Fort Ticonderoga May 10, 1775 During the American Revolution, Fort Ticonderoga, located on the western side of Lake Champlain in New York, was an important post on the route from Canada to the colonies. Colonel Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen with his Green Mountain Boys led a surprise attack on the British fort in May of 1775. The Americans took the fort without firing a shot. In mid-winter of January 1776, Colonel Henry Knox led an expedition to Fort Ticonderoga to bring back the cannons that Arnold and Allen had captured. The cannons were lined up to face the British ships that were blockading the port of Boston. The British were forced to evacuate Boston, leaving the city and port to the Americans.
Battle of Bunker Hill June 17, 1775 Actually took place at Breed’s Hill The colonists built earthworks to protect themselves in battle The British rushed the hill 3 times The Colonists were forced to retreat due to lack of ammunition and supplies
Leaders General William Howe (British) Colonel William Prescott (Colonists)
Who are these Hessians? Hessians are soldiers from Germany. King George III hired these soldiers to fight the colonists.
Surprising Them in their Undies! Battle of Trenton
Battle of Trenton December 26,1776 On the night of December 25, 1776, George Washington crossed the freezing Delaware River to attack Hessians. Washington’s troops then marched nine miles in the early morning hours to reach Trenton at eight o'clock. The American troops surprised the Hessian mercenary soldiers in an early morning raid and the Americans captured nearly 1,000 men. There were no American casualties. This victory was the turning point in the war of independence for the Americans. Following this battle, the colonist snuck off from their camp and won the Battle of Princeton as well.
Battle of Saratoga September 19 – October 17, 1777 The American forces were led by General Horatio Gates, General Philip Schuyler and General Benedict Arnold. General John Burgoyne led the British forces. Gates lost the first battle and after a disagreement with Arnold about battle tactics, and Gates relieved Arnold of his command. The British forces were exhausted but were ordered to attack Bemis Heights. While Gates defensive moves were effective, it was General Arnold who saw an opening to turn the battle into an offensive move. Despite having been relieved of his command, Arnold joined the battle anyway. His efforts were so successful and the British troops so beaten down that General Burgoyne was forced to surrender a few days at Saratoga.
Colonist Leaders General Horatio GatesGeneral Philip Schuyler
Surrender! British Leader General John Burgoyne is forced to surrender.
What do I Need to know about the Battle of Saratoga? The British plan was to cut the colonies in two like a snake- when you cut off a snake’s head it dies! This plan did not work because one army for the British didn’t show up and another was late! The only army there was easily defeated.
Outcomes of the Battle of Saratoga The colonial army WON!!! France decides to help out the colonists.
French Support Benjamin Franklin had been in France for a year, trying to get the support of the French. The French had been secretly sending the colonies money, and after this victory, France decided to help the Americans.
Thank You, France! Upon hearing of the American victory at Saratoga, the French declared recognition of the United States of America and fully supported their war of independence.
Valley Forge Winter of 1777 - 1778 When General William Howe and his British troops took Philadelphia in September of 1777, General Washington was forced to make winter camp about 20 miles from Philadelphia at Valley Forge. It was a miserable winter for the 10,000 soldiers of the Continental Army at Valley Forge. Many soldiers lacked shoes and warm clothing. Food was scarce. Diseases such as smallpox and typhoid fever swept through the camp. 2,500 men died that winter from the cold, disease and malnutrition. During this winter, General Lafayette joined the Continental Army, without pay, and impressed the troops and Washington by living under the same conditions as the soldiers. Another important addition to the Continental Army was Baron Friedrich von Steuben. He knew how to train an army. Even under the hardships of the camp, he drilled the soldiers repeatedly during the winter so that by springtime the Continental Army had become a strong and disciplined fighting force.
Colonist Leaders at Valley Forge General LafayetteBaron Friedrich von Steuben
British Blockade The British formed a blockade, keeping ships from entering or leaving American harbors.
Privateers Congress ordered 13 warships to break the blockade, but only 2 made it to sea. The American navy was too weak to operate well. Instead, 2,000 ships were authorized to sail as privateers, which were privately owned merchant ships outfitted with weapons. They were hired to capture enemy merchant ships and cargo. During the war, privateers captured more British ships than the American navy did.
The Battle of Yorktown September 28, 1781 – October 19, 1781
Battle of Yorktown The last major battle of the American Revolution was fought at Yorktown. Washington learned that the French Admiral de Grasse was sailing to Virginia to prevent the British army under the command of General Cornwallis from leaving Yorktown. He and the French General Rochambeau rushed their troops to Yorktown to trap the British and prevent them from escaping over land. Cornwallis was surrounded. The American and French troops gradually closed in on him. Cornwallis surrendered to Washington on Oct 19, 1781.
What do I need to know about The Battle of Yorktown? The British army set up camp on a peninsula Washington’s army blocks them in to the west and the French Navy blocks them to the east. They are trapped and help can not arrive
Outcomes of the Battle Of Yorktown The Colonial army wins the WAR!!! Colonists are free of British Rule! No more King! They are their own country
“The World Turned Upside Down” The British band played this tune when the British surrendered at the Battle of Yorktown The Six and a half years of war was over.
Why the Colonists Won We fought on our own land The British had to move troops and supplies across and ocean The Americans knew the land, and where to lay an ambush, or surprise attack. Colonists had the support of French soldiers and ships. Spain helped when they attacked the British Americans were motivated by Independence
The French Revolution In 1789, French rebels fought a revolution in defense of “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity. They upheld the principles that “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.”
Haiti In 1791, there was a revolution in the French colony of Saint Domingue. Enslaved Africans, led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, took up arms. They shook off French rule, and in 1804, Saint Domingue, or present-day Haiti, gained independence.