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和魂洋才と国際化 Wakon-Yosai ‘Japanese Spirit, Western Learning’ and Globalization Norio Ota York University Toronto, Canada Hawaii International Conference on.

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Presentation on theme: "和魂洋才と国際化 Wakon-Yosai ‘Japanese Spirit, Western Learning’ and Globalization Norio Ota York University Toronto, Canada Hawaii International Conference on."— Presentation transcript:

1 和魂洋才と国際化 Wakon-Yosai ‘Japanese Spirit, Western Learning’ and Globalization Norio Ota York University Toronto, Canada Hawaii International Conference on Arts and Humanities, 2006

2 Preamble Wakon-Kansai 和魂漢才 ‘Japanese spirit, Chinese learning’ Wakon-Kansai 和魂漢才 ‘Japanese spirit, Chinese learning’ Wakon-Yosai 和魂洋才 ‘Japanese spirit, Western learning’ Wakon-Yosai 和魂洋才 ‘Japanese spirit, Western learning’ Mishima Yukio 三島由紀夫 and his suicide Mishima Yukio 三島由紀夫 and his suicide Bushido 武士道 Bushido 武士道 Chushingura 忠臣蔵 ’47 Ronin’ Chushingura 忠臣蔵 ’47 Ronin’ Wakon-Beisai 和魂米才 ‘Japanese spirit, American learning’ Wakon-Beisai 和魂米才 ‘Japanese spirit, American learning’ Mukon-Musai 無魂無才 ‘No spirit, no learning’ Mukon-Musai 無魂無才 ‘No spirit, no learning’ Wakonn-Wasai 和魂和才 ‘Japanese spirit, Japanese learning’ Wakonn-Wasai 和魂和才 ‘Japanese spirit, Japanese learning’ Wakon-Mansai 和魂満才 ‘Japanese spirit, all learning’ Wakon-Mansai 和魂満才 ‘Japanese spirit, all learning’

3 Background Wakon-Kansai  Wakon-Yosai Wakon-Kansai  Wakon-Yosai What is Wakon? What is Wakon? Kurofune – 2 nd Kurofune globalization Kurofune – 2 nd Kurofune globalization Fukuzawa Yukichi 福沢諭吉, Okakura Tenshin 岡倉天心, Uchimura Kanzo 内村鑑三, Nitobe Inazou 新渡戸稲造, Kuki Shuzo 九鬼周造, and Suzuki Daisetsu 鈴木大拙 Fukuzawa Yukichi 福沢諭吉, Okakura Tenshin 岡倉天心, Uchimura Kanzo 内村鑑三, Nitobe Inazou 新渡戸稲造, Kuki Shuzo 九鬼周造, and Suzuki Daisetsu 鈴木大拙 Translation-ism 翻訳主義 Translation-ism 翻訳主義 Ogyuu Sorai 荻生徂徠 Yakubun-sentei 「訳文荃蹄」 Ogyuu Sorai 荻生徂徠 Yakubun-sentei 「訳文荃蹄」 和臭 ‘Japanism’ 和臭 ‘Japanism’ Fukuzawa Yukichi’s isshin-nishou 一身二生 ‘one body two lives’ Fukuzawa Yukichi’s isshin-nishou 一身二生 ‘one body two lives’ Karl Löwith: completely separate dual life style of Japanese scholars Karl Löwith: completely separate dual life style of Japanese scholars

4 Wakon-Kansai tradition Ito Jinsai 伊藤仁斎 ( ) Ito Jinsai 伊藤仁斎 ( ) Ogyu Sorai 荻生徂徠 ( ) Ogyu Sorai 荻生徂徠 ( ) Ishida Baigan 石田梅岩 ( ) Ishida Baigan 石田梅岩 ( ) Tominaga Nakamoto 富永仲基 Tominaga Nakamoto 富永仲基 principles of kajo 加上 ‘newer research tends to look at older sources than the previous research’ principles of kajo 加上 ‘newer research tends to look at older sources than the previous research’ 異部名字難必和會 ‘it is impossible to harmonize various theories to get to the one truth’ 異部名字難必和會 ‘it is impossible to harmonize various theories to get to the one truth’ Naito Torajiro 内藤虎次郎 「日本文化史研究」 Naito Torajiro 内藤虎次郎 「日本文化史研究」 China’s response 中体西用 in 洋務運動 China’s response 中体西用 in 洋務運動

