard left to delay the British at the Lake Champlain crossing was reportedly too drunk to fire their cannon, and the colonial army was fortunate to withdraw to the Hudson Valley without major losses. After Burgoyne's defeat at Saratoga, the fort at Ticonderoga became increasingly irrelevant. The British abandoned Fort Ticonderoga and Crown Point in 1780.
19Battles Saratoga Campaign 1st Battle 19 Sept 77 Gates holds strong but with German reinforcements Burgoyne defeats him2nd Battle 7 Oct 77Arnold rallies the Americans to victoryBurgoyne surrenders on 17 Oct 77On September 19, 1777 the Royal army advanced upon the American camp in three separate columns within the present day towns of Stillwater and Saratoga. Two of them headed through the heavy forests covering the region; the third, composed of German troops, marched down the river road. American scouts detected Burgoyne's army in motion and notified Gates, who ordered Col. Daniel Morgan's corps of Virginia riflemen to track the British march. About 12:30 p.m., some of Morgan's men brushed with the advance guard of Burgoyne's center column in a clearing known as the Freeman Farm, about a mile north of the American camp. The general battle that followed swayed back and forth over the farm for more than three hours. Then, as the British lines began to waver in the face of the deadly fire of the numerically superior Americans, German reinforcements arrived from the river road. Hurling them against the American right, Burgoyne steadied the wavering British line and gradually forced the Americans to withdraw. Except for this timely arrival and the near exhaustion of the Americans' ammunition, Burgoyne might have been defeated that day. Though he held the immediate field of battle, Burgoyne had been stopped about a mile north of the American line and his army roughly treated. Shaken by his "victory," the British commander ordered his troops to entrench in the vicinity of the Freeman Farm and await support from Clinton, who was supposedly preparing to move north toward Albany from New York City.
20For nearly three weeks he waited but Clinton did not come For nearly three weeks he waited but Clinton did not come. By now Burgoyne's situation was critical. Faced by a growing American army without hope of help from the south, and with supplies rapidly diminishing, the British army became weaker with each passing day. Burgoyne had to choose between advancing or retreating. He decided to risk a second engagement, and on October 7 ordered a reconnaissance-in-force to test the American left flank. Ably led and supported by eight cannon, a force of 1,500 men moved out of the British camp. After marching southwesterly about three-quarters of a mile, the troops deployed in a clearing on the Barber Farm. Most of the British front faced an open field, but both flanks rested in woods, thus exposing them to surprise attack. By now the Americans knew that Burgoyne's army was again on the move and at about 3 p.m. attacked In three columns under Colonel Morgan, Gen. Ebenezer Learned, and Gen. Enoch Poor. Repeatedly the British line was broken, then rallied, and both flanks were severely punished and driven back. Gen. Simon Fraser, who commanded the British right, was mortally wounded as he rode among his men to encourage them to make a stand and cover the developing withdrawal. Before the enemy's flanks could be rallied, Gen. Benedict Arnold -who had been relieved of command after a quarrel with Gates- rode onto the field and led Learned's brigade against the German troops holding the British center. Under tremendous pressure from all sides, the Germans joined a general withdrawal into the fortifications on the Freeman Farm. Within an hour after the opening clash, Burgoyne lost eight cannon and more than 400 officers and men. Flushed with success, the Americans believed that victory was near. Arnold led one column in a series of savage attacks on the Balcarres Redoubt, a powerful British fieldwork on the Freeman Farm. After failing repeatedly to carry this position, Arnold wheeled his horse and, dashing through the crossfire of both armIes, spurred northwest to the Breymann Redoubt.
21Arriving just as American troops began to assault the fortification, he joined in the final surge that overwhelmed the German soldiers defending the work. Upon entering the redoubt, he was wounded in the leg. Had he died there, posterity would have known few names brighter than that of Benedict Arnold. Darkness ended the day's fighting and saved Burgoyne's army from immediate disaster. That night the British commander left his campfires burning and withdrew his troops behind the Great Redoubt, which protected the high ground and river flats at the northeast corner of the battlefield. The next night, October 8, after burying General Fraser in the redoubt, the British began their retreat northward. They had suffered 1,000 casualties in the fighting of the past three weeks; American losses numbered less than 500. After a miserable march in mud and rain, Burgoyne's troops took refuge in a fortified camp on the heights of Saratoga. There an American force that had grown to nearly 20,000 men surrounded the exhausted British army. Faced with such overwhelming numbers, Burgoyne surrendered on October 17,1777. By the terms of the Convention of Saratoga, Burgoyne's depleted army, some 6,000 men, marched out of its camp "with the Honors of War" and stacked its weapons along the west bank of the Hudson River. Thus was gained one of the most decisive victories in American and world history.
