2KEY CONCEPTS Prior to 1763, American capital goes across the pond. French and Indian War transformed the relationship between Britain and the American colonies.American colonists were divided over what course of action to take.The Americans created a government, the Continental Congress, to address the deteriorating relationship between Britain and the colonies.
3Mercantilism The money a colony makes goes to the mother country. For example, most of the money that the colony of Georgia makes from growing and selling tobacco goes to England, its home country.Georgia produces $$$$ for England.
4England followed the mercantilist theory with the 13 colonies They passed laws that created a trade system whereby Americans provided raw goods to Britain, and Britain used the raw goods to produce manufactured goods that were sold in European markets and back to the colonies.An example is the Navigation Acts
5The Policy of Salutary Neglect Laws that hurt the colonies like the Navigation Laws were not enforced because of conflicts with France.This lead to years where the colonies began trading “illegally” with other nations and gaining great wealth.
6Triangular TradeBritish mercantilism manifested itself in the form of the triangular trade. Trade routes linked the American Colonies, West Indies, Africa, and England.
8French and Indian War By mid 1700s, France and Britain in inter-imperialist struggle for dominance in N.A.Britain and France both claimed land in the Ohio River ValleyForts were built in this disputed territoryFrench had alliance w/ Indians, centralized government & well trained troopsEnglish had large colonial population, strong navy, alliance w/ the League of NationsColonial governments tried to create a more centralized government under the Albany Plan of the Union, but it was rejected.
9A cartoon by Benjamin Franklin 1754 It suggested that the colonies must all join Britain in the struggle for control of North America and defeat the French and Indians
10The War The war went on from 1754-1763 The Treaty of Paris gave all French territory east of Mississippi river to England and all territory west of it to SpainThe British government was almost bankrupt at the end of the war.
11Before the French and Indian War After the French and Indian War
12Colonist become more Independent French & Indian WarColonist learn to fightColonist become more Independent
13Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763British treat American Indians poorly in the Ohio River Valley.Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa forged an alliances and began attacking British fortsIndians tired of war and British wonProclamation of 1763 banned all settlers west of the Appalachians to prevent another warColonist ignored this law!
14Colonist become more Independent French & Indian WarColonist learn to fightProclamation of 1763Colonist ignore lawColonist become more Independent
15The Sugar ActBritish taxed colonists on many of the goods coming into the colonies from other placesThe most important of these was the Sugar Act of 1764Colonial merchants realized that enforcement of this act would wipe out profits of the trade with the Spanish and French West Indies
16The Stamp ActIn 1765, British imposed taxes upon all paper products and stamped the item once the tax had been played.This tax was paid directly to the government – direct taxProducts affected ranged from documents and wills to playing cards and newspapers
17Parliament ActsStamp Act: March 1765Quartering Act: March 1765Parliament taxes all printed material to pay for the high costs of the British military.Requires colonists to house British troops and supply them with food.Sons of Liberty Founded: July 1765This underground organization opposed to the Stamp Act.Its members use violence and intimidation to eventually force all of the British stamp agents to resign and also stop many American merchants from ordering British trade goods.
18Colonist become more Independent French & Indian WarColonist learn to fightProclamation of 1763Colonist ignore lawSons of Liberty founded forcing repeal of Stamp actStamp Act PassedColonist become more Independent
19The Townshend ActsThis act placed duties on tea, paper, glass and paintThe British repealed this tax in 1770 except for the tax on tea
20Patrick Henry Speaks Out! When the House of Burgesses met to consider the Stamp Act in May of 1765 Patrick Henry introduced the Virginia Resolutions protesting Parliament’s actionIn his speech he stated that since Americans elected no members to the British Parliament they should not be taxed by themThis came to be know as “no taxation without representation”
21Colonist become more Independent French & Indian WarColonist learn to fightProclamation of 1763Colonist ignore lawSons of Liberty founded forcing repeal of Stamp actStamp Act PassedColonist become more IndependentTownshend Act PassedColonist boycott British goods
22Sons of LibertyThe Sons of Liberty carried out organized resistance by keeping watch on shopkeepers suspected of selling British goodsA group existed in almost every colony.Members included middle and upper class citizens, anyone could join if they were trustworthy and had the skills the group needed.Famous members included Paul Revere, John Adams and his cousin, Samuel Adams.