5 Early wakon-yosai tradition Mori Senzo 森銑三 “Oranda Shogatsu” 「オランダ正 月」 Mori Senzo 森銑三 “Oranda Shogatsu” 「オランダ正 月」 Suminokura Ryoi 角倉了以・ Kawamura Zuiken 川村瑞賢・ Suminokura Ryoi 角倉了以・ Kawamura Zuiken 川村瑞賢・ Tanaka Kyugu 田中丘隅・ Aoki Konyo 青木昆陽・ Tanaka Kyugu 田中丘隅・ Aoki Konyo 青木昆陽・ Yamawaki Toyo 山脇東洋・ Maeno Ranka 前野蘭化・ Yamawaki Toyo 山脇東洋・ Maeno Ranka 前野蘭化・ Sugita Genpaku 杉田玄白・ Hiraga Gennai 平賀源内・ Sugita Genpaku 杉田玄白・ Hiraga Gennai 平賀源内・ Ito Tadanobu 伊藤忠敬・ Katsuragawa Hoshu 桂川甫周・ Ito Tadanobu 伊藤忠敬・ Katsuragawa Hoshu 桂川甫周・ Mogami Tokunai 最上徳内・ Otsuki Bansui 大槻磐水・ Mogami Tokunai 最上徳内・ Otsuki Bansui 大槻磐水・ Inamura Sanpaku 稲村三伯・ Hoashi Banri 帆足万里・ Inamura Sanpaku 稲村三伯・ Hoashi Banri 帆足万里・ Mamiya Rinzo 間宮林蔵・ Takano Choei 高野長英・ Mamiya Rinzo 間宮林蔵・ Takano Choei 高野長英・ Sakuma Shozan 佐久間象山 Sakuma Shozan 佐久間象山 Seki Takakazu 関孝和 Wakon-Wasai ? Seki Takakazu 関孝和 Wakon-Wasai ?

6 Modern period Takeda Kiyoko 武田清子「土着と背教」 ‘Naturalization and Renegation’ Takeda Kiyoko 武田清子「土着と背教」 ‘Naturalization and Renegation’ Acculturation type 埋没型 Acculturation type 埋没型 Isolation type 孤立型 Isolation type 孤立型 Renegation type 背教型-有島武郎 Renegation type 背教型-有島武郎 Competitive or prophetic type 対決型・預言者型-内村鑑三 Competitive or prophetic type 対決型・預言者型-内村鑑三 Grafting type 接ぎ木型-新渡戸稲造 Grafting type 接ぎ木型-新渡戸稲造 Fukuzawa Yukichi 福沢諭吉 「学問のすすめ」 Encouraging to study Fukuzawa Yukichi 福沢諭吉 「学問のすすめ」 Encouraging to study Uchimura Kanzo 内村鑑三 Christianity Uchimura Kanzo 内村鑑三 Christianity Nitobe Inazo 新渡戸稲造 「武士道」 Bushido Nitobe Inazo 新渡戸稲造 「武士道」 Bushido Okakura Tenshin 岡倉天心 「茶の本」 Tea Okakura Tenshin 岡倉天心 「茶の本」 Tea Kuki Shuzo 九鬼周造 「いきの構造」 Structure of IKI Kuki Shuzo 九鬼周造 「いきの構造」 Structure of IKI Suzuki Daisetsu 鈴木大拙 禅 Zen Suzuki Daisetsu 鈴木大拙 禅 Zen Datsua-nyuuou 脱亜入欧 ‘leave Asia and join Europe’ Datsua-nyuuou 脱亜入欧 ‘leave Asia and join Europe’

7 After WWII Kokutai 国体 ‘national polity’ Kokutai 国体 ‘national polity’ Wakon-Beisai 和魂米才 ‘Japanese spirit, American learning’ Wakon-Beisai 和魂米才 ‘Japanese spirit, American learning’ Wakon 和魂 - Chushingura 忠臣蔵 ’47 Ronin’ Wakon 和魂 - Chushingura 忠臣蔵 ’47 Ronin’ Bubble Economy Bubble Economy Japan as No. 1 Japan as No. 1 Collapse of the communist bloc Collapse of the communist bloc Loss of self-confidence Loss of self-confidence Return to Asia Return to Asia