22Saratoga Turning point in revolution British now held only N.Y. City, Part of R.I., & PhiladelphiaFrance recognized U.S. & signed treaty of alliance (1778)France & colonies now more aggressiveThe Battle of Saratoga is considered, by many historians, to have been the turning point of the American Revolutionary War. A force of roughly 10,000 men -- mostly British regulars -- under General "Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne had advanced from French Canada in the summer of 1777 with the intention of taking Albany, New York and cutting New England off from the rest of the colonies by seizing control of the Hudson River Valley. In the spring of 1777, the British took colonial forts at Crown Point and Ticonderoga. The Americans retreated. However, a successful colonial delaying action of systematically blocking roads, destroying bridges, and harassing the British with sniper fire slowed the British advance beyond the southern ends of Lakes Champlain and George to a few kilometers a day. Burgoyne's force was eventually blocked by colonial regular soldiers and militia under General Horatio Gates in the area north of the Hudson Valley town of Saratoga. Over the course of the summer of 1777, the colonial force grew to roughly 15,000 men.
23Southern Campaign Gen Greene - war of maneuver against Cornwallis marched and counter-marched against main armiesused partisan bands under Lee, Pickens, Sumter, & Marion to harass flanks, cut off supplies, attack posts & put down loyalist aid
24Southern Campaign Intentionally violated principle of mass: Divided forces could live off landMore rallying points for local militiaTempted Cornwallis to split his forceSacrificed mass for maneuverCombination of regular and Guerilla warfare speedily reduced British occupation
25British Strategy and Objectives British Ministry Plan:Occupy territory to break up union of patriotsBlockade coast to preventre-supply from seaDestroy organized armiesSuppress Guerilla warfare
26British Strategy and Objectives Plan actually carried out:Make N.Y. City headquarters (occupy)Secure from NYC to Hudson Valley to CanadaCut off New England - hotbed of sedition and source of supplies, ideas, encouragement & reinforcementsActually only held one port (Newport) in New England
27British Strategy and Objectives South of NY the line was Chesapeake BayStrong positions in Maryland and Virginia.Attempt to isolate the middle from the south and prevent communication.Controlling the south: Occupy Charleston and 2 or 3 points along the Santee River in SC.
28British Strategy and Objectives Advantage: Royal Navy - freedom of maneuver along coastal stripDisadvantage: no critical point to maneuver against along coast, unable to physically control all the territory
29British Strategy and Objectives Economic warfareBlockadeCounterfeitingruining value of continental moneymaking own purchases with Gold
30British Force Classic 18th century European Army Linear tacticsWell-trained soldiersLoyalty & dedication suspect in EnglandSympathy for colonistsHessians (mercenaries) employed
31American ForceMost home for local defense - few forces for continental armyPrior to von Steuben - little disciplineSteuben served under FrederickMade I.G. of Washington’s ArmyStreamlined musket loading & uniformityStandardized training - speed and tacticsDiscipline instilledBaron von Steuben (November 15, 1730-November 28, 1794) was a German army officer who served with George Washington in the American Revolutionary War and is credited with teaching American troops the essentials of military drill and discipline. He is considered one of the founding spirits of the United States Army.On February 23, 1778 von Steuben arrived at Valley Forge to help to train the Continental Army and in March 1778 he began drilling the inexperienced soldiers stationed there. By May, when he was made inspector-general, with the rank of major-general, he had established a thorough system of discipline and economy.
32American Force Used rifle more than British Most useful in Guerilla actionsOf great value in wooded areasslow rate of firelack of bayonetinferior to musket for open-field fighting
33Battles Cowpens 1/17/81 Americans Great American Victory Turning Point? Changed the psychology of the warMorgan against TarletonAmericansCamped at Cowpens between two small hill topsMotivated by Morgan at night by the campfiresDawn at the Cowpens on January 17, 1781, was clear and bitterly cold. Morgan, his scouts bearing news of Tarleton’s approach, moved among his men, shouting, "Boys, get up! Benny’s22 coming! Tarleton, playing catch up, and having marched his army since two in the morning, ordered formation on the Green River Road for the attack. His aggressive style was made even now more urgent, since there were rumors of Overmountain men on the way, reminiscent of events at Kings Mountain. Yet he was confident of victory: he reasoned he had Morgan hemmed in by the Broad, and the undulating park-like terrain was ideal for his dragoons23. He thought Morgan must be desperate, indeed, to have stopped at such a place. Perhaps Morgan saw it differently: in some past battles, Patriot militia had fled in face of fearsome bayonet charges – but now the Broad at Morgan’s back could prevent such a retreat. In reality, though, Morgan had no choice – to cross the flood-swollen Broad risked having his army cut down by the feared and fast-traveling Tarleton.
