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Revolutions America&France. Revolutions  The Age of Revolutions From about 1775 with the start of the American Revolution to the late 1848 was known.

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Presentation on theme: "Revolutions America&France. Revolutions  The Age of Revolutions From about 1775 with the start of the American Revolution to the late 1848 was known."— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolutions America&France

2 Revolutions  The Age of Revolutions From about 1775 with the start of the American Revolution to the late 1848 was known as the Age of Revolutions From about 1775 with the start of the American Revolution to the late 1848 was known as the Age of Revolutions Many social groups wanted to change the political, social and economic landscapes of their countries or regions Many social groups wanted to change the political, social and economic landscapes of their countries or regions Others wanted to use revolutions to turn back the clock to recover older values Others wanted to use revolutions to turn back the clock to recover older values

3 Revolutions  Causes Intellectual thinkers Intellectual thinkers Enlightenment thinkers challenged the old regimesEnlightenment thinkers challenged the old regimes The idea of personal freedoms The idea of personal freedoms The idea that all people not just the aristocracy were entitled to religious and other freedomsThe idea that all people not just the aristocracy were entitled to religious and other freedoms Economic change Economic change Business people who obtained new wealth challenged the aristocrats and those in political officeBusiness people who obtained new wealth challenged the aristocrats and those in political office

4 Revolutions  Causes The Population Revolution The Population Revolution Europe experienced a large population jump after 1730 (due to new crops from the new world)Europe experienced a large population jump after 1730 (due to new crops from the new world) Potatoes Potatoes New technology allowed for more births then deathsNew technology allowed for more births then deaths Children survivedChildren survived

5 Revolutions  Causes Population Revolution Population Revolution The upper class held on tighter to it’s control over political offices trying to keep the new population outThe upper class held on tighter to it’s control over political offices trying to keep the new population out More people were now forced into the working class-less chance of advancement-which lead to protest by this new working classMore people were now forced into the working class-less chance of advancement-which lead to protest by this new working class

6 Revolutions  Results of the Population Revolution The new working force was put to work in the factories The new working force was put to work in the factories The more people the more need for consumer goods which fueled the pre-Industrial Revolution The more people the more need for consumer goods which fueled the pre-Industrial Revolution Increase in urbanization which lead to large amounts of people centered in one location Increase in urbanization which lead to large amounts of people centered in one location Increase in a propertyless class which became dissatisfied with authority and began to revolt Increase in a propertyless class which became dissatisfied with authority and began to revolt

7 Revolutions  Why America? The Seven Year War (French and Indian War) The Seven Year War (French and Indian War) Both France and Britain began colonizing North America during the 16 th and 17 th century Both France and Britain began colonizing North America during the 16 th and 17 th century By the 17 th Century English settlers in North America began to feel threatened by the new influx French to Canada By the 17 th Century English settlers in North America began to feel threatened by the new influx French to Canada Both France and England had been long time rivals –The William the Conquer thing and later on the 100 years War- neither liked the other too much Both France and England had been long time rivals –The William the Conquer thing and later on the 100 years War- neither liked the other too much Soon both side took to fighting each other in and for the Americas Soon both side took to fighting each other in and for the Americas

8 Revolutions  By 1756 France and England were fighting The French enlisted the help of the Native American tribes of Algonquin’s, Herron, and Ottawa The French enlisted the help of the Native American tribes of Algonquin’s, Herron, and Ottawa The English enlisted the help of the colonist and some Iroquois tribes The English enlisted the help of the colonist and some Iroquois tribes In 1763 the English had prevailed by pushing the French further north into Canada and expanding English possessions into the Ohio Valley region In 1763 the English had prevailed by pushing the French further north into Canada and expanding English possessions into the Ohio Valley region Robert Clive was also able to drive the French out of India but more on that later Robert Clive was also able to drive the French out of India but more on that later

9 Revolutions  The Colonist were happy at the results of the war-French pushed out of Colonies  The British government was upset because the war cost so much  The British felt the colonist did not fight hard enough or pay enough to support the war  The colonist became upset with the accusations from the British government and told Britain the only reason colonial expansion was possible was because of the Colonist!

