“If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we… …teach? …punish?” “Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others?” John Herner, Former President NASDSE, 1998
BASICS Go to Walmart—What do you see? Negative Reinforcement Punishment Positive Reinforcement
HOW DO YOU TEACH BEHAVIOR? JUST LIKE ACADEMICS DEFINE Simply DEFINE Simply MODEL PRACTICE In Setting PRACTICE In Setting ADJUST for Efficiency ADJUST for Efficiency MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE Continuously MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE Continuously
EXAMPLE: MATH – TEACHING HOW TO FIND THE HYPOTENUSE OF A RIGHT TRIANGLE C²=A²+B², where C is the side opposite the right angle C²=A²+B², where C is the side opposite the right angle “Let me show you you… If A=3 and B=4, then C²=25, so C=5” “Let me show you you… If A=3 and B=4, then C²=25, so C=5” “Work with a partner and find the hypotenuse of the 3 triangles on the worksheet” “Work with a partner and find the hypotenuse of the 3 triangles on the worksheet” “Everyone work with a different partner and try the examples on this next worksheet.” “Everyone work with a different partner and try the examples on this next worksheet.” “Everyone did a great job with the first 2, but the 3 rd one was tricky, because it didn’t have a right angle.” “Everyone did a great job with the first 2, but the 3 rd one was tricky, because it didn’t have a right angle.” Thank you to pbis.org for the great example!!!
EXAMPLE: TEACHING SOCIAL BEHAVIORS “If someone won’t stop teasing your friend, you should look cool and walk away with your friend.” “If someone won’t stop teasing your friend, you should look cool and walk away with your friend.” “What are 2 different ways to ‘look cool’ with your friends?” “What are 2 different ways to ‘look cool’ with your friends?” “Let’s watch this episode of ‘Jessie’. When it’s over, tell me how a friend was helped when teased.” “Let’s watch this episode of ‘Jessie’. When it’s over, tell me how a friend was helped when teased.” “You got it! Tomorrow let’s talk about cyber-teasing and ways to handle that.” “You got it! Tomorrow let’s talk about cyber-teasing and ways to handle that.” “Great answers. Now, what if you were stuck on the bus? Or how about in the classroom?” “Great answers. Now, what if you were stuck on the bus? Or how about in the classroom?” Thank you to pbis.org for the great example!!!
BEHAVIOR LESSONS Align to school-wide expectation Adults demonstrate skill Can demonstrate both inappropriate and appropriate behavior Students role play or practice skill Adults provide feedback Acknowledge appropriate behavior
VIDEO EXAMPLES OF TEACHING EXPECTATIONS Example 2: Chippewa Falls High School, Wisconsin: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tj6UlC8Zi44 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tj6UlC8Zi44 Example 3: West Lincoln High School, Michigan: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XqOQlVmvD_M http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XqOQlVmvD_M
Behavior Lesson Plan Template (on flash drive) UNIVERSAL EXPECTATION:_______________________________________ NAME OF SKILL/SETTING:________________________________________ PURPOSE OF THE LESSON/WHY IS IT IMPORTANT. 1. 2. TEACHING EXAMPLES 1. 2. 3. STUDENT ACTIVITES/ROLE PLAYS 1. 2. 3. FOLLOW UP/ REINFORCEMENT ACTIVITES 1. 2. 3.
ACTIVITY Create some behavior lesson plans and/or activities. Be creative! (Lots of examples of Behavior Lesson Plans on Flash Drive)
HAVE A PLAN How will expectations be taught? When/how often will expectations be taught? Who will teach expectations? Who will look at data and determine what needs to be taught or re-taught? Who will write behavioral lesson plans?
EXAMPLE OF YEARLY PLAN First week or school: Kick-off with all students in all areas of school Daily: Reinforce the expectations through announcement time or at assembly Weekly: Behavior lesson plan targeting specific behavior, expectation, or area of school Based on Data: Target a behavior that is showing up most often in the data, or is a long-term problem Booster kick-off: After a long break, students may need a booster training to remind them of the expectations
ACTIVITY Take a few minutes to make plans for how and when you will teach the behavioral expectations (you can use the yearly planning calendar we looked at earlier, or use your MAP – both on flash drive)
TIME FOR QUESTIONS Like us on Facebook at: http://www.facebook.com/asucce Follow us on Twitter at: https://twitter.com/ASUCCE
REINFORCE THE GOOD! Why acknowledge desired behavior? What happens over the long term with reinforced behavior? Change from continuous (all the time) to partial or intermittent (some of the time) reinforcement
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Do YOU like getting incentives or rewards? What are some ways we (adults) get acknowledged or rewarded?
