WAR OF 1812 !!!! - MADISON ELECTED whom to fight? France France or Britain?
A) REASONS FOR WAR: 1) Battle over Canadian Border (U.S. / Britain). The British had become somewhat friends and protectors of the Native Americans in the West supplying them with weapons to use against the United States.
A) REASONS FOR WAR: 2) British Capture U.S. Ships (Impressment)
A) REASONS FOR WAR: 3 ) Poor Economy – Embargo Act stops all trade with other countries. War = More Jobs
A) REASONS FOR WAR: 4) War Hawks – 1810 – young republicans in congress pressure Madison Henry Clay boasted that Kentucky itself could march up to British Canada and take it all from England by themselves
B) MAJOR BATTLES: 1) Old Iron Sides (August, 1812) 1) Old Iron Sides (August, 1812)
-- U.S.S. Constitution defeats the Guerriere defeats the Guerriere
B) MAJOR BATTLES: -Huge victory for U.S. Navy ! -Huge victory for U.S. Navy !
Built in 1794 in Boston, the Constitution’s planks were 7 inches thick. Paul Revere was responsible for the spikes and bolts that held them together as well as the copper sheathing that protected the hull.. It first saw action in the undeclared war with France. The U.S.S. Constitution still resides in Boston and is the oldest active ship in the U.S. Navy. Copper from Paul Revere’s silversmith shop was used in it’s hull.
- Oliver Hazard Perry; Breaks British Blockade - Oliver Hazard Perry; Breaks British Blockade When the Lawrence was bombarded by three British ships, Perry rowed ½ mile to the Niagara where he continued fighting!!!
In June of 1813, Captain James Lawrence, in command of the U.S.S. Chesapeake, engaged the British frigate H.M.S. Shannon just outside Boston Harbor. After a short, bloody battle, the Chesapeake was seriously damaged and her captain lay mortally wounded. Reportedly, Lawrence died with his last command still on his lips: 'tell the men to fire faster. fight 'til she sinks, boys. don't give up the ship.' The Americans lost the battle and were compelled to surrender the Chesapeake, but Lawrence's dying words lived on. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, who is frequently and incorrectly credited with being the source of the phrase, had Lawrence's words - 'don't give up the ship' - stitched onto a battle flag." Perry later coined his own phrase: "We have met the enemy and they are ours."
-British want to capture Baltimore (by way of Washington D.C.)
3) Washington D.C. (August 19, 1814) 6,000 British soldiers burn D.C. (Whitehouse, Capitol) 25 hours; All that protected Washington was Militias who “ran like sheep being chased by dogs” allowing the British to walk in and… eat a dinner that was set up for forty, then burn the Whitehouse to the ground!
Hurricane stops attack! 3) Washington D.C. (August 19, 1814)
They burned the Whitehouse, the Capitol, and even the Library of Congress. Dr. William Thornton (who won the architectural contest to create the Capitol) stood outside the patent office and convinced the British to leave the patent office because they would be destroying inventive science if they destroyed it. While it was spared, The roof was blown off in the coming storm (Hurricane and Tornado!) Dr. William Thornton The blue part shown was all that was constructed of the Capitol during Thornton’s time. 3) Washington D.C. (August 19, 1814)
The troops then turned north down Pennsylvania Avenue toward the President's House. First Lady Dolly Madison remained there after many of the government officials — and her own bodyguard — had already left, gathering valuables, documents and other items of importance, notably the Lansdowne Portrait, a full-length painting of George Washington by Gilbert Stuart. She was finally persuaded to leave moments before British soldiers entered the building. Once inside, the soldiers found the dining hall set for a dinner for 40 people. After eating all the food they took souvenirs then set the building on fire. 3) Washington D.C. (August 19, 1814)
3) Fort McHenry (September 24, 1814) - Americans win in Baltimore (TURNING POINT!) and the Star Spangled Banner is written (Francis Scott Key) Francis Scott Key, a Georgetown lawyer, boarded a British ship to negotiate the release of a captured fried, Dr. William Beanes. The British accepted the release but kept them overnight because they had heard attack plans. Key was so inspired by the events that he wrote a poem about it which eventually turned into our star spangled banner.
