Presentation on theme: "The English Colonies CHAPTER 4 Section 1: The Virginia Colony"— Presentation transcript:
1The English Colonies CHAPTER 4 Section 1: The Virginia Colony Section 2: The Pilgrims’ ExperienceSection 3: The New England ColoniesSection 4: The Southern and Middle Colonies
2Why was this fort so cleverly done? SECTION 1The Virginia ColonySettlement in Jamestown1607 , 1607 , 1607… Remember this date !London Company of England sent 3 ships to Virginia. Brought 105 males to Jamestown. (named after King)Colonists were poorly prepared to start a settlement. Looked like Roanoke all over again.John Smith - saved Jamestown colonists with his “no work, no eat” ethic.Winter come - starving time. Only 1/3 of colonists survive.Why was this fort so cleverly done?
3SECTION 1The Virginia ColonyJohn Smith – “No work, No Eat !”
4The Powhatan Confederacy SECTION 1The Powhatan ConfederacyHelped the Jamestown colonists survive by teaching them what to grow, where to grow it, and how to grow it.Later, the Powhatans got mad at settlers for demanding food from the Indians and the two sides were about to go to war until...John Rolfe - Married Pocohontas (princess of Powhatan) and thus learned the ways of the Indians. They taught him how to make quality tobacco that smelled and tasted good.This saved Jamestown.
5Map of Virginia in the 1600’s SECTION 1Daily Life in VirginiaHeadright - if a colonist paid their own way to the new world, they were given 50 acres of land.This was important, b/c as people came to the new world, they tended not to settle in towns, but rather on land for farming.Map of Virginia in the 1600’s
6SECTION 1 Labor in Virginia Colonists faced a very difficult life. High death rates, labor shortages.To fill this need for labor, indentured servitude was created.Indentured servant - colonists that signed a contract for a period of 4-7 years of service in return for passage to the new world.
7SECTION 1 Bacon’s Rebellion In the mid-1600’s colonists grew angry with the conditions in the colony.B/c conditions were so bad for many colonists, they began to move into areas owned by Indians. When they did this, they were ignoring treaties already signed with the Indians. This upset the Indians.The Indians began to attack to take back their land.Angry Colonists led by Nathaniel Bacon went to retaliate. When the governor tried to stop him, they revolted on the governor and burned Jamestown.This became known as Bacon’s Rebellion.
8Question: How did the English plantation system begin? SECTION 1The Virginia ColonyQuestion:How did the English plantation system begin?
9The English Plantation System SECTION 1The Virginia ColonyThe English Plantation SystemPlantations (large farms) grew out of the headright system. Under this system colonists who paid their own way to Virginia received 50 acres of land. A colonist could earn 50 acres more for every additional person brought from England. Thus, many people were eager to come to America and begin a new life.
10The Pilgrims’ Experience SECTION 2The Pilgrims’ ExperiencePuritans & PilgrimsReligious tensions in England remained high after the Protestant Reformation.Puritans - a group that came from the reformation that wanted to reform or purify the church of England. Believed that the bible was the ultimate source of knowledge.Some of the Puritans grew very radical in their beliefs, they wanted to separate from the church of England, thus they were called SEPARATISTS.One group of Separatists were the Pilgrims. They left England to get away from the King’s persecution. They moved to the Netherlands.
11The Founding of Plymouth SECTION 2The Founding of PlymouthMayflower - September 16, 1620, Pilgrim ship that set out with 100 men, women & children.William Bradford - Pilgrim leader, eventual governor of MassachusettsMayflower Compact - Contract where colonists agreed to have fair laws to protect the general good of the people.Plymouth Rock - Present day MassachusettsPilgrims faced many problems here: bad farming, bad fur trading, little fishing. Did trade some with Indians.Women contributed to Pilgrim Society here.
12Pilgrims & American Indians SECTION 2Pilgrims & American IndiansSquanto - interpreter for Pilgrims. Was very useful. Lived in Europe and spoke English.Brought sickness and disease to the Indians. Killed off many Indian villages.Had First Thanksgiving.
