WAR OF 1812 !!!! Date 0f Notes ______________ - MADISON ELECTED whom to fight? France France or Britain?
REASONS FOR WAR: 1) Battle over Canadian Border (U.S. / Britain). The British had become somewhat friends and protectors of the Native Americans in the West supplying them with weapons to use against the United States.
REASONS FOR WAR: 2) British Capture U.S. Ships (Impressment)
REASONS FOR WAR: 3 ) Poor Economy – Embargo Act stops all trade with other countries. War = More Jobs
REASONS FOR WAR: 4 ) Tecumseh and Native American Unity.
REASONS FOR WAR: 5) War Hawks – 1810 – young republicans in congress pressure Madison Henry Clay boasted that Kentucky itself could march up to British Canada and take it all from England by themselves
The War of 1812 Begins Classzone: Major Battles of War of 1812
Phase One Though the Democratic Republicans had decreased the military budget, Britain was at war with France and could not afford to send many troops or ships to the US. The USS Consitution (Old Ironsides) and the USS United States won key naval victories.
MAJOR BATTLES: 1) Old Iron Sides (August, 1812) 1) Old Iron Sides (August, 1812)
-- U.S.S. Constitution defeats the Guerriere defeats the Guerriere
MAJOR BATTLES: -Huge victory for U.S. Navy ! -Huge victory for U.S. Navy !
Built in 1794 in Boston, the Constitution’s planks were 7 inches thick. Paul Revere was responsible for the spikes and bolts that held them together as well as the copper sheathing that protected the hull.. It first saw action in the undeclared war with France.
- Oliver Hazard Perry; Breaks British Blockade - Oliver Hazard Perry; Breaks British Blockade When the Lawrence was bombarded by three British ships, Perry rowed ½ mile to the Niagara where he continued fighting!!!
3) Washington D.C. / Fort McHenry -British want to capture Baltimore (by way of Washington D.C.)
3) Washington D.C. (August 19, 1814) 6,000 British soldiers burn D.C. (Whitehouse, Capitol) 25 hours; All that protected Washington was Militias who “ran like sheep being chased by dogs” allowing the British to walk in and… eat a dinner that was set up for forty, then burn the Whitehouse to the ground!
They burned the Whitehouse, the Capitol, and even the Library of Congress. Dr. William Thornton (who won the architectural contest to create the Capitol) stood outside the patent office and convinced the British to leave the patent office because they would be destroying inventive science if they destroyed it. While it was spared, The roof was blown off in the coming storm (Hurricane and Tornado !) Dr. William Thornton The blue part shown was all that was constructed of the Capitol during Thornton’s time. 3) Washington D.C. (August 19, 1814)
The troops then turned north down Pennsylvania Avenue toward the President's House. First Lady Dolly Madison remained there after many of the government officials — and her own bodyguard — had already left, gathering valuables, documents and other items of importance, notably the Lansdowne Portrait, a full-length painting of George Washington by Gilbert Stuart. She was finally persuaded to leave moments before British soldiers entered the building. Once inside, the soldiers found the dining hall set for a dinner for 40 people. After eating all the food they took souvenirs then set the building on fire. 3) Washington D.C. (August 19, 1814)
Hurricane stops attack! 3) Washington D.C. (August 19, 1814)
4) Fort McHenry (September 24, 1814) - Americans win in Baltimore (TURNING POINT!) and the Star Spangled Banner is written (Francis Scott Key) Francis Scott Key, a Georgetown lawyer, boarded a British ship to negotiate the release of a captured fried, Dr. William Beanes. The British accepted the release but kept them overnight because they had heard attack plans. Key was so inspired by the events that he wrote a poem about it which eventually turned into our star spangled banner.
In 1813 the commander of Ft. McHenry asked for a flag so big that "the British have no trouble seeing it from a distance." He asked Mary Young Pickersgill to make the flag for him. Her thirteen year old daughter helped her. She used 400 yards of fine wool. They cut 15 stars that were two feet across. There were 8 red and 7 white stripes. The stripes were each two feet wide. When it was finished it measured 30 by 42 feet and cost $405.90. 4) Fort McHenry (September 24, 1814)
The caption reads "A VIEW of the BOMBARDMENT of Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, by the British fleet taken from the Observatory under the Command of Admirals Cochrane & Cockburn on the morning of the 13th of Sept 1814 which lasted 24 hours & thrown from 1500 to 1800 shells in the Night attempted to land by forcing a passage up the ferry branch but were repulsed with great loss."
5) The Battle of New Orleans (January 5, 1815) 5) The Battle of New Orleans (January 5, 1815)
a) Fought 2 weeks after Treaty of Ghent (Signed Dec 24, 1814; settled nothing) (Signed Dec 24, 1814; settled nothing) 5) The Battle of New Orleans (January 5, 1815) 5) The Battle of New Orleans (January 5, 1815)
United States forces at the time of the Battle of New Orleans were much smaller-- somewhere between 3,500 and 5,000. This detachment was composed of United States army troops; Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Louisiana militia; Baratarian pirates; Choctaw warriors; and free black soldiers. Britain sent between 11,000 and 14,450 troops under the command of Major General Sir Edward Pakenham to fight in the Louisiana campaign.
b) Andrew Jackson dominates (2,000 British casualties, U.S. about 73 casualties)
Andrew Jackson, United States General, above had soldiers dig ditches to fight from. The attack began under a heavy fog, but as the British neared the main enemy line, the fog suddenly lifted, exposing them to withering artillery fire. The British, armed only with muskets effective at close range, tried to close the gap, but discovered that the ladders needed to cross a canal and scale the earthworks had been forgotten. As a result, most of their senior officers were killed or wounded, and the British infantry could do nothing but stand in the open and be mown down by a combination of musket fire and grapeshot from the Americans. 5) The Battle of New Orleans (January 5, 1815) 5) The Battle of New Orleans (January 5, 1815)
Results of the War United States agreed to leave Canada alone. –A boundary was set to separate the British and American claims. British agreed to end their alliances with the Native Americans. Other details were in the treaty, but this is the most significant one. This marks the end of “co-existence” with Native Americans. The U.S. was officially dominant.
C. Positive RESULTS: 1)WORLD RESPECT ; Recognized as a Nation. The "WE OWE ALLEGIANCE TO NO CROWN" banner was a popular symbol of American pride for many years following the War of 1812.
C. RESULTS: 2). PATRIOTISM ; Whitehouse (Star Spangled Banner) Uncle Sam
3. NEW HEROES (Andrew Jackson, William Henry Harrison, Oliver Hazard Perry) (Andrew Jackson, William Henry Harrison, Oliver Hazard Perry) C. RESULTS:
4. Native Americans pushed further west. C. RESULTS: Shawnee village
George Calem Bingham, The Jolly Flatboatmen, 1846 5. TRADE IMPROVES (Economy)