10 Revolutions  Soon Britain was passing acts (Taxes) to increase revenue for the government Remember the idea of Mercantilism and that a colony was to be a money making venture for the mother country Remember the idea of Mercantilism and that a colony was to be a money making venture for the mother country

11 Revolutions  George Greenville and later Charles Townshend passed the following acts Revenue Act (1764) Revenue Act (1764) Stamp Act (1765) Stamp Act (1765) Tea Act (1773) Tea Act (1773)  These acts became very unpopular with the Colonist who saw them as money making schemes to drain the colonies of money

12 Revolutions  American Colonist felt that not only were the acts (taxes) unfair economically but because colonist had no representation in parliament  Soon colonist were saying “No taxation without representation”  Colonist began to show overt actions against the British taxes Colonist dumped tea into Boston Harbor to protest the Tea Act Colonist dumped tea into Boston Harbor to protest the Tea Act  Soon the relationship between the Colonist and England broke down  By April 19, 1775 British and Colonial troops battled at Lexington and Concord-400 American and British were dead  The revolution had begun

13 Revolutions  Causes A growing sense of patriotism and national identity of the Colonist A growing sense of patriotism and national identity of the Colonist Resentment of British taxes Resentment of British taxes Lack of representation of Colonist Lack of representation of Colonist The need to break the mercantilism bonds with England so Colonial businessmen could become wealthier and open the colonies to free trade The need to break the mercantilism bonds with England so Colonial businessmen could become wealthier and open the colonies to free trade Influence of Enlightenment thinkers Influence of Enlightenment thinkers

14 Revolutions  Most colonist had some type of connection to England and many did not agree with the split from Britain  Some also felt that England was too powerful to defeat  There needed to be a sense of common unity

15 Revolutions  Thomas Paine Paine urged colonist to support the revolution Paine urged colonist to support the revolution In his pamphlet Common Sense Paine used enlightened ideas to claim that the monarchy of England had violated the natural rights of the colonist In his pamphlet Common Sense Paine used enlightened ideas to claim that the monarchy of England had violated the natural rights of the colonist Paine’s pamphlet stirred up the Colonist and their need to form a better government Paine’s pamphlet stirred up the Colonist and their need to form a better government

16 Revolutions  Conclusion American colonist set up a European type army (Continental Army) American colonist set up a European type army (Continental Army) Colonial rebels set up a government (Continental Congress) and wrote the Declaration of Independence Colonial rebels set up a government (Continental Congress) and wrote the Declaration of Independence A series of military blunders by the British and aid from France the rival of Britain (Yorktown) allowed the American colonist to defeat the British A series of military blunders by the British and aid from France the rival of Britain (Yorktown) allowed the American colonist to defeat the British In 1783 the Treaty of Paris was signed and the independence of the colonies was recognized. In 1783 the Treaty of Paris was signed and the independence of the colonies was recognized.

17 Revolutions  Conclusion In 1789 the new United States set up a constitutional structure bases on the principles of the Enlightenment In 1789 the new United States set up a constitutional structure bases on the principles of the Enlightenment Three branches of government were formed Three branches of government were formed Legislative, Executive, JudicialLegislative, Executive, Judicial Checks and balances Checks and balances The Bill of Rights guaranteed individual liberties The Bill of Rights guaranteed individual liberties Problems Problems While the new United States was the most progressive nation in the world at the time two problems still remainedWhile the new United States was the most progressive nation in the world at the time two problems still remained Voting rights were limited Voting rights were limited The issue of slavery was not fully addressed and would lead to a split within the new country The issue of slavery was not fully addressed and would lead to a split within the new country