13Early Forms of Government SECTION 2Early Forms of GovernmentThe Virginia House of Burgesses was established at Jamestown. It was an assembly of elected representatives from the Virginia colony created in It was the 1st form of representative government in the colonies.The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was the first written constitution in the American Colonies. It was prepared by the Puritans who left Massachusetts and established Connecticut.
14SECTION 2The Pilgrims’ ExperienceQuestion:What were the new rights that women discovered they held in Plymouth?
15The Pilgrims’ Experience SECTION 2The Pilgrims’ ExperiencePilgrim women could sign contracts.They could bring cases before local courts.New Rights for Pilgrim WomenMarried and widowed women gained licenses to run inns & sell liquor.Widows could own property.Occasionally, women’s business talents were recognized by the community.
16The New England Colonies SECTION 3The New England ColoniesThe Massachusetts Bay ColonyDissenters - people who disagreed with official opinions.Around 1620 in England, people started becoming dissenters. (Puritans)Left England in a mass exodus. Called the Great Migration. Led by John Winthrop, the Kings right hand man.10’s of thousands of Puritans left England for a better life w/out persecution.Arrived in New England prepared to do well.Trade with Plymouth helped them survive.
17Church & State in New England SECTION 3Church & State in New EnglandPolitics & Religion were closely linked in Puritan New England.Only male church members could vote.Thomas Hooker , minister that left Massachusetts & formed Connecticut b/c of religious differences.Fundamental Order of Connecticut - set of principles that made Connecticut’s government more democratic. Established first democratic government in the US.
18SECTION 3Daily Life & CustomsLives were centered around religion, family duties, public work. (The Puritan Way)Sunday was a day of Worship.Came to New England in family groups. Thus, NE had many families.Subsistence farmersEducation was important b/c of the bible.
19Dissent in Massachusetts SECTION 3Dissent in MassachusettsRoger Williams - minister, did not agree with the leadership. Didn’t like taking land from Indians.Left to form Rhode Island.Anne Hutchinson - pregnant w/19th kid she stood trial for not following Puritan way. Should have won, but judge, jury, everyone was male. Kicked out of Mass. Sent to Rhode Island.Anne HutchinsonRoger Williams
20SECTION 3 Salem Witch Trials A group of girls accused people (1690’s)of casting spells on them. Those people were then treated as Witches. They went on to be tortured and killed.During the trials, the girls often screamed out things (like they was nutz), or fainted.19 people were put to death.
21SECTION 3The New England ColoniesQuestion:What factors illustrate the role that religion and the church played in the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
22Religion and the Church in the Massachusetts Bay Colony SECTION 3The New England ColoniesReligion and the Church in the Massachusetts Bay ColonyMinisters and church members were often government leaders.Puritans gathered weekly to listen to sermons that brought all members of the community together.As a result of shared beliefs and the presence of family, the community was more stable than those in Virginia.
23The Southern and Middle Colonies SECTION 4The Southern and Middle ColoniesTolerant MarylandMany Catholics came to Maryland for the same reason the Puritans did. Tolerance…Maryland was a proprietary colony.Settlers in Maryland benefited from lessons learned by Jamestown settlers.Lord Baltimore - leader of Maryland. - Passed Toleration act of This act made the restricting of religious rights of Christians a crime.
24SECTION 4The CarolinasIn Charles II (The Merry Monarch) gave the land between Virginia and Spanish Florida to 8 of his friends.They called the land Carolina (Feminine) in honor of his majesty.In 1712, Carolina was split into 2 colonies. (N & S)Split b/c of the differences of the way each group of settlers lived. (north were small farmers, while south were plantations)
25Diversity in New York & New Jersey SECTION 4Diversity in New York & New JerseyDutch founded New Amsterdam. Peg-Leg Peter ran the colony. Main way of life was fur trading. An exporting things.Charles II wanted New Amsterdam, b/c he owned the land above it & below it. He sent his brother (Duke of York) to go and take it.The Duke took about 15 boats full of men and soldiers. The Dutch had about 500 soldiers. When the Dutch saw all of the English boats and men, they ran away and gave up New Amsterdam w/out a fight. This really annoyed Peg-Leg Peter.The new colony was name New York, after the Duke of course.The Duke then gave some of the land to his friends John Lord Berkley and Sir George Cateret.
