Presentation on theme: "Causes of the Revolutionary War 1650-1774. KEY CONCEPTS 1.Prior to 1763, American capital goes across the pond. 2.French and Indian War transformed the."— Presentation transcript:
Causes of the Revolutionary War 1650-1774
KEY CONCEPTS 1.Prior to 1763, American capital goes across the pond. 2.French and Indian War transformed the relationship between Britain and the American colonies. 3.American colonists were divided over what course of action to take. 4.The Americans created a government, the Continental Congress, to address the deteriorating relationship between Britain and the colonies.
Mercantilism The money a colony makes goes to the mother country. For example, most of the money that the colony of Georgia makes from growing and selling tobacco goes to England, its home country. Georgia produces $$$$ for England.
England followed the mercantilist theory with the 13 colonies They passed laws that created a trade system whereby Americans provided raw goods to Britain, and Britain used the raw goods to produce manufactured goods that were sold in European markets and back to the colonies. An example is the Navigation Acts
The Policy of Salutary Neglect Laws that hurt the colonies like the Navigation Laws were not enforced because of conflicts with France. This lead to years where the colonies began trading “illegally” with other nations and gaining great wealth.
Triangular Trade British mercantilism manifested itself in the form of the triangular trade. Trade routes linked the American Colonies, West Indies, Africa, and England.
French and Indian War By mid 1700s, France and Britain in inter-imperialist struggle for dominance in N.A. Britain and France both claimed land in the Ohio River Valley Forts were built in this disputed territory French had alliance w/ Indians, centralized government & well trained troops English had large colonial population, strong navy, alliance w/ the League of Nations Colonial governments tried to create a more centralized government under the Albany Plan of the Union, but it was rejected.
A cartoon by Benjamin Franklin 1754 It suggested that the colonies must all join Britain in the struggle for control of North America and defeat the French and Indians
The War The war went on from 1754-1763 The Treaty of Paris gave all French territory east of Mississippi river to England and all territory west of it to Spain The British government was almost bankrupt at the end of the war.
Before the French and Indian WarAfter the French and Indian War
French & Indian War Colonist become more Independent Colonist learn to fight
Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763 British treat American Indians poorly in the Ohio River Valley. Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa forged an alliances and began attacking British forts Indians tired of war and British won Proclamation of 1763 banned all settlers west of the Appalachians to prevent another war Colonist ignored this law!
French & Indian War Colonist become more Independent Colonist learn to fight Colonist ignore lawProclamation of 1763
The Sugar Act British taxed colonists on many of the goods coming into the colonies from other places The most important of these was the Sugar Act of 1764 Colonial merchants realized that enforcement of this act would wipe out profits of the trade with the Spanish and French West Indies
The Stamp Act In 1765, British imposed taxes upon all paper products and stamped the item once the tax had been played. This tax was paid directly to the government – direct tax Products affected ranged from documents and wills to playing cards and newspapers
Parliament Acts Parliament taxes all printed material to pay for the high costs of the British military. Requires colonists to house British troops and supply them with food. Stamp Act: March 1765Quartering Act: March 1765 Sons of Liberty Founded: July 1765 This underground organization opposed to the Stamp Act. Its members use violence and intimidation to eventually force all of the British stamp agents to resign and also stop many American merchants from ordering British trade goods.
French & Indian War Colonist become more Independent Colonist learn to fight Colonist ignore law Sons of Liberty founded forcing repeal of Stamp act Proclamation of 1763 Stamp Act Passed
The Townshend Acts This act placed duties on tea, paper, glass and paint The British repealed this tax in 1770 except for the tax on tea
Patrick Henry Speaks Out! When the House of Burgesses met to consider the Stamp Act in May of 1765 Patrick Henry introduced the Virginia Resolutions protesting Parliament’s action In his speech he stated that since Americans elected no members to the British Parliament they should not be taxed by them This came to be know as “no taxation without representation”
French & Indian War Colonist become more Independent Colonist learn to fight Townshend Act Passed Colonist boycott British goods Colonist ignore law Sons of Liberty founded forcing repeal of Stamp act Proclamation of 1763 Stamp Act Passed
Sons of Liberty The Sons of Liberty carried out organized resistance by keeping watch on shopkeepers suspected of selling British goods A group existed in almost every colony. Members included middle and upper class citizens, anyone could join if they were trustworthy and had the skills the group needed. Famous members included Paul Revere, John Adams and his cousin, Samuel Adams.