23Daughters of LibertyColonial women organized the Daughters of Liberty to boycott British goodsThey gave up imported clothes, made tea out of local herbs, and produced homespun clothOne of the most influential Daughters of Liberty was Mercy Otis Warren, who published pamphlets supporting the resistance – she had to publish in a man’s name
25The Boston MassacreAfter Parliament repealed the Townshend duties, the first clash between British and Americans took placeOn the night of March 5, 1770, a crowd of 50 or 60 men and boys gathered to taunt British soldiers outside the Boston Customs HouseWhen the crowd went as far as to throw sticks and snowballs at the redcoats, the soldiers panicked and opened fire, killing five menThe event quickly became known as the Boston Massacre
27Colonist become more Independent French & Indian WarColonist learn to fightProclamation of 1763Colonist ignore lawSons of Liberty founded forcing repeal of Stamp actStamp Act PassedColonist become more IndependentTownshend Act PassedColonist boycott American goodsBoston MassacreBritish troops withdraw from Boston
28The Boston Tea PartyIn 1773 the British East India Company, facing bankruptcy, appealed to Parliament for assistanceParliament quickly voted to give them a monopoly for the trade of tea in AmericaOpposition groups mobilized against the plan and forcing ships to turn back at New York and Philadelphia harboursIn Boston, Governor Hutchinson ordered that no ship could leave harbour without being unloadedColonists on a signal from Sam Adams disguised themselves as Mohawks, boarded the ship and heaved 342 chests of tea into the harbour
30Enough is Enough!March 1774, Parliament passes the first of a series of Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)Boston Harbor is closed until cost of tea is repaidMassachusetts was put under military ruleQuartering Act is reinstitutedMay 1774, Parliament passes second series of Coercive Acts (Quebec Act)Gave land to Canada colonist wantedBritish officials would be tried in Britain
31The Quebec ActIt was passed at the same time and considered by many as one of the Intolerable ActsIt extended the Canadian province of Quebec south to the Ohio RiverIt also allowed French Canadians use of their own legal system which did not recognize trial by juryThe colonists believed The Quebec Act was designed to keep American settlers out of western lands forever
32Colonist become more Independent French & Indian WarColonist learn to fightProclamation of 1763Colonist ignore lawSons of Liberty founded forcing repeal of Stamp actStamp Act PassedColonist become more IndependentTownshend Act PassedColonist boycott American goodsBoston MassacreBritish troops withdraw from BostonBritish East India Company given a monopolyBoston Tea PartyColonist boycott all British goodsCoercive Acts Passed
33Power Plays June 1774 Quartering Act for all of colonies instituted. Sept 1774 British seized Massachusetts weapons cache.Feb Parliament declares Mass. In state of rebellionSept First Continental Congress meets.Boycotts British goodspromotes the formation of local militia unitsAsserts right to “life, liberty and property”March 1775 Patrick Henry proclaims “Give me liberty or give me death!”
34The First Continental Congress 56 delegates from 12 colonies attended the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia in September, 1774The Congress petitioned the King for relief from the Intolerable Acts and vowed to stop trade with Britain until the acts were repealed
35Colonist become more Independent French & Indian WarColonist learn to fightProclamation of 1763Colonist ignore lawSons of Liberty founded forcing repeal of Stamp actStamp Act PassedColonist become more IndependentTownshend Act PassedColonist boycott American goodsBoston MassacreBritish troops withdraw from BostonBritish East India Company given a monopolyBoston Tea PartyColonist boycott all British goodsCoercive Acts PassedQuartering Act PassedColonist form militia
36Here come the Brits!Early on April 19, 1775, 700 British soldiers were secretly sent to destroy the military supplies the colonists had collected at ConcordAfter learning the soldiers’ destination, the Sons of Liberty sent Paul Revere & William Dawes to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.Fighting between the Americans and the British broke out near Boston – a city occupied in 1774 by the British army under General Thomas Gage
37Lexington and ConcordWhen the British soldiers reached Lexington, Captain Jonas Parker and 75 armed Minutemen were there to meet them.The Minutemen were greatly outnumbered. The British soldiers fired, killing 8 Minutemen and injuring 10 others.While the British soldiers continued on their way to Concord, the men and women of Concord were busy moving the arms and ammunition to new hiding places in surrounding towns.
38Battle Lines Begin…. The British retreat to Boston A large force of patriots gathered in response to the British troops.As the British soldiers headed back to Boston, they were attacked by the Minutemen.All along the route, Minutemen, local farmers and townspeople continued the attack against the British.By the time the soldiers reached Boston, 73 British solders were dead and 174 more were wounded.
39Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of several British North American colonies which met from May 10, 1775, to March 1, 1781By the time the Second Continental Congress met, the American Revolutionary War had already started with the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775.Thus, the Second Continental Congress found itself in the unenviable position of being the decision-making body of a military alliance at war with a far more powerful enemy.
40Thomas Paine and Common Sense In January 1776, Thomas Paine published Common SenseHe attacked the strongest bond tying tying America to Britain – the KingHe pointed out the advantages of freedom from British rule and commercial restrictionsThe book divided Americans into either Patriots or Loyalists
41Independence!Beginning in April of 1776, the colonies advised their delegates to vote for independenceOn June 7th, Richard Henry Lee introduced a brief “Resolution of Independence”On July 2nd, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted Lee’s resolution “that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be free and independent states.”
42The Declaration of Independence The Official Declaration of Independence was agreed upon on July 4th, 1776Its purpose was to justify the Revolution, state that the colonies were independent and to express the nation’s principlesThe rest is history!