26The Pennsylvania Experiment SECTION 4The Pennsylvania ExperimentQuakers - Society of Friends.Penn was a troublemaker in England. The King sent him to new world to get him out of England. The Duke of York owed his dad land, so he called in his debt. The Duke gave him a chunk of land he called Pennsylvania(Penn’s woods).Pennsylvania grew rapidly. Penn tried to create a government that was fair to all.Religious freedom was offered. Land was sold at a low price. The government of Pennsylvania would care for their poor. Flyers were sent all around Europe to encourage immigration. Thus, Pennsylvania had quite the diverse population.Philadelphia was the Capitol. (City of Brotherly Love)Delaware remained part of Pennsylvania until 1776.
27The Pennsylvania Experiment Continued SECTION 4The Pennsylvania Experiment Continued
28SECTION 4 The Ideal of Georgia James Oglethorpe King founded Georgia in 1732 as a buffer zone against Spanish Florida.James Oglethorpe was given the charter to start this Colony.The King emptied the jails of England and sent them to Georgia.Strict laws were enforced in Georgia b/c of the type of people that came to Georgia.
29Relationship Between Britain & Colonies SECTION 4Relationship Between Britain & ColoniesTrade relationship based on English demand for agricultural products from America. Colonies followed rules of Mercantilism, colonies existed for the benefit of parent country. Colonies supplied Britain with Raw Materials, goods made by natural resources.To protect this trade system, Navigation Acts were passed in Required colonies to sell certain goods only to Britain.Tobacco, rice, indigo were in great demand in Europe. These items became very profitable.
30Question: How did development of the middle colonies occur? SECTION 4 The Southern and Middle ColoniesQuestion:How did development of the middle colonies occur?
31The Southern and Middle Colonies SECTION 4The Southern and Middle ColoniesFounded byTypes of ColonistsMajor EventsNew YorkNew JerseyPennsylvaniaoriginally founded by Dutch and called New Netherlandmainly fur traders and farmersan Englishman, the Duke of York, challenged the Dutch to the claim of the colony and prevailedproprietors Sir John Carteret and Lord John Berkeley from EnglandDutch, Swedes, Finns, and Scotseventually divided into an eastern and western province until England united East and West NJ into a single colony in 1702William Penn who sought religious freedom and just governmentQuakers, Welsh, Irish Quakers, Germans (Pennsylvania Dutch)colony grew rapidly because Penn advertised throughout Europe for colonists and offered religious freedom
32Chapter Wrap-Up CHAPTER 4 1. How did climate and geography affect the colonies’ development?2. Why were indentured servants and enslaved Africans more important to the southern colonies’ economies than to New England’s?3. Why did Catholics, Puritans, and Quakers immigrate to America, and what colonies did they establish?Check out summaries that follow !
33The New England Colonies New Hampshire-Founded in 1630 by John Mason for those constricted by religious & economic rules.Massachusetts-Founded in 1630 by John Winthrop for religious freedom for Puritans.Connecticut - Founded in 1636 by Thomas Hooker for religious and economic freedomRhode Island - Founded in 1636 by Roger Williams for religious freedom.
34The Middle ColoniesNew York - Founded in 1626 by Peter Minuit for trade and profits.New Jersey - Founded in 1660 by Lord Berkeley for trade and profits.Pennsylvania-Founded in 1682 by William Penn for religious freedom for Quakers; trade and profits.Delaware- Founded in 1638 by Peter Minuit for trade and profits
35The Southern ColoniesVirginia-Founded in 1607 by John Smith for trade and profits.Maryland-Founded in 1634 by George Calvert for religious freedom for Catholics.North Carolina-Founded in 1653 by a group of proprietors for trade and profits.South Carolina-Founded in 1670 by a group of proprietors for trade and profits.Georgia-Founded in 1733 by George Oglethorpe as a debtor colony.