Daughters of Liberty Colonial women organized the Daughters of Liberty to boycott British goods They gave up imported clothes, made tea out of local herbs, and produced homespun cloth One of the most influential Daughters of Liberty was Mercy Otis Warren, who published pamphlets supporting the resistance – she had to publish in a man’s name
The Boston Massacre
After Parliament repealed the Townshend duties, the first clash between British and Americans took place On the night of March 5, 1770, a crowd of 50 or 60 men and boys gathered to taunt British soldiers outside the Boston Customs House When the crowd went as far as to throw sticks and snowballs at the redcoats, the soldiers panicked and opened fire, killing five men The event quickly became known as the Boston Massacre
French & Indian War Colonist become more Independent Colonist learn to fight Townshend Act Passed Boston MassacreBritish troops withdraw from Boston Colonist boycott American goods Colonist ignore law Sons of Liberty founded forcing repeal of Stamp act Proclamation of 1763 Stamp Act Passed
The Boston Tea Party In 1773 the British East India Company, facing bankruptcy, appealed to Parliament for assistance Parliament quickly voted to give them a monopoly for the trade of tea in America Opposition groups mobilized against the plan and forcing ships to turn back at New York and Philadelphia harbours In Boston, Governor Hutchinson ordered that no ship could leave harbour without being unloaded Colonists on a signal from Sam Adams disguised themselves as Mohawks, boarded the ship and heaved 342 chests of tea into the harbour
Boston Tea Party Vid! http://www.history.co m/topics/american- revolution/boston-tea- partyhttp://www.history.co m/topics/american- revolution/boston-tea- party
Enough is Enough! March 1774, Parliament passes the first of a series of Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) –Boston Harbor is closed until cost of tea is repaid –Massachusetts was put under military rule –Quartering Act is reinstituted May 1774, Parliament passes second series of Coercive Acts (Quebec Act) –Gave land to Canada colonist wanted –British officials would be tried in Britain
The Quebec Act - 1774 It was passed at the same time and considered by many as one of the Intolerable Acts It extended the Canadian province of Quebec south to the Ohio River It also allowed French Canadians use of their own legal system which did not recognize trial by jury The colonists believed The Quebec Act was designed to keep American settlers out of western lands forever
French & Indian War Colonist become more Independent Colonist learn to fight Townshend Act Passed Boston MassacreBritish troops withdraw from Boston Colonist boycott American goods Colonist ignore law Sons of Liberty founded forcing repeal of Stamp act Proclamation of 1763 Stamp Act Passed Coercive Acts Passed British East India Company given a monopoly Boston Tea Party Colonist boycott all British goods
Power Plays June 1774 Quartering Act for all of colonies instituted. Sept 1774 British seized Massachusetts weapons cache. Feb. 1775 Parliament declares Mass. In state of rebellion Sept. 1774 First Continental Congress meets. –Boycotts British goods –promotes the formation of local militia units –Asserts right to “life, liberty and property” March 1775 Patrick Henry proclaims “Give me liberty or give me death!”
The First Continental Congress 56 delegates from 12 colonies attended the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia in September, 1774 The Congress petitioned the King for relief from the Intolerable Acts and vowed to stop trade with Britain until the acts were repealed
French & Indian War Colonist become more Independent Colonist learn to fight Townshend Act Passed Boston MassacreBritish troops withdraw from Boston Colonist boycott American goods Colonist ignore law Sons of Liberty founded forcing repeal of Stamp act Proclamation of 1763 Stamp Act Passed Coercive Acts Passed British East India Company given a monopoly Boston Tea Party Quartering Act Passed Colonist boycott all British goods Colonist form militia
Here come the Brits! Early on April 19, 1775, 700 British soldiers were secretly sent to destroy the military supplies the colonists had collected at Concord After learning the soldiers’ destination, the Sons of Liberty sent Paul Revere & William Dawes to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers. Fighting between the Americans and the British broke out near Boston – a city occupied in 1774 by the British army under General Thomas Gage
Lexington and Concord When the British soldiers reached Lexington, Captain Jonas Parker and 75 armed Minutemen were there to meet them. The Minutemen were greatly outnumbered. The British soldiers fired, killing 8 Minutemen and injuring 10 others. While the British soldiers continued on their way to Concord, the men and women of Concord were busy moving the arms and ammunition to new hiding places in surrounding towns. http://www.history.com/topics/ame rican-revolution/battles-of- lexington-and-concordhttp://www.history.com/topics/ame rican-revolution/battles-of- lexington-and-concord
Battle Lines Begin…. The British retreat to Boston A large force of patriots gathered in response to the British troops. As the British soldiers headed back to Boston, they were attacked by the Minutemen. All along the route, Minutemen, local farmers and townspeople continued the attack against the British. By the time the soldiers reached Boston, 73 British solders were dead and 174 more were wounded.
Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of several British North American colonies which met from May 10, 1775, to March 1, 1781 By the time the Second Continental Congress met, the American Revolutionary War had already started with the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. Thus, the Second Continental Congress found itself in the unenviable position of being the decision-making body of a military alliance at war with a far more powerful enemy.
Thomas Paine and Common Sense In January 1776, Thomas Paine published Common Sense He attacked the strongest bond tying tying America to Britain – the King He pointed out the advantages of freedom from British rule and commercial restrictions The book divided Americans into either Patriots or Loyalists
Independence! Beginning in April of 1776, the colonies advised their delegates to vote for independence On June 7 th, Richard Henry Lee introduced a brief “Resolution of Independence” On July 2 nd, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted Lee’s resolution “that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be free and independent states.”
The Declaration of Independence The Official Declaration of Independence was agreed upon on July 4 th, 1776 Its purpose was to justify the Revolution, state that the colonies were independent and to express the nation’s principles The rest is history!