18 French Revolution  The French Revolution set into motion the political restructuring of western Europe  The French Revolution became the classical example of why revolutions are caused and how revolutions proceed

19 French Revolution  Causes Enlightenment thinkers Enlightenment thinkers Wanted to limit the powers of the Catholic Church, aristocracy and monarchyWanted to limit the powers of the Catholic Church, aristocracy and monarchy Dissatisfaction with the Middle or Business class Dissatisfaction with the Middle or Business class Middle class people who were making money wanted to challenge the authority of the aristocracy and wanted a greater roll in politicsMiddle class people who were making money wanted to challenge the authority of the aristocracy and wanted a greater roll in politics

20 French Revolution  Causes Revolt of the Peasants Revolt of the Peasants Peasants wanted to be free of landlord demands, wanted to own land and seek their own economic and social statusPeasants wanted to be free of landlord demands, wanted to own land and seek their own economic and social status

21 French Revolution  Problems Monarchy Monarchy The government did not wish to make reforms to the social, economic or political systems of FranceThe government did not wish to make reforms to the social, economic or political systems of France Aristocrats Aristocrats Continued to hold on to traditional ideas of land ownership, nobility and economic powerContinued to hold on to traditional ideas of land ownership, nobility and economic power Aristocrats also became dissatisfied with the monarchy who refused to help them keep control over the populationAristocrats also became dissatisfied with the monarchy who refused to help them keep control over the population

22 French Revolution  Problems Class Antagonism Class Antagonism The 3 rd Estate which is 98% of the population resents the 1 st and 2 nd Estates rights and privileges. The 3 rd Estate which is 98% of the population resents the 1 st and 2 nd Estates rights and privileges. The 3 rd Estate resents paying heavy taxes The 3 rd Estate resents paying heavy taxes

23 French Revolution  The spark that started the Revolution In 1787 and 1788 France suffered a sever economic slump which had been triggered by a bad harvest In 1787 and 1788 France suffered a sever economic slump which had been triggered by a bad harvest The lack of food coupled with the social, economic and political problems lead to the revolution The lack of food coupled with the social, economic and political problems lead to the revolution

24 French Revolution  Government Inefficiency France was debt because of the king’s spending France was debt because of the king’s spending France owed debts for helping America fight the revolution France owed debts for helping America fight the revolution Bankers (3 rd Estate) refused to give the government more money Bankers (3 rd Estate) refused to give the government more money

25 French Revolution  Inept Leader Louis XVI was not a strong leader Louis XVI was not a strong leader Paid little attention to government advisors Paid little attention to government advisors Preferred pleasure activities rather then details of government Preferred pleasure activities rather then details of government

26 French Revolution  Financial Breakdown Government and luxury spending by Louis XVI causes the country to double it’s debt! Government and luxury spending by Louis XVI causes the country to double it’s debt!  The Estates General Louis calls the Estates General together at the National Assembly to institute new tax reforms to support the country Louis calls the Estates General together at the National Assembly to institute new tax reforms to support the country  The 1 st and 2 nd Estate Did not want new reforms Did not want new reforms

27 French Revolution  3 rd Estate Made up of middle class lawyers, businessmen and civil servants wanted wide ranging political, social and economic reforms at the expense of the other two estates Made up of middle class lawyers, businessmen and civil servants wanted wide ranging political, social and economic reforms at the expense of the other two estates They really thought the king would go for the changes They really thought the king would go for the changes The 1 st and 2 nd Estates did not want change and the king agreed with them The 1 st and 2 nd Estates did not want change and the king agreed with them

28 French Revolution  The National Assembly Knowing that they would be out voted 2-1 the 3 rd Estate with some 1 st and 2 nd estate backers withdrew from the Estates General Knowing that they would be out voted 2-1 the 3 rd Estate with some 1 st and 2 nd estate backers withdrew from the Estates General The new National Assembly withdrew to a tennis court and drew up a plan that they were requiring the king to grant France a legitimate constitution The new National Assembly withdrew to a tennis court and drew up a plan that they were requiring the king to grant France a legitimate constitution