8 Era of globalization Japan’s second sakoku 鎖国 ‘national isolation’ Japan’s second sakoku 鎖国 ‘national isolation’ The 9th Central Education Council general meeting The 9th Central Education Council general meeting ‘Wakon-yosai is talked about, but in the world of academia wa is pushed by yoo, and has atrophied. However, the philosophy of wa, such as irrationality and transience, is also inevitable, ….’

9 Era of globalization (cont.) Marubeni Corporation exports the wakon-yosai approach to South Africa. Marubeni Corporation exports the wakon-yosai approach to South Africa. ‘Africans are making renewed efforts to harmonizing their culture with western culture, at the same time that they are arguing for the necessity of recovering African­-ism and self-respect. In those efforts, Japanese culture such as wakon-yosai appears very fresh to them, and the role of Japan seems gradually to become clear.’ ‘Africans are making renewed efforts to harmonizing their culture with western culture, at the same time that they are arguing for the necessity of recovering African­-ism and self-respect. In those efforts, Japanese culture such as wakon-yosai appears very fresh to them, and the role of Japan seems gradually to become clear.’ JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) also considers that Japan’s accumulated knowledge regarding wakon-yosai should be a part of financial cooperation with the recipient countries. JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) also considers that Japan’s accumulated knowledge regarding wakon-yosai should be a part of financial cooperation with the recipient countries. A more eclectic view of wakon-yosai, taking good from both, has been promoted by some schools and businesses such as Shiseido. A more eclectic view of wakon-yosai, taking good from both, has been promoted by some schools and businesses such as Shiseido.Shiseido

10 Global nature of Japanese culture Japanese culture possesses global characteristics Japanese culture possesses global characteristics Hasegawa Nyozekan 長谷川如是閑 (1938) Hasegawa Nyozekan 長谷川如是閑 (1938) Keichu 契沖 ・ Kamo no Mabuchi 賀茂真淵 ・ Motoori Norinaga 本居宣長 Keichu 契沖 ・ Kamo no Mabuchi 賀茂真淵 ・ Motoori Norinaga 本居宣長 re-examined Japanese characteristics by distinguishing between the influences re-examined Japanese characteristics by distinguishing between the influences of Buddhism and Confucianism, in order to find a spiritual basis for a new united nation of Buddhism and Confucianism, in order to find a spiritual basis for a new united nation ‘universal nature of Japanese culture’ ‘universal nature of Japanese culture’ Japanese national characteristics - harmonizing all conflicting factors by Japanese national characteristics - harmonizing all conflicting factors by finding common denominators finding common denominators Yamazaki Masakazu 山崎正和 (1990) Yamazaki Masakazu 山崎正和 (1990) ‘universal nature’ of Japanese culture ‘universal nature’ of Japanese culture interaction between the ‘ie-system’ in the farmer class and the warrior class, and individualism in the merchant class, which have co-existed since the end of the Muromachi Era; this dual nature has played an important role throughout the pre- modern and modern periods interaction between the ‘ie-system’ in the farmer class and the warrior class, and individualism in the merchant class, which have co-existed since the end of the Muromachi Era; this dual nature has played an important role throughout the pre- modern and modern periods

