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Chapter 4 French and Indian War American Revolution War of 1812.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 French and Indian War American Revolution War of 1812."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 French and Indian War American Revolution War of 1812

2 French & Indian War 1754-1763 Between British & French Started in colonies Later spread to Europe Seven Years War

3 Causes of War

4 Dispute over Ohio River Valley English settled along Atlantic coast French settled in the interior along St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes, & Mississippi River

5 Different Settlement Patterns English cleared land for farming & towns French built forts & established trading posts French had better relations with Native Americans

6 Fort Neccesity Built by George Washington in 1754 Opposed French settlement in Ohio French took control of fort July 4, 1754

7 Fort Duquesne Located at the forks of Ohio River Present day Pittsburg Key defense against British

8 General Edward Braddock Sent by Britain to help the colonist

9 Causes of early British defeats British trained to fight in the open British fought in straight lines French & Indians used ambush tactics

10 British attempt to attack July 9, 1755 Western Pennsylvania – near Fort Duquesne 1,500 British troops & 450 militia Braddock killed

11 William Pitt Prime Minister in 1757 Raised taxes & borrowed money to fight the war

12 British Victories Louisbourg – July 26, 1758 Fort Dusquesne – Nov. 1758 – renamed it Fort Pitt Quebec – spring of 1759 Fort Niagara – July 1759 Fort Ticonderoga & Crown Point – Sept. 1759

13 Battle of Quebec Capital city of New France Located on high cliffs – St. Lawrence River Gen. James Wolfe – British troops Gen. Marquis Montcalm – French troops Wolfe lay siege on city City surrendered Both generals killed

14 Terms of Treaty of Paris 1763 Britain won Got Canada All lands east of Mississippi River Except New Orleans British returned Cuba in exchange for Florida

15 Beliefs of Colonist after the War Loss of respect for British military power British did not share same values and treat colonist with respect

16 British Problems after the war

17 Pontiac’s Rebellion Spring of 1763 Uprising led by Ottawa’s leader, Pontiac Opposed Gen. Amherst’s order to end the flow of trade with Native Americans Destroyed several British forts 2,000 colonist killed or captured

18 Proclamation of 1763 Established land west of Appalachian Mountains as Indian reserve Prohibited white settlement Colonist continued to move westward

19 George Grenville Became Prime Minister 1763 Responsible for taxing colonist

20 Sugar Act 1764 Cut the duty of foreign molasses in half Thought it would encourage colonist to buy imported molasses instead of smuggling

21 Quartering Act 1765 Required colonist to provide housing and supplies for British troops

22 Stamp Act 1765 First direct tax on colonist Placed tax on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, & most printed materials

23 Stamp Act Congress Met Oct. 1765 Main organizer – James Otis (Massachusetts) Coined the phrase “no taxation without representation”

24 Sons of Liberty Started by merchants to boycotts British goods Most active – Boston Sons of Liberty – Samuel Adams Grenville forced from power Parliament repealed the Stamp Act

25 Declaratory Act Parliament had the authority to make laws that applied to the colonies “in all cases whatsoever ”

26 Townsend Duties 1767 Levied import duties on glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea

27 Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 5 colonist killed All soldiers were acquitted Parliament canceled Townsend Duties except for tax on tea

28 Tea Act 1773 Tax on tea

29 Boston Tea Party Dec. 16, 1773 Colonist disguised themselves as Indians Dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston harbor

30 Intolerable Acts 1774 Passed to punish colonists Also known as the Coercive Acts Targeted Massachusetts

31 Parts of Intolerable Acts Port Bill closed Boston Harbor until all destroyed tea was paid for Massachusetts Gov’t Act – nearly eliminated self- government Revised the Quartering Act – required colonists to house troops in private homes

32 Committees of Correspondence Circulated letters and papers to keep colonists aware of events Called for a meeting to plan a response to the Intolerable Acts

33 First Continental Congress Sept. 5, 1774 – Oct. 26, 1774 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 55 delegates sent Drafted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances Meet again in May 1775 if grievances not met

34 Battle of Lexington and Concord April 1775 Started the American Revolution British ordered to seize gunpowder stored in Massachusetts Paul Revere’s warning Patrick Henry’s speech

35 Common Sense Written by Thomas Paine Blamed George III for the suffering of the colonies 500,000 copies distributed

36 Second Continental Congress May 10, 1775 – March 1, 1781 John Hancock – President Organized continental army – Washington commander Established a unicameral legislature with both executive and legislative powers

37 Olive Branch Petition Written by John Dickinson Final plea to king Stop the fighting King did not respond

38 Declaration of Independence Proposed by Richard Henry Lee Written by Thomas Jefferson Designed to influence public opinion at home and other countries Created the United States of America

39 4 parts of Declaration Preamble Declaration of Rights Complaints against King George III Resolution of Independence

40 American Advantages Manpower Owned and knew how to use guns Fighting on own soil

41 American Disadvantages Did not have a well established government Did not have a sizable treasury Did not have a navy

42 Battle of Bunker Hill June 17, 1775 Between British regulars and New England militia British – Gen. William Howe Militia – Colonel William Prescott & Gen. Israel Putnam Breed’s Hill Militia forced to retreat

43 Battle of Long Island Aug. 26, 1776 Defeated Washington’s army on Brooklyn Heights Failed to prevent escape of American forces Distributed 3,000 certificates of loyalty

44 Battle of Trenton and Princeton Dec. 25, 1776 Washington surprised Hessian mercenaries at Trenton and went on to Princeton in Jan. 1777 Convinced many Americans to support the cause

45 General Cornwallis Commander of British troops Planned a strategy to capture the state of New York and split colonies

46 British Strategy Gen. Burgoyne would move south from Canada Colonel Leger would advance eastward General Howe would move north from New York City

47 Capture of Philadelphia Howe did not carry out his plan Instead pursued Washington Took rebel capital Quartered his army for the winter

48 Valley Forge Campground of 11,000 of Washington’s troops Dec. 19, 1777-June 19, 1778 2,500 died Baron Friedrich von Steuben trained troops

49 Battle of Saratoga Turning point of war Oct. 17, 1777 Gen. Burgoyne surrendered Supplies had been cut off because Gen. Leger had been stopped Surrendered 5,000 troops to Gen. Gates

50 Treaty of Alliance of 1778 Feb. 6, 1778 France signed treaty of alliance

51 Battle of Yorktown Oct. 19, 1781 Cornwallis surrendered to Washington

52 Treaty of Paris of 1783 Britain recognizes our independence Borders set Return Florida to Spain Withdraw troops

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