29 French Revolution  The king became nervous  He called in Swiss Soldiers to arrest the members of the National Assembly while telling the 1 st and 2 nd Estate to help write a constitution with the 3 rd Estate  It was obvious that the king was not going to follow through with his reforms

30 French Revolution  San-Culottes Lower class radicals who were upset over rising bread prices and afraid the king would not follow through on his reforms began to riot in the streets Lower class radicals who were upset over rising bread prices and afraid the king would not follow through on his reforms began to riot in the streets On July 14, 1789 they stormed the Bastille where political prisoners and weapons were being kept On July 14, 1789 they stormed the Bastille where political prisoners and weapons were being kept Soon riots were expanding to the other cities and the countryside Soon riots were expanding to the other cities and the countryside

31 French Revolution  Stages to the Revolution Moderate Period ( ) Moderate Period ( ) Radical Period ( ) Radical Period ( ) Conservative Period ( ) Conservative Period ( )

32 French Revolution  Moderate Period  By August 1789 the National Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man Identified basic natural rights set forth during the Enlightenment Identified basic natural rights set forth during the Enlightenment  Abolished noble privileges No more tax exemptions No more tax exemptions  Separated church from state and took land away from the church  Opened elections to all people-men only

33 French Revolution  Moderate Period Out of the national Assembly comes the motto “Liberty, Fraternity and Equality” Out of the national Assembly comes the motto “Liberty, Fraternity and Equality”

34 French Revolution  Problems with the Moderate Period While Liberty, Fraternity and Equality was to extend to all people at first it only applied to white males While Liberty, Fraternity and Equality was to extend to all people at first it only applied to white males It took months before minorities like Jews, Protestants, blacks and black’s in the Caribbean had any rights It took months before minorities like Jews, Protestants, blacks and black’s in the Caribbean had any rights Women Women While women were instrumental in toppling the government women had few if any rightsWhile women were instrumental in toppling the government women had few if any rights

35 French Revolution  Problems with the Moderate Period The economy of France worsened The economy of France worsened Other countries who opposed the removal of Louis XVI from the throne threatened war with France Other countries who opposed the removal of Louis XVI from the throne threatened war with France The National Assembly became more radical in it’s ideas of spreading the revolution to other countries and the true meaning of the revolution The National Assembly became more radical in it’s ideas of spreading the revolution to other countries and the true meaning of the revolution

36 French Revolution  In June 1791 the royal family attempted to escape from France  The National Assembly could not trust or rely on the royal family coupled with radical pressure in the Assembly lead to the radical period  This was further compounded with a war France was now fighting with Prussia and Austria

37 French Revolution  The Radical Period Early defeats of the French army in it’s wars with Prussia and Austria allowed the radicals to take control of the Assembly Early defeats of the French army in it’s wars with Prussia and Austria allowed the radicals to take control of the Assembly Few people had any hopes for anything changing under the new moderate constitution Few people had any hopes for anything changing under the new moderate constitution Rioting in the streets lead to the Assembly drawing up a new constitution Rioting in the streets lead to the Assembly drawing up a new constitution

38 French Revolution  The Radical Period The new constitution took all power away from the king The new constitution took all power away from the king A new French Republic was proclaimed A new French Republic was proclaimed The Racial Jacobins now dominated the Assembly The Racial Jacobins now dominated the Assembly The first act of the new radical Assembly was to place Louis and his family on trial The first act of the new radical Assembly was to place Louis and his family on trial The king was tried for treason in December 1792 and executed in January 1793 The king was tried for treason in December 1792 and executed in January 1793