34American Force Cowpens (Jan, 1781) Numerically equal forces, but Americans were 3/4 militiaContinental infantry on hill, leaving flanks openMilitia riflemen in front1st line fires two volleys, falls backcombined line fires until British pressesThen fall back to rear & become reserveTarleton pressed the attack head on, his line extending across the meadow, his artillery in the middle, and fifty Dragoons on each side. It was as if Morgan knew he would make a frontal assault – it was his style of fighting. To face Tarleton, he organized his troops into three lines. First, out front and hiding behind trees were selected sharpshooters. At the onset of battle they picked off numbers of Tarleton’s Dragoons, traditionally listed as fifteen24, shooting especially at officers, and warding off an attempt to gain initial supremacy. With the Dragoons in retreat, and their initial part completed, the sharpshooters retreated 150 yards or more back to join the second line, the militia commanded by Andrew Pickens. Morgan used the militia well, asking them to get off two volleys and promised their retreat to the third line made up of John Eager Howard's25 Continentals, again close to 150 yards back. Some of the militia indeed got off two volleys as the British neared, but, as they retreated and reached supposed safety behind the Continental line, Tarleton sent his feared Dragoons after them. As the militia dodged behind trees and parried saber slashes with their rifles, William Washington’s26 Patriot cavalry thundered onto the field of battle, seemingly, out of nowhere. The surprised British Dragoons, already scattered and sensing a rout, were overwhelmed, and according to historian Babits, lost eighteen men in the clash. As they fled the field, infantry on both sides fired volley after volley. The British advanced in a trot, with beating drums, the shrill sounds of fifes, and shouts of halloo. Morgan, in response, cheering his men on, said to give them the Indian halloo back. Riding to the front, he rallied the militia, crying out, "form, form, my brave fellows! Old Morgan was never beaten!"
35BattlesBritishAttacked head on with Dragoons (British Calvary) on the flanks and artillery in the centerThought it would be an easy victory and that the Americans would flee quickly.
37Battles Americans Anticipated Tarleton’s tactics Formed in three lines Sharpshooters out front behind treesAndrew Pickens Militia 150 yds backTwo volleys and fall backHoward’s Continentals 150 yds backDawn at the Cowpens on January 17, 1781, was clear and bitterly cold. Morgan, his scouts bearing news of Tarleton’s approach, moved among his men, shouting, "Boys, get up! Benny’s22 coming! Tarleton, playing catch up, and having marched his army since two in the morning, ordered formation on the Green River Road for the attack. His aggressive style was made even now more urgent, since there were rumors of Overmountain men on the way, reminiscent of events at Kings Mountain. Yet he was confident of victory: he reasoned he had Morgan hemmed in by the Broad, and the undulating park-like terrain was ideal for his dragoons23. He thought Morgan must be desperate, indeed, to have stopped at such a place. Perhaps Morgan saw it differently: in some past battles, Patriot militia had fled in face of fearsome bayonet charges – but now the Broad at Morgan’s back could prevent such a retreat. In reality, though, Morgan had no choice – to cross the flood-swollen Broad risked having his army cut down by the feared and fast-traveling Tarleton.
39Battles Cowpens: Actions in the field Sharpshooters picked off many British Officers and DragoonsDragoons retreated and the sharpshooter fell back to the 2nd line2nd line got off two volleys and fell back to the 3rd line but were caught by a second charge of the DragoonsWilliam Washington’s Patriot Cavalry came out of nowhere to join the battle and routed the British DragoonsTarleton pressed the attack head on, his line extending across the meadow, his artillery in the middle, and fifty Dragoons on each side. It was as if Morgan knew he would make a frontal assault – it was his style of fighting. To face Tarleton, he organized his troops into three lines. First, out front and hiding behind trees were selected sharpshooters. At the onset of battle they picked off numbers of Tarleton’s Dragoons, traditionally listed as fifteen24, shooting especially at officers, and warding off an attempt to gain initial supremacy. With the Dragoons in retreat, and their initial part completed, the sharpshooters retreated 150 yards or more back to join the second line, the militia commanded by Andrew Pickens. Morgan used the militia well, asking them to get off two volleys and promised their retreat to the third line made up of John Eager Howard's25 Continentals, again close to 150 yards back. Some of the militia indeed got off two volleys as the British neared, but, as they retreated and reached supposed safety behind the Continental line, Tarleton sent his feared Dragoons after them. As the militia dodged behind trees and parried saber slashes with their rifles, William Washington’s26 Patriot cavalry thundered onto the field of battle, seemingly, out of nowhere. The surprised British Dragoons, already scattered and sensing a rout, were overwhelmed, and according to historian Babits, lost eighteen men in the clash. As they fled the field, infantry on both sides fired volley after volley. The British advanced in a trot, with beating drums, the shrill sounds of fifes, and shouts of halloo. Morgan, in response, cheering his men on, said to give them the Indian halloo back. Riding to the front, he rallied the militia, crying out, "form, form, my brave fellows! Old Morgan was never beaten!"
