Presentation on theme: "The French and Indian War is Over Now, There is a Crisis Over Taxes!!!"— Presentation transcript:
The French and Indian War is Over Now, There is a Crisis Over Taxes!!!
New Troubles on the Frontier By 1760, the French were driven from the Ohio Valley but that was not an end to British troubles. With the French gone, English settlers came to claim the land for themselves.
Clashing with Natives The French had always had a good relationship with Native Americans The British sent Lord Jeffrey Amherst to the frontier to keep order. Amherst refused to act as the French had.
Pontiac’s War Amherst raised prices of goods traded to Indians and allowed English settlers to build farms and forts on Indian lands. Indians found a leader in Ottawa Chief Pontiac.
Pontiac’s War Pontiac led an attack on Fort Detroit and with the help of other tribes had captured most of the British forts and regained most of their land. The success was short lived with French notice of the Treaty of Paris, and no more French aid, Indian nations stopped their fight and headed home.
Proclamation of 1763 The Proclamation of 1763 drew an imaginary line across the crest of the Appalachian mountains in which colonists were forbidden to cross and settle. Those that had crossed the line already were to “remove themselves” at once!
Proclamation My Foot!! The proclamation was not popular with colonists. They had to pay for the British troops sent to enforce the act and in the end, many ignored it. Daniel Boone was one colonist that disregarded the act and led settlers through the Cumberland Gap.
The Sugar Act In 1764, George Grenville asked for approval of a new tax on molasses, the Sugar Act. The Sugar Act replaced an earlier that was so high, merchants got around paying it by smuggling molasses. This lower tax also had stronger enforcement and would bring smugglers to trial. Colonists were not happy.
The Stamp Act The Stamp Act of 1765 placed duties on legal documents such as wills, diplomas and wedding certificates. It also taxed newspapers, almanacs, playing cards and dice!!!
Stamp Act II There had been a Stamp Act in Britain for years but no such requirement in the Colonies. This leads to the famous complaint of no taxation without representation.
Stamp Act III The Stamp Act Crisis brought about a sense of unity to the colonies. A petition was sent to Parliament and a boycott of British goods ensued. In 1766, Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, but asserts that Parliament has the right to raise taxes in all cases whatsoever.
The Townshend Acts Charles Townshend is dared to tax the Colonies – so he does. The Townshend Acts taxed glass, paper, paint, lead and TEA. Taxes were low, but Colonists did not like them anyway.
Writs of Assistance Custom Officials were allowed to inspect ships cargo in order to enforce the tax and without consent. James Otis argued that under British law an official cannot search a persons property without good reason.
Sons of Liberty Colonists agreed to stop importing goods taxed by the Townshend Act. As a means of protest, the Sons of Liberty was formed and they held mock hangins of straw effigies, kind of like Shandy-Dans.
Daughters of Liberty Women joined the Daughters of Liberty and boycotted goods such as British cloth. Their efforts were quite big in the nonimportation agreements.
New Leaders- Massachusetts Sam Adams was a failure in business and a poor public speaker, but still loved politics and had a knack for organization. Cousin John Adams was a skilled lawyer who had a great knowledge of English law that was quite helpful.
New Leaders-Virginia Patrick Henry was a great orator and his ringing speeches from the House of Burgesses rallied Colonist rath towards British tyranny.
The Quartering Act The Quartering Act made Colonist open their house to board soldiers without a request. When colonist refused, Britain dismissed their Assembly, such as New Yorks.
The Boston Massacre When Colonists gathered along Boston streets and shouted insults to soldiers and threw snowballs, things escalate and shots are fired leaving five colonist dead in the street.
The Boston Massacre One of the First to die was an African American sailor by the name of Crispus Attucks. Ironically, A Colonist skilled in English law would defend the soldiers – John Adams.
Aftermath After the Boston Massacre, Sam Adams will form the Committee of Correspondence.M embers would write letters and pamphlets of protest and events going on in Massachusetts.
The Tea Act The Tea Act was set up to help out the British East India Company. They could sell their tea to Colonist cheaper than merchants could because of the tax, hence hurting Colonial merchants.
The Boston Tea Party The Sons of Liberty will dress up as Indians ands go to Boston Harbor. The cry was to make Boston Harbor a teapot tonight – and they did dumping the contents of a ship loaded with British Tea.
Objective questions What were the four provisons of the Intolerable Acts? Who proposed the Olive Branch Petition? What was it and how did King George respond?
Objective Question Describe the Loyalists. Describe the Patriots. Describe Nons.
The Intolerable Acts King George is furious when he learns of the “Tea Party”. He decides to make the colonists pay and learn their position in British society by enacting the Intolerable Acts.
The Intolerable Acts The Acts set out to do 4 things 1 It re-establishes the popular Quartering Act. 2 Towns are limited to one meeting a year. 3 It closes Boston Harbor 4 Boston is placed under Martial Law
The Olive Branch Petition Congress tried to patch things up with the crown and sent the Olive Branch Petition. The petition stated that if the King would repeal the Intolerable Acts, they would pledge their loyalty to him.
The Olive Branch Petition King George III was enraged by the petition and the talk of independence vowing to bring rebel colonist to justice.
Loyalists, Patriots and Nons Loyalists were also known as Tories. Tories made up about 20% of the colonists and included merchants and former officials of the royal government. Some farmers and craftworkers were also Tories.
Loyalists, Patriots and Nons More Loyalists lived in the Middle Colonies and the South as compared to New England. Loyalists were tarred and feathered and forced to leave their homes and farms. Nons were those colonists that held no loyalty to either side.
Loyalists, Patriots and Nons Patriots then, obviously, were those colonists that would fight for independence from Britain. Let the fun begin!
So!!!!! Needless to say, this will not bode well for those longing for peace!