11 Critics of Wakon-Yosai Pros & Cons Pros & Cons Motto: schools, universities Motto: schools, universities Eclecticism between Japanese culture and western culture : Businesses – Shiseido, advertisements for housing Eclecticism between Japanese culture and western culture : Businesses – Shiseido, advertisements for housing Strategy: JICA - a model strategy for under-developing countries to adopt Strategy: JICA - a model strategy for under-developing countries to adopt Served to promote Japanese ultra-nationalism, and led Japan to its defeat in WWII Served to promote Japanese ultra-nationalism, and led Japan to its defeat in WWII Post-war: periodwakon-beisai 和魂米才 ‘Japanese spirit, American learning’, Post-war: periodwakon-beisai 和魂米才 ‘Japanese spirit, American learning’, mukon-musai 無魂無才 ‘no spirit, no learning’, Wakon-mansai 和魂満才 in the era of globalization mukon-musai 無魂無才 ‘no spirit, no learning’, Wakon-mansai 和魂満才 in the era of globalization Anime and film genre: Miyazaki Hayao’s ‘Spirited Away’, ‘The Last Samurai’ (a case of beikon-wasai?) - ghost of bushido ? Anime and film genre: Miyazaki Hayao’s ‘Spirited Away’, ‘The Last Samurai’ (a case of beikon-wasai?) - ghost of bushido ? Views (overseas) Views (overseas) North America - Bushido, Zen, Shintoism, Buddhism, Chanoyu, Haiku, Ikebana, Kurosawa Akira, Mishima Yukio, Tanizaki Jun’ichiro, Abe Kobo - western scholars’ understanding of wakon (recycled among students) North America - Bushido, Zen, Shintoism, Buddhism, Chanoyu, Haiku, Ikebana, Kurosawa Akira, Mishima Yukio, Tanizaki Jun’ichiro, Abe Kobo - western scholars’ understanding of wakon (recycled among students) Asian scholars’ (China, Korea, the Philippines, Vietnam) - different understandings of wakon and Japan’s wakon-yosai tradition Asian scholars’ (China, Korea, the Philippines, Vietnam) - different understandings of wakon and Japan’s wakon-yosai tradition Chukon-yosai, chukon-wasai, kankon-yosai, kankon-wasai ? Chukon-yosai, chukon-wasai, kankon-yosai, kankon-wasai ? Canadian multicultural context - first generation immigrants adopt kasai with their cultural spirit, and disseminate their newly-created identities through their communities. The Chushingura mentality, the essence of wakon was still prevalent among Japanese in Japan, and also preserved strongly among Japanese-Canadians (Ota, 2003). Canadian multicultural context - first generation immigrants adopt kasai with their cultural spirit, and disseminate their newly-created identities through their communities. The Chushingura mentality, the essence of wakon was still prevalent among Japanese in Japan, and also preserved strongly among Japanese-Canadians (Ota, 2003).

12 ‘Allergic’ reaction to Christianity ? To put this issue into a personal context, like 山崎 Yamazaki I have been advocating some global nature of Japanese culture, based on my strong criticism of the mistakes Japan made and has been making until now. In my attempt to understand yokon as suggested by 福澤 Fukuzawa, religion is the largest hurdle. This seems to be a common tradition since Arai Hakuseki 新井白石、 when he interviewed Giovanni Battista Sidotti シドッチ in the Edo Era. 川喜 多 Kawakita states: ‘As a result, we Japanese have lost the ability to comprehend all religious phenomena. Nor are we even trying to understand them.’ (Kawakita, 76) He points out that this is the result of overemphasizing the communalist (group-oriented) tradition over Buddhist tradition (individualism), and suggests that Japanese should reexamine the latter. The wakon-yosai tradition seems to have been hampered strongly by Japanese ‘allergic’ reaction to Christianity. 内村 Uchimura and 新渡戸 Nitobe went far beyond by becoming Christians and probably understood yokon more deeply, but that fact could have been one of the reasons why their ideals were not accepted widely. To put this issue into a personal context, like 山崎 Yamazaki I have been advocating some global nature of Japanese culture, based on my strong criticism of the mistakes Japan made and has been making until now. In my attempt to understand yokon as suggested by 福澤 Fukuzawa, religion is the largest hurdle. This seems to be a common tradition since Arai Hakuseki 新井白石、 when he interviewed Giovanni Battista Sidotti シドッチ in the Edo Era. 川喜 多 Kawakita states: ‘As a result, we Japanese have lost the ability to comprehend all religious phenomena. Nor are we even trying to understand them.’ (Kawakita, 76) He points out that this is the result of overemphasizing the communalist (group-oriented) tradition over Buddhist tradition (individualism), and suggests that Japanese should reexamine the latter. The wakon-yosai tradition seems to have been hampered strongly by Japanese ‘allergic’ reaction to Christianity. 内村 Uchimura and 新渡戸 Nitobe went far beyond by becoming Christians and probably understood yokon more deeply, but that fact could have been one of the reasons why their ideals were not accepted widely.

