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SW-PBS in High Schools Supplemental Resources With resources from: Sugai, Horner, George, Borgmeier, Flannery, High Schools Implementing Across the Country,

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Presentation on theme: "SW-PBS in High Schools Supplemental Resources With resources from: Sugai, Horner, George, Borgmeier, Flannery, High Schools Implementing Across the Country,"— Presentation transcript:

1 SW-PBS in High Schools Supplemental Resources With resources from: Sugai, Horner, George, Borgmeier, Flannery, High Schools Implementing Across the Country, etc.

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3 3 High Schools’ Concerns… Low academic achievement Antisocial school culture & behavior –Insubordination, dress code, language use, etc –Low attendance, tardies, substance use –Withdrawal, depression, emotional disturbances –Dropping out, substance use, delinquency Graduation, careers, postsecondary Social skill deficits

4 “Reinventing” What & How We Teach: The New 3 “R’s” for the 21 st Century RIGOR  High standards, content level and instruction  Meeting needs of all students  Focus on increasing student achievement  Preparing students for post-secondary education, careers, life RELEVANCE  Helping students to understand why something is important to learn  Fostering curiosity & life-long learning by providing students opportunities to explore learning that is personally relevant to them RELATIONSHIPS/RESPECT  Students won’t learn or work hard for teachers who do not respect them  You can’t motivate a student you don’t know Tony Wagner National High School Alliance

5 5 Predictable Reactive Responses When we experience aversive situation, we select interventions that produce immediate relief by –Removing student –Removing ourselves –Modifying physical environment –Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others

6 6 Assumptions Adolescents should know better…most do Adolescent will “get it” & change…many do Adolescents must take responsibility for own behavior….most know they should & do….appropriately & inappropriately Punishment teaches right way….not really Parents will take care of it…many try Adolescents will learn from natural consequences….most do WHAT ABOUT NON-RESPONDERS?

7 7 So…How should we respond? Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001) Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003) Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006) White House Conference on School Violence (2006) Positive, predictable school-wide climate High rates of academic & social success Formal social skills instruction Positive active supervision & reinforcement Positive adult role models Multi-component, multi-year school- family-community effort

8 8 PBS: How High Schools Differ School size varies Teachers see role as teaching behavior and academics Targeted behaviors are reflected in office referrals Teacher-student relationships are easily formed Easier to shape student behavior Outcome is educational gradual progress Larger numbers of students and staff – Hierarchical management Teachers see role as teaching academics- content focused Targeted behaviors are reflected in attendance, performance, and office referrals Impersonal atmosphere – lack of shared responsibility Expectation of adult behavior Outcome is educational mastery and competitive achievement – end outcomes Student responsibilities: jobs, family In General In High School

9 9 High School DVD: Chapter 3

10 10 Teaming

11 11 Administrative Leadership Be Knowledgeable & Involved Inspire and promote a shared vision Acknowledge that change is hard Play an active and visible role –Lip service won’t cut it; be an active team member –Model PBS philosophy & practice with staff as well as students –Teach, redirect, reinforce –Mindset & action is consistent with prevention & capacity building, instead of monitoring and control Get other administrators up to speed & involved

12 12 The High School PBS Core Team Team members should be highly regarded and motivated staff All members of core team must be knowledgeable and engaged –Willing to talk about PBS to other staff members –Have time & ability to take on tasks to support initiatives –Diversify personal strengths Clear expectations for what team is to do Team membership mostly stable from year to year

13 13 Preparing for Success Reallocate resources Schedule a common planning time Data is accurate & up to date Core team meetings are a priority Plan for faculty & student input Be willing to listen & explore conflict Start with small concrete goals

14 14 High School DVD: Chapter 6

15 15 Teaching Expectations and Rules

16 16 Teaching Expectations Include students Use variety of teaching methods Do not rely on role play alone Incorporated into instruction Can include self-determination components Prepare your staff to teach behavior In High School

17 Ideas for Teaching Students Use student leaders, Use Future Educators of America (FEA) to develop strategies Survey students for suggestions & concerns Use clips from popular movies Pilot with a small group of students Different lesson plans for upperclassman vs. lower During advisory, homeroom, study hall Independent student analysis of scenarios, classroom discussion with products, bell work Student must developed product covering Student Code of Conduct (PowerPoint, video, poster, examples & non-examples Art contests, “Graffti” wall Scavenger hunts Rolling video across TV screens, online modules

18 18 Working with Subject Areas Task force to ID specific ways expectations can be worked into existing curricula –Language arts, civics, social studies, statistics, general science, media –Solicit embedding ideas from all faculty and students Make it easy for the rest of the faculty Prepare your staff to teach behavior Get their impressions of the lessons afterwards, too Use homeroom, study hall, before/after school waiting areas; consider adding social skills class to schedule –Emphasize time saved with appropriate behavior

19 19 A High School Kick Off Timeline Prior to the opening of school: Parents and Freshman/New Students invited to rotational meetings for academic & behavioral expectations First three days of school: Orientation for returning teachers, new teachers, cafeteria staff, security guards, etc. When school starts: Separate assembly for freshman; sophomores-seniors have refresher orientation