39 French Revolution  The Radical Period The Jacobins lead by Maximilien Robespierre set up a small executive body called the Committee of Public Safety The Jacobins lead by Maximilien Robespierre set up a small executive body called the Committee of Public Safety Under this committee the Jacobins and Robespierre become more of a dictatorship Under this committee the Jacobins and Robespierre become more of a dictatorship

40 French Revolution  Events under the Radicals They expanded the wars with other nations in a effort to spread the revolution They expanded the wars with other nations in a effort to spread the revolution To do this they instituted a national draft To do this they instituted a national draft The entire French community was mobilized to support the war efforts The entire French community was mobilized to support the war efforts

41 French Revolution  Reign of Terror Between the summer of 1793 and the summer of 1794 the Committee of Public Safety carried out a Reign of Terror searching for Between the summer of 1793 and the summer of 1794 the Committee of Public Safety carried out a Reign of Terror searching for SpiesSpies TraitorsTraitors CounterrevolutionariesCounterrevolutionaries Those not loyal to the revolutionThose not loyal to the revolution

42 French Revolution  Reign of Terror During the Reign of Terror civil liberties (the very basis for the revolution) were ignored During the Reign of Terror civil liberties (the very basis for the revolution) were ignored 300,000 people were 300,000 people were arrested without warrantarrested without warrant Tried without a juryTried without a jury Offered no appealOffered no appeal Of those 300,000, 30,000 to 50,000 people were executed, most by guillotineOf those 300,000, 30,000 to 50,000 people were executed, most by guillotine

43 French Revolution  Conservative Period In July 1794 Robespierre was arrested by the Committee of Public Safety and executed In July 1794 Robespierre was arrested by the Committee of Public Safety and executed This was known as the Thermidor Reaction which was an antiradical revolt in an effort to restore order to France This was known as the Thermidor Reaction which was an antiradical revolt in an effort to restore order to France Between 1794 to 1799 a new constitution was written which gave government power to the Directory Between 1794 to 1799 a new constitution was written which gave government power to the Directory

44 French Revolution  Conservative Period The Directory was very conservative and the new constitution was less then democratic and the Directory’s middle of the road politics was unpopular with the people The Directory was very conservative and the new constitution was less then democratic and the Directory’s middle of the road politics was unpopular with the people While the Directory tried to heal the wounds of the Reign of Terror and the former monarchy they were seen as weak While the Directory tried to heal the wounds of the Reign of Terror and the former monarchy they were seen as weak November 1799 the Directory would be overthrown November 1799 the Directory would be overthrown

45 Napoleon

46 Napoleon  Talented military general  Served in the armies of the French Revolution  Was a national hero in the 1790’s  Created a coup d’ etat at on November 10, 1799 overthrew the Directory  His political skill and popularity allowed him to become sole leader of France

47 Napoleon  Stated that he followed the ideas of the French Revolution-reality created a dictatorship that was stronger than the kings of France ever had  In 1804 Napoleon crowned himself Emperor

48 Napoleon  Napoleon’s rule- Negatives Autocratic Autocratic Little respect for democracy or the constitution Little respect for democracy or the constitution His wars lasted for years and killed millions of soldiers His wars lasted for years and killed millions of soldiers 422,000 enter the war with Russia-28,000 walk out of the war with Russia422,000 enter the war with Russia-28,000 walk out of the war with Russia

49 Napoleon  Napoleon’s Rule-Positives Modernized France Modernized France Instituted a Bank of France which still exist todayInstituted a Bank of France which still exist today Created the Napoleonic Code-A civil law code which became the foundation for modern French lawsCreated the Napoleonic Code-A civil law code which became the foundation for modern French laws Until his wars went badly in 1812 he made France a very wealthy country for his conquestsUntil his wars went badly in 1812 he made France a very wealthy country for his conquests