In 1813 the commander of Ft. McHenry asked for a flag so big that "the British have no trouble seeing it from a distance." He asked Mary Young Pickersgill to make the flag for him. Her thirteen year old daughter helped her. She used 400 yards of fine wool. They cut 15 stars that were two feet across. There were 8 red and 7 white stripes. The stripes were each two feet wide. When it was finished it measured 30 by 42 feet and cost $405.90. 3) Fort McHenry (September 24, 1814)
The caption reads "A VIEW of the BOMBARDMENT of Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, by the British fleet taken from the Observatory under the Command of Admirals Cochrane & Cockburn on the morning of the 13th of Sept 1814 which lasted 24 hours & thrown from 1500 to 1800 shells in the Night attempted to land by forcing a passage up the ferry branch but were repulsed with great loss." Notice the cow is not interested
Answer! Francis Bellamy, but when it was published Sept 8, 1892 the words “under God” were not in it. They were added June 14, 1954.
4) The Creek Indian Uprising - Indians side with British
4) The Creek Indian Uprising The Fort Mims massacre occurred on 30 August 1813, when a force of Creeks, belonging to the "Red Sticks" faction under the command of Peter McQueen and William Weatherford "Red Eagle", his cousin by marriage, killed hundreds of settlers, mixed-blood Creeks, and militia in Fort Mims. a.Indians conquered Fort Mims, Alabama
4) The Creek Indian Uprising - Davy Crockett and Andrew Jackson defeated the Creek at Horseshoe Bend Although he was admired for being a strong, hard and heroic frontiersman, the obsessive admiration of Davy Crockett was due in large part to his humor. He was charismatic and possessed the mastery of vernacular coupled with common sense that made him a natural storyteller with the power to enthrall his audience and parody his opponents. He served two terms in the Tennessee legislature and was elected to Congress three times. Davy Crockett was born in East Tennessee in 1786, had no formal education, and ran away from home It was his reputation as an Indian fighter and frontiersman that first established his popularity. He used rough, exaggerated images of himself as soldier and hunter to rise to political positions. Davy Crockett was born in East Tennessee in 1786, had no formal education, and ran away from home. Crockett fought under General Andrew Jackson in the Creek War. It was his reputation as an Indian fighter and frontiersman that first established his popularity. He used rough, exaggerated images of himself as soldier and hunter to rise to political positions.
4) The Creek Indian Uprising On March 27, 1814, United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, a part of the Creek Indian tribe inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, effectively ending the Creek War.
4) The Creek Indian Uprising Sam Houston (the future governor of Tennessee and Texas) served as a third lieutenant in Jackson's army. Houston was one of the first to make it over the log barricade alive and received a wound from a Creek arrow that troubled him the rest of his life.
4) The Creek Indian Uprising Depiction of William Weatherford surrendering to Andrew Jackson after the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Jackson was so impressed with Weatherford's boldness that he let him go. - This allows for safer U.S. settlement in the Southwest! Andrew Jackson forced the Creeks to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson. Despite protest of the Creek chiefs who had fought alongside Jackson, the Creek Nation ceded 23 million acres (93,000 km²)—half of Alabama and part of southern Georgia—to the United States government. Even though the Creek War was largely a civil war between the Creeks, Andrew Jackson saw no difference between the Creeks that had fought with him and the Red Sticks that fought against him.
5) The Battle of New Orleans (January 5, 1815) 5) The Battle of New Orleans (January 5, 1815)
a) Fought 2 weeks after Treaty of Ghent (Signed Dec 24, 1814; settled nothing) (Signed Dec 24, 1814; settled nothing) 5) The Battle of New Orleans (January 5, 1815) 5) The Battle of New Orleans (January 5, 1815)
United States forces at the time of the Battle of New Orleans were much smaller--somewhere between 3,500 and 5,000. This detachment was composed of United States army troops; Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Louisiana militia; Baratarian pirates; Choctaw warriors; and free black soldiers. Britain sent between 11,000 and 14,450 troops under the command of Major General Sir Edward Pakenham to fight in the Louisiana campaign.
b) Andrew Jackson dominates (2,000 British casualties, U.S. about 73 casualties)
c) Gives U.S. Complete Control of Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico to the U.S. Andrew Jackson, United States General, above had soldiers dig ditches to fight from. The attack began under a heavy fog, but as the British neared the main enemy line, the fog suddenly lifted, exposing them to withering artillery fire. The British, armed only with muskets effective at close range, tried to close the gap, but discovered that the ladders needed to cross a canal and scale the earthworks had been forgotten. As a result, most of their senior officers were killed or wounded, and the British infantry could do nothing but stand in the open and be mown down by a combination of musket fire and grapeshot from the Americans. General Andrew Jackson (later to be President of the U.S.A.) made his stand behind the Rodriguez Canal 5 miles from New Orleans. Across his mile-long front he built, out of cotton bales and sugar casks filled with earth, a parapet twenty feet deep with a short glacis sloping down to the canal bank; 5) The Battle of New Orleans (January 5, 1815) 5) The Battle of New Orleans (January 5, 1815)