20 20 Folder: Teaching Appropriate Behavior Variety of Lesson Plans (over 50) Respect Responsibility Readiness Student Code of Conduct Social Injustice Goal Setting Appropriate Language Acceptance Anti-Bullying Optimism

21 21 “Chuck Chuckerson” Video

22 22 Rewarding Students

23 23 Recognizing Students for Meeting Behavioral Expectations Rules vary across multiple settings Students may contact many more staff on a daily basis Behaviors of concern differ (attendance, tardy, etc.) Rewards must be valued – HS students do like “hokey” things! Do not try to solve academic deficiencies with behavioral rewards In High School

24 24 To Reward, or Not To Reward? Increase the likelihood that students will behave Teaching tool Increase opportunities to build positive adult- student relationships, create positive climate Encourage students to “take the next step” Counteract negative peer influences Shape intrinsic motivation

25 25 “PBS requires schools to use token economies”

26 26 Token Economies Benefits Fast & Efficient feedback Flexible Bridge to long-term reward Drawbacks Logistics can be intimidating Counterfeiting worries Faculty buy-in

27 27

28 28

29 School-Wide Behavior Bingo Be Respectful Be Responsible Be Ready to Learn Homeroom Class 1 Class 2 Lunch Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 Class 6

30 30 High School Reward Programs Tickets/tokens Stamps Bingo Cards Phone calls home “Fast passes” for cafeteria Tickets to school sporting events Parking spaces Dances

31 31 High School Reward Programs Buy back a tardy Shadow a teacher/administrator for a day Silent auction during lunch VIP/Hospitality Room at special events Preferred Parking Pass Music played over loudspeaker between classes Faculty/student sports competition Go to/Get out of Pep Rally Tailgating Party Seat Cushions

32 32 Rewarding Staff Earn Dollars to be redeemed for: Free Lunch Duty Free Week No Bus Duty No Morning Duty Extra Planning Period Wear Jeans Get Out of Pep Rally

33 33 Other Ways to Reward Staff (Teachers hated attending pep rallies) Homecoming Week: –Every teacher attending rally had name placed into drawing –5 Winners received gift certificate to Denny’s –Additional recognition in newsletter Class of the week: –Identified through administrator walk-throughs –One class per week nominated, based on outstanding instruction, student behavior and student work. –Announced on Wolf-TV and presented with a framed certificate pronouncing them Class of the Week.

34 34 Still More to Consider… Web Resources: –Ideas for Free Incentives: http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/revision07/schoolwide/schoolexamples/ Rewards-Incentives/Ideas%20for%20Free%20Incentives.pdf http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/revision07/schoolwide/schoolexamples/ Rewards-Incentives/Ideas%20for%20Free%20Incentives.pdf –Increasing the Effectiveness of Reward Systems (non-token economy based): http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/revision07/schoolwide/schoolexamples/ Rewards- Incentives/Increasing%20the%20Effectiveness%20of%20Rewa rd%20Systems.pdf http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/revision07/schoolwide/schoolexamples/ Rewards- Incentives/Increasing%20the%20Effectiveness%20of%20Rewa rd%20Systems.pdf –Add Laura Riffel Ideas

35 35 Folder: School-Wide Reward Systems Positive Student Referral Reinforcement Planning Matrix Celebration Survey Reward Procedures Rationale for Acknowledging Students Viking of the Month List of Non-Cost Reinforcement Ideas

36 36 PBS DVD Rewarding Staff

37 37 Effective Discipline Procedures a)Definitions b)Office Discipline Referral Forms c)Developing a Coherent Office Discipline Referral Process d)Developing Effective Responses to Problem Behavior

38 38 Responding to Problem Behavior Office vs. Class vs. Dean vs. Security must be clear Consistency is difficult (teacher and administrator) Do not forget tardies- attendance Prepare your staff to redirect not confront/ combat students See Negative Consequences Examples from Folder In High School

39 39 Establish a Philosophy Prepare your staff to redirect, not confront or combat students Shift in mindset from monitoring & control to prevention & capacity building Kids want to succeed, adults want to help them be successful Evaluate the values reflected in your current discipline policies “3 Strikes & You’re Out” doesn’t help kids graduate See Negative Consequences Examples from Folder

40 40 Thinking Outside the Box Loss of Privileges (temporary) Parking Participating sports, clubs, productions, etc. Academic Web-Based ISS Mini-modules Student studies (often independently) a specific topic Combination of videos, readings, research, etc. YouTube, popular movies, TV shows, etc… Blackboard, Illuminate, I-Tunes, etc… Consider a test on the content of the course

41 41 Thinking Outside the Box Community Service/Service Learning Behavior Contracts Restitution Restorative Justice Peer Mediation/Teen Court Referral to Community Agencies/Diversion Programs “New and Improved” ISS, Saturday School, Detentions Back Pack Club

42 42 Folder: Effective Discipline Procedures Staff Incident Reports Lansdowne High Flowchart Negative Consequence Examples