50 Napoleon  Military Career Became well know in the middle 1790’s with his military campaigns in Italy and Egypt Became well know in the middle 1790’s with his military campaigns in Italy and Egypt From 1805 to 1811 he won a series of wars against Austria, Prussia and Italy that made France the most powerful nation in the world From 1805 to 1811 he won a series of wars against Austria, Prussia and Italy that made France the most powerful nation in the world Most of Europe other than Great Britain and Russia fell under the influence France Most of Europe other than Great Britain and Russia fell under the influence France

51 Napoleon’s Empire

52 Napoleon  Downfall Napoleon saw Great Britain a a major threat to France Napoleon saw Great Britain a a major threat to France Napoleon tried to blockade Britain (Continental system) in a effort to destroy the British economy Napoleon tried to blockade Britain (Continental system) in a effort to destroy the British economy No other countries of Europe were permitted to trade with Britain No other countries of Europe were permitted to trade with Britain However the British navy was more powerful then France’s navy and Britain was able to import and export goods However the British navy was more powerful then France’s navy and Britain was able to import and export goods No all countries abided by the blockade (Russia) No all countries abided by the blockade (Russia) The Continental system was a failure and hurt France’s economy The Continental system was a failure and hurt France’s economy

53 Napoleon  Downfall Long wars in Spain and Portugal drained France of men and resources Long wars in Spain and Portugal drained France of men and resources  The failed invasion of Russia While France and Russia were allies, Russia While France and Russia were allies, Russia Refused to stop selling grain to Britain Refused to stop selling grain to Britain Planed on taking control over Poland Planed on taking control over Poland The breakdown of the alliances causes Napoleon to invade Russia. The breakdown of the alliances causes Napoleon to invade Russia. June 1812 Napoleon invades Russia June 1812 Napoleon invades Russia

54 Napoleon  Downfall The Russians use a scorched-earth policy and do not engage the French Army. The Russians use a scorched-earth policy and do not engage the French Army. The French Army advances too far into Russia with little or no food. The French Army advances too far into Russia with little or no food. By November Napoleon is out of food and winter is upon his troops. By November Napoleon is out of food and winter is upon his troops. 28,000 troops leave Russia. 28,000 troops leave Russia. The war is a failure for Napoleon The war is a failure for Napoleon

55 Napoleon  Downfall With a weakened French army most of the main powers of Europe go to war against Napoleon. With a weakened French army most of the main powers of Europe go to war against Napoleon. By 1814 the Empire has fallen and in April 1814 Napoleon is exiled to Elba. By 1814 the Empire has fallen and in April 1814 Napoleon is exiled to Elba. March 1815 Napoleon returns to France and raises an army. March 1815 Napoleon returns to France and raises an army. In June 1815 the British and Prussians defeat Napoleon and he his exiled until his death in 1821 In June 1815 the British and Prussians defeat Napoleon and he his exiled until his death in 1821

56 Long Term Effects of the French Revolution

57 Effects of the Revolution  Failures The idea of a popular government-elected by the people was quickly replaced by The idea of a popular government-elected by the people was quickly replaced by the Committee of Public Safetythe Committee of Public Safety the Directorythe Directory NapoleonNapoleon After the defeat of Napoleon the royal family was then placed back on the throne After the defeat of Napoleon the royal family was then placed back on the throne

58 Effects of the Revolution  Failures The ideas of Liberty, fraternity and equality had been replaced during the revolution by the Reign of Terror and warrant less arrests and executions The ideas of Liberty, fraternity and equality had been replaced during the revolution by the Reign of Terror and warrant less arrests and executions

59 Effects of the Revolution  Successes The French and other revolutions did away with all powerful absolute monarchs-most kings, queens and emperors were limited in power by constitutions The French and other revolutions did away with all powerful absolute monarchs-most kings, queens and emperors were limited in power by constitutions Parliament forms of governments begin to emerge and begin to become attentive to the needs of the people Parliament forms of governments begin to emerge and begin to become attentive to the needs of the people Popular participation and having the people’s voice in government heard became more successful Popular participation and having the people’s voice in government heard became more successful


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