BENEFITS OF ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Reinforce/encourage expected behaviors Students who are showing expected behaviors may encourage others Strengthen positive behaviors that compete with problem behavior Prompt for adults to recognize expected behavior
SOME GUIDELINES FOR USE OF ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS School-wide reinforcements are for every student in the building Move from highly frequent to less frequent predictable to unpredictable tangible to social Individualize for students needing greater support systems
HOW TO GIVE AN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Step 1: Acknowledge specific behavior Step 2: Tie back to school-wide expectations Example: “Nice job sitting in your seat when the bell rang! Way to be there, be ready.”
VIDEO EXAMPLE OF GIVING ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc8H_7D0Q1Y
REWARD IDEAS Classroom challenges (e.g., principal can give a class a ticket for all students being quiet in the hallway, with a prize when the class receives 10) School-wide challenges for entire school (e.g., if students have 25% less office referrals this month than last month, teachers/staff will put on a show or a basketball game, etc., with popcorn and a drink) Look at the following examples for some low and no-cost ideas for students
LOW/NO COST INCENTIVES FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS Assist the custodian Assist with morning announcements over the PA system Be a helper in another classroom Be featured on a photo recognition board Be recognized during announcements Be the first one in the lunch line Be the leader of a class game Be the line leader Be the scout (Person who goes ahead of class to tell the special teacher they are on the way) Be the teacher's helper for the day Choose a book for the teacher to read aloud to the class Choose any class job for the week Choose music for the class to hear Choose the game during physical education Choose which homework problem the teacher will give the answer to for a freebie Dance to favorite music in the classroom Design a class/school bulletin board Design and make a bulletin board Do half of an assignment Draw on the chalkboard Earn a free pass to a school event or game Earn a gift certificate to the school store or book fair Source: Milwaukee Public Schools
Earn extra computer time Earn extra credit Earn free tutoring time from the teacher (spelling secrets, math secrets, writing secrets) Earn play money to be used for privileges Earn points for good behavior to “buy” unique rewards (e.g. Autographed items with special meaning or lunch with the teacher) Earn the privilege of emailing a parent at work telling of accomplishments Eat lunch outdoors with the class Eat lunch with a teacher or principal Eat lunch with an invited adult (grandparent, aunt, uncle) Eat with a friend in the classroom (with the teacher) Enjoy a positive visit with the principal Enjoy class outdoors for the whole class Enter a drawing for donated prizes among students who meet certain grade standards Get “free choice” time at the end of the day Get a “no homework” pass Get a drink from the cold water fountain (There is always one fountain that is better) Get a flash cards set printed from a computer Get extra art time Go on a walking field trip (earn privilege for whole class) Continued…
Listen to music during silent reading time Extra minutes at the computer Wear hat to school Worksheet/Homework passes (limited # per week/month) Leave for lunch one/two minute(s) early Pass to be first in line for lunch One free restroom trip 5 minutes of free reading, high interest magazines available Buy a soda from machine Activity for class (movie, math game, dodge ball, etc) Tell a pre-approved joke/riddle on morning announcements Make announcements over the PA for 1 week Wear your hoodie Music – listen to – during passing time and lunch Basketball with principal Play P-I-G in gym before school with one friend Late pass Prime reserved parking spot Free pass/reduced cost to school dance NON-COST (MOSTLY) REINFORCEMENT IDEAS FOR STUDENTS (MIDDLE & HIGH SCHOOL)
Team deal: A group of students, 6 students with 10 tickets each – one large pizza to share Principal with a cart of donuts walked from room to room and asked teacher, “have we had a 10% reduction in a problem behavior, tardy, etc.”, and if so everyone in the class get a donut. If not he rolled the cart to the next room Passing period, school played Aretha Franklin song “Respect” to improve tardy behavior in the hallways Snow ball fight using soft cotton balls Homework due date extended Help the “specials” teachers Eat lunch with a preferred adult in school Select a fun class activity from a list of choices Play non-academic computer game Work on jigsaw or crossword puzzle Select a friend to study with on an in-class assignment Select a teacher to call home and tell parent they are doing a good job Work at school store “Adopt” a younger student and become a mentor Get extra gym time with another class IOU redeemable for credit on one wrong item on a future in-class quiz or homework assignment Sources: Michigan’s Integrated Behavior and Learning Support Initiative; Effective Educational Practices, LLC www.successfulschools.org Continued…
ACTIVITY Team Time! Discuss as a team – brainstorm: What types of incentives do you think will work for your school? What are some ways you can get input on these incentives?
SCHOOL-WIDE CELEBRATIONS ALL students get what the collective group earns Example If more than 80% of students have perfect attendance, whole school gets special assembly. Some kids get extra for exceptional performance Examples: If Steve attends school 70% of days, he can also sit with friends of his choice. Students with 100% can get some additional acknowledgement beyond what whole group gets.