43 43 Implementation

44 44 Pre-Training Steps Administrator must express buy-in Identify volunteers for team – May or may not have staff representation Form team Team identifies areas to target in upcoming year – Buy-in, specific setting, parent support – Use data Formulate implementation plan

45 45 Universal Leadership Teams Facilitate buy-in – may be difficult across grades, learning communities, departments Size and distribution of leadership Utilize departmental structures Account for diverse philosophies of education In High School

46 46 Staff and Student Participation In High School Challenges Staff expectations for teaching academics Staff expectations concerning discipline Behavioral data are not public and values Differences in personal, political views Staff understanding of SWPBS Use data, stories from other high schools, pilots within your school Student involvement Consider student team or student members on the core team Student leaders should be given public roles

47 47 Student and Parent Involvement Student buy-in will change faculty behavior – Build student involvement: student PBS team – Student leaders should be given public roles Parental support will foster relationships between school, students, and faculty –Greater support for administrative and faculty decisions Get input and make changes based on results

48 48 Building Staff Buy-In In High School Main focus of activities prior to training May take a year or longer to obtain 80% Ensure involvement of all stakeholders – Parents – Students

49 49 Build Staff Buy-In Prior to Implementation Main focus of activities prior to training May take a year or longer to obtain consensus Start with pre-implementation surveys: –what works/ what doesn’t –what are the school’s perceived priorities Ensure involvement of all stakeholders –Parents –Students

50 50 Handout

51 Buy-In During Implementation Start small (biggest bang for your buck) Have an implementation plan Team meetings Weekly, monthly rewards Least amount of work for faculty Focus on one setting or behavior Use data to determine starting point Small reward component Have baseline data Make it clear & easy Reward staff behavior Share outcome data and celebrate success Survey staff AND make changes based on survey results

52 52 Buy-In Strategy Do the “Data Walk” –Post graphs of different kinds of data around the room (demographics, attendance, classroom, achievement, kids re-taking courses, time in counselors’ offices, climate, graduation, etc…) –Staff walks through in small groups, create hypotheses for a selection of graphs (2-3?) –PBS Team uses ideas in their problem-solving meetings, and during faculty buy-in presentations

53 53 Implementation Strategies Get your heads together –1 year planning to build administrator and faculty buy- in prior to roll-out and training Implement one grade level, hallway, subject area, etc… at a time Develop internal and external PBS Coaches Extended training to accommodate the larger school-based teams Continued and frequent social skills groups across all staff and students

54 54 Ongoing Professional Development is Required PD is tied to data Allocate PD days (full and/or partial) to PBS topics; and/or include PBS in established topics Teachers will need additional info on: –Classroom implementation –Verbal de-escalation –Behavior basics, effective consequences –Activities to build philosophical consensus Be a participant In-service new teachers on SWPBS

55 55 High School DVD: Chapter 4

56 56 High School DVD: Chapter 5

57 57 Folder: Implementing Tier 1 Lebanon High School Teacher Handbook Focusing PBS on Adults Survey High School Top Ten PBS in Florida High Schools Student Voice Project PBS in High Schools: Notes from Video Parent Flyer

58 58 Evaluation

59 59 Emphasize Data Faculty won’t buy into a new practice unless they understand why it’s being implemented (buy-in) Consider different kinds of data: dropouts, re- taking courses, truancy, etc… Use the problem-solving process for behavior and academics - Core team makes recommendations to faculty, they may accept, or amend & implement At least 1-2x/month, look at fidelity & effectiveness (are we doing what we said we would, & is it working?). Identify weak system components

60 60 High School DVD: Chapter 8

61 61 Folder: Evaluation PBS Newsletter Developing Early Warning Systems to Identify Potential High School Dropouts Another piece of data to analyze Is Tier 1 having a positive impact on students who are at-risk for dropping out? Students who may need more than Tier 1

62 62 Classroom PBS

63 63 Classroom Management Prepare staff Discipline with dignity Pre-teach, teach and re-teach Effective use of humor In High School

64 64 High School Articles HIGH SCHOOL SWPBS IMPLEMENTATION: Bohanon, H., Eber, L., Flannery, B., & Fenning, P. (2007). Identifying a roadmap of support for secondary students in school-wide positive behavior support applications. International Journal of Special Education, 22(1), 39-59. SECONDARY/CLASSROOM SUPPORTS IN HIGH SCHOOLS: Moroz, K., Fenning, P., & Bohanon, (under review) The Effects of guided practice, publicly posted feedback, goal setting, and acknowledgement on classroom tardies in an urban high school implementing school wide positive behavioral supports. HIGH SCHOOL DISCIPLINE POLICIES AND PBS: Fenning, P., Golomb, S., Gordon, V., Kelly, M., Scheinfield, R., Banull, C. et al. (in press). Written discipline policies used by administrators: Do we have sufficient tools of the trade? Journal of School Violence.

65 65 Before Getting to Work…

66 66 High School DVD: Chapter 12

67 67 Windsor High School DVD


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