40Battles Cowpens: Actions in the field Infantry on both sides continued to fire volley after volleyBritish advanced at a trotMorgan rallied the AmericansBritish 71st Highlanders came from the reserve and charged the American lineHoward on the right flank ordered his units to face slightly right and face the charge.Order was confused as to retreat.Americans started falling backNow Tarleton’s 71st Highlanders27, held in reserve, entered the charge toward the Continental line, the wild wail of bagpipes adding to the noise and confusion. A John Eager Howard order for the right flank to face slightly right to counter a charge from that direction, was, in the noise of battle, misunderstood as a call to retreat.
41Battles Cowpens: Actions in the field Morgan confronted Howard and turned the retreating forces around.The British thought the Americans were in retreat and had broken ranks to pursue.The Americans turned and delivered devastating volleys into the British forces.American conducted a fierce bayonet charge and broke the British lines.American forces then conducted a double envelopment of the BritishBritish Infantry surrenderedAs other companies along the line followed suite, Morgan rode up to ask Howard if he were beaten. As Howard pointed to the unbroken ranks and the orderly retreat and assured him they were not, Morgan spurred his horse on and ordered the retreating units to face about, and then, on order, fire in unison. The firing took a heavy toll on the British, who, by that time had sensed victory and had broken ranks in a wild charge. This event and a fierce Patriot bayonet charge in return broke the British charge and turned the tide of battle. The re-formed militia and cavalry re-entered the battle, leading to double envelopment28 of the British, perfectly timed. British infantry began surrendering en masse.
42Battles Cowpens: Actions in the field 1 hour battle Tarleton fled and dueled William Washington.Made it to Cornwalis’ camp to tell him of the news1 hour battle110 KIA, 200 WIA 500 POW for the British12 KIA, 60 WIA for the AmericansTarleton and some of his army fought valiantly on; others refused his orders and fled the field. Finally, Tarleton, himself, saw the futility of continued battle, and with a handful of his men, fled from whence he came, down the Green River Road. In one of the most dramatic moments of the battle, William Washington, racing ahead of his cavalry, dueled hand-to-hand with Tarleton and two of his officers. Washington’s life was saved only when his young bugler29 fired his pistol at an Englishman with raised saber. Tarleton and his remaining forces galloped away to Cornwallis’ camp. Stragglers from the battle were overtaken, but Tarleton escaped to tell the awful news to Cornwallis.The battle was over in an hour. It was a complete victory for the Patriot force. British losses were staggering: 110 dead, over 200 wounded and 500 captured. Morgan lost only 12 killed and 60 wounded, a count he received from those reporting directly to him. Knowing Cornwallis would come after him, Morgan saw to it that the dead were buried – the legend says in wolf pits -- and headed north with his army. Crossing the Broad at Island Ford 30, he proceeded to Gilbert Town31, and, yet burdened as he was by the prisoners, pressed swiftly northeastward toward the Catawba River, and some amount of safety. The prisoners were taken via Salisbury32 on to Winchester, Virginia. Soon Morgan and Greene reunited and conferred, Morgan wanting to seek protection in the mountains and Greene wanting to march north to Virginia for supplies. Greene won the point, gently reminding Morgan that he was in command. Soon after Morgan retired from his duty because of ill health— rheumatism, and recurring bouts of malarial fever.
