Presentation on theme: "Causes of the American Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1Causes of the American Revolution SSUSH3 The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution.a. Explain how the end of Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French and Indian War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for the American Revolution.b. Explain colonial response to such British actions as the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act, and the Intolerable Acts as seen in Sons and Daughters of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence.c. Explain the importance of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense to the movement for independence.
2French & Indian War Great Britain and France arch enemies Began to fight over land (Ohio River Valley) in North America.Most Indians supported the fur trading French because the French only built forts and not permanent settlements.In the end, British win!!!
31763 Treaty of Paris Ended the French and Indian War. Forced France to give up all land claims in N. America east of the Mississippi River (with the exception of New Orleans).Gave G. Britain total control over all American colonies. Took away “salutary neglect”Colonists objected to the loss of control over their own affairs. Tensions grew.
4Growing TensionsKing George III of England issued the Proclamation of 1763 which forbade Americans to settle in the lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. Rationale: the British soldiers couldn’t protect the colonists if they moved out there.Parliament (British lawmaking body) began to pass laws to tax the colonist in order to pay for the cost of keeping an army in America.
5The Taxation ActsThe King of England started taxing the colonists in the form of Taxation Acts in 1764.He felt that the colonists should bear the burden of the expense of maintaining the colonies.
6The Sugar, Stamp & Declaratory Acts The Sugar Act was the first law passed by the King of England that over taxed the colonists on goods shipped to the colonies.The Stamp Act was another taxation law on the colonists. This act taxed newspapers, almanacs, legal documents, pamphlets, dice, and playing cards.Stamp Act repealed, but replaced with the Declaratory Act which said Parliament had the right to make all laws for the colonies.
7Colonial ResistanceSecret patriotic group “Sons of Liberty” is formed. Led by Sam Adams.Tactics: used threats and demonstrations“Daughters of Liberty” began to boycott British goodsFirst example of the colonies really uniting
9The Boston MassacreThe Boston Massacre: a conflict between the British soldiers and colonists that occurred on March 5, 1770.The soldiers opened fire on an unfriendly crowd of colonists after they started throwing things at the soldiers.This resulted in the death of 3 Americans. (Crispus Attucks)Several state assemblies then created Committees of Correspondence whose job was to secretly get information about opposition to the British out the all of the colonies
10The Boston Tea PartyThe Boston Tea Party occurred on December 16, 1773.Unhappy with the Tea Act imposed by Great Britain, the colonists (Sons of Liberty) dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded ships in Boston Harbor loaded with tea. They dumped the tea and the crates into the water.
11Intolerable ActsReal Name: Coercive Acts Issued as punishment for the Boston Tea PartyClosed Boston HarborDisallowed local elections & local political jobs.Stated that any British official who broke the law in the colonies would be tried in England & not the colonies.Also, forced the colonists to quarter British soldiers in their homes.
12Reaction to the Intolerable Acts “No taxation without representation!”First Continental Congress forms colonial militiasColonists boycott British tea and all other British goodsCreated a huge push toward revolution.
13Thomas Paine & Common Sense A 50 page pamphlet that said it was time for the colonies to break away from EnglandCalled for a republican form of government under a written constitutionHad a BIG impact on convincing people it was time for a revolution.
14Shots fired at Lexington and Concord This was first battle in the War of Independence, April 1775British General Thomas Gage sent 700 soldiers to destroy the guns and ammunition the colonists had stored in the town of Concord, just outside of Boston. They also planned to arrest Samuel Adams and John HancockColonials and the Redcoats met along the way and fighting began.“Shot heard around the world”
15“The Road to Revolution” The French and Indian War, the Taxation Acts, the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and the Intolerable Acts were the five main causes that lead to the American Revolution.
16The American Revolution SSUSH4 The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution.a. Explain the language, organization, and intellectual sources of the Declaration of Independence; include the writing of John Locke and Montesquieu, and the role of Thomas Jefferson.b. Explain the reason for and significance of the French alliance and foreign assistance and the roles of Benjamin Franklin and the Marquis de Lafayette.c. Analyze George Washington as a military leader; include the creation of a professional military and the life of a common soldier, and describe the significance of the crossing of the Delaware River and Valley Forge.d. Explain Yorktown, the role of Lord Cornwallis, and the Treaty of Paris, 1783.
18Enlightenment: John Locke Social Contract Theory: governments are formed with the consent of citizens.The most important rights are: Life, Liberty, and Property.The state exists only to protect these rights.If a government fails in this task, citizens should rebel against it and create a government that will protect them.
19The Declaration of Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson, taken from the ideas of Franklin, Locke, Montesquieu, Adams, and others.Helped to convince the colonists that American independence was supported by the ideas of important men.Natural Rights: “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.”
20The Declaration of Independence Jefferson planned and wrote the Declaration and divided it into several parts; each part having a specific theme and purpose:
21Declaration of Independence Part 1: Preamble: IntroductionPart 2: The reasons for seeking independencePart 3: Examples of how King George III had violated the rights of the colonists.Part 4: Declaring Independence & controlling their own government.
22Loyalists or Tories Not everyone was ready to declare independence. Colonists who wanted to remain loyal to Great Britain were called Loyalists or “Tories”
23George Washington & the Continental Army Serving unselfishly without pay and at great personal risk throughout the American Revolution, Washington triumphed against all odds overcoming the most powerful nation on earth.
24Life for the Common Soldier Poorly disciplined at first – Washington worked to train themLittle to no supplies. Soldiers often brought their own gunsArmy had problems providing wages, housing, food, clothing, and equipment.
25Crossing the Delaware to Trenton It was Christmas, and the Hessians (German mercenaries) were on the other side of the Delaware River – drunkWashington leads a surprise early morning attack and is successful!Victory boosts the troops morale.
26Valley Forge, Pa. 1777-1778: 12,000 soldiers - extreme cold winter Soldiers had very little food, winter clothes, blankets, etc. Some even wrapped rags around their feet because they had no shoes.Washington continued to train the men and turned them into a strong army.
27French AllianceBenjamin Franklin, ambassador to France, convinced the French to support the Continental ArmyThe Marquis de Lafayette, a prominent French citizen & friend of Washington volunteered to assist the Americans.He provided military assistance and played a major role in the American Revolution
28American VictoryLast battle of the Revolution: Battle of Yorktown in 1781Lord Cornwallis, leader of the British troops was forced to surrender after his army was surrounded by French and American forces.
29Treaty of Paris Formally ended the War Gave freedom to all 13 colonies Established boundaries between British North America and the United States with the U.S. gaining fishing rights off the coast of Canada.Restored land to loyalistsReleased POW’s on both sides
30fought on both sides but many remained neutral Role of Others in the StruggleWomenMenserved as nurses, spies, or messengers; ran farms or businesses; some fought in battlesmany volunteeredfor armyWar EffortAmerican IndiansAfrican Americansfought on both sides but many remained neutralmany fought for British to gain freedom; free African Americans were allowed to join patriots