43Impact of French French anxious to regain international position Helped in three other significant ways:LoansUse of French ports for American privateersProtected American vessels near French Waters
44Judging English Failure Initial plan could have workedDidn’t act with resolution hoping for conciliatory measuresAdequate forces never providedBritish didn’t use strategic initiative to advantageNo Unity of CommandNo defined objectiveLord Germain directed to much from England:Lacked timeliness, knowledge and may have been incompetent
45Impact “well regulated” militia Trained and organized under a uniform system in all states and could be called into national servicebalanced rights with obligated military serviceimpact of “peoples army” fighting for cause vice professional armynew concept of total war for total victory (conscription/draft)
46Impact Changed tactics Rifle British adopted American tactics increased rangeimproved accuracymade linear tactics difficultBritish adopted American tacticsskirmishescoverconcealment
47Weapons of the War Flintlock musket and pistol . The main weapons of the American Revolution were the muzzleloading flintlock musket, its attached bayonet, and the cannon. Secondary weapons were the rifle and pistol, swords and other cutting weapons. By far, the most common weapon was the smoothbore flintlock musket, of a large caliber, .62 to .75 inch bore, or equal to 16 to 11 gauge shotgunsTo compensate for inaccurate shooting, the men fired volleys, sending a mass of balls toward the enemy, some of which should hit. In order to fire volleys in unison, they formed into units of two or three ranks (lines) deep, shoulder to shoulder. The unit would operate like a machine, lead by an officer (assisted by his non -coms), who would give the orders to load, fire and maneuver. Units could turn their lines, form into columns or squares, advance or turn about at the direction of their officers. Early in the war, the Americans did not have a universal system. Each state or even regiment had their own, making command by generals harder. The Americans also did not practice large unit -Brigade or larger- drills early in the war.
48Weapons of the WarRifles were used more in the south and during guerilla type operations for accuracy.Took too long to reload for the battle field.Could not use bayonetRifles, while much more accurate than muskets, also were loaded much slower. It would take at least 30 seconds, and sometimes a minute or more, to reload a rifle. In that time they were often charged with the bayonet, and since rifles were not equipped with bayonets, riflemen usually had to yield to musketmen.Early in the war, the Americans had a shortage of bayonets. When France joined the war, they supplied muskets with bayonets, and the other accutrements- uniforms, cartridge boxes, etc, alleviating the Americans shortage of arms and bayonets. The French provided a hundred thousand muskets and bayonets during the war.American long Rifle
49Weapons of the War Musket balls were undersized for quick reloading Bayonets were mounted on themPaper cartridgesNO sightsUsed volleys to compensate for the inaccurate musketsFrench provided most of them
50Artillery Weapons of the War Cannon were considered the queens of the battlefield. Infantry unsupported by cannon usually lost if the enemy had cannon. American Militia units were known for not standing up against British units with cannon support, since they rarely had any of their own.The Muzzleloading cannon used were smoothbores, and smaller than used in later wars. Most were 3, 4 or 6 pound guns, mounted on wooden carriages with large wheels. Some 3 pound guns had iron legs to stand on and were called "grasshoppers". Larger guns of 12 pounds were sometimes used in the field, and even larger guns were mounted in fortifications and ships.The cannon fired either solid ball, various small shot, or sometimes shells. Shells are a hollow iron ball filled with blackpowder and fitted with a fuse. The shot used could be buckshot, musket balls or grape shot, which are larger iron or lead balls about 1 inch in diameter.Cannon had a range of several hundred yards. A 3 pounder ranged about 800 yards with solid shot, and 2 hundred yards with grape shot, maximum. At close range, loaded with shot, it could destroy an enemy company.
51Weapons of the War Cannons were smoothbore muzzle loaded 3, 4, 6 pounders mounted on wooded carriagesUp to 800 yds. range
52Saber Weapons of the War The history of the American military sword can be said properly to have begun when Gen. George Washington, on Cambridge Common, July 3, 1775, drew from its scabbard one of the several blades he was known to have possessed, and formally took command of the heterogeneous Continental Army. Such swords as were worn by the Continental troops and militia during the Revolutionary War, principally by officers, were for the most part types occasionally carried by the gentry of the time, or which had served Colonial officers of the British Provincial forces some 20 years previously in the French and Indian Wars. Swords designed especially for the American Army, either regular or militia, did not make their appearance in any considerable number until almost the close of the eighteenth century for the good reason that there was no army and therefore no demand; because following the Revolution the armed forces were reduced to 80 men. Even as late as 1789, at the time of the inauguration of President Washington, the National Army was composed of but 800 troops. Possibly early types of swords worn by the commissioned personnel of this force are identified in one or more of the large and important collections.
53DISCUSSION Political, social, economic aspects of American Revolution Weapons development during this periodDifference between attrition and partisan warfare.
54MOOSEMUSS Mass Objective Offensive Surprise Economy of Force Maneuver Unity of CommandSecuritySimplicity