13 Conclusion Wakon-yosai is not a unique approach for recipient nations of advanced civilization. The problem is, however, that it does not seem to be possible to adopt foreign culture selectively, and still maintain the local spirit intact. Wakon has been constantly changing, being influenced by kansai or yosai. Wakon-yosai is not a unique approach for recipient nations of advanced civilization. The problem is, however, that it does not seem to be possible to adopt foreign culture selectively, and still maintain the local spirit intact. Wakon has been constantly changing, being influenced by kansai or yosai. In the traditional view, wakon and yosai were separate and not interactive. A more dynamic view is required in an age of globalization. Yosai always influences wakon because yosai comes with yokon. Rather than taking a passive view, it is necessary for Japanese scholars to learn yokon vigorously, as Fukuzawa suggested, and develop wakon as a dynamically and continuously changing entity. Globalization requires wakon-wasai and yokon- yosai constantly interacting with each other to deepen an understanding of the world with the synergistic effects of both. In the traditional view, wakon and yosai were separate and not interactive. A more dynamic view is required in an age of globalization. Yosai always influences wakon because yosai comes with yokon. Rather than taking a passive view, it is necessary for Japanese scholars to learn yokon vigorously, as Fukuzawa suggested, and develop wakon as a dynamically and continuously changing entity. Globalization requires wakon-wasai and yokon- yosai constantly interacting with each other to deepen an understanding of the world with the synergistic effects of both. I would like to conclude my presentation with a personal episode. I would like to conclude my presentation with a personal episode. When I read Reginald Bibby’s Mosaic Madness for the first time, I was indeed surprised to find he had written almost everything that I had been thinking about Canadian multiculturalism. I disagreed only on some issues of religion. As a result, I translated this book into Japanese with my colleague in Japan; I found it amazing that two persons from entirely different backgrounds could share almost the same opinions on various issues. I regard this as a result of the more dynamic model of the wakon-yosai approach. When I read Reginald Bibby’s Mosaic Madness for the first time, I was indeed surprised to find he had written almost everything that I had been thinking about Canadian multiculturalism. I disagreed only on some issues of religion. As a result, I translated this book into Japanese with my colleague in Japan; I found it amazing that two persons from entirely different backgrounds could share almost the same opinions on various issues. I regard this as a result of the more dynamic model of the wakon-yosai approach.

14 References Bibby, Reginald (1990) Mosaic Madness, Stoddart. Bibby, Reginald (1990) Mosaic Madness, Stoddart. 土居健郎 (1990) 「信仰と『甘え』」春秋社 土居健郎 (1990) 「信仰と『甘え』」春秋社 福沢諭吉( 1942 )「学問のすゝめ」岩波文庫 福沢諭吉( 1942 )「学問のすゝめ」岩波文庫 長谷川如是閑 (1938) 「日本的性格」岩波新書 長谷川如是閑 (1938) 「日本的性格」岩波新書 入江昭( 1995 )「日本とアジア-百年の重み」世界 1995 二月号 入江昭( 1995 )「日本とアジア-百年の重み」世界 1995 二月号 加藤周一( 1989 )「歴史と人間-昭和を考える」世界 1989 一月号 加藤周一( 1989 )「歴史と人間-昭和を考える」世界 1989 一月号 賀茂真淵( 1941 )「語意・書意」(松田好夫校訂)岩波文庫 賀茂真淵( 1941 )「語意・書意」(松田好夫校訂)岩波文庫 河原直人( 2004 )「我が国の医療史における価値の変遷について」 河原直人( 2004 )「我が国の医療史における価値の変遷について」 川喜多二郎( 1973 )「日本文化探検」講談社文庫 川喜多二郎( 1973 )「日本文化探検」講談社文庫 姜尚中・吉見俊哉( 1999 )「混成化社会への挑戦-グローバル化のなかの公 共空間をもとめて」第一回「グローバル化の遠近法」世界 1999 六月号 姜尚中・吉見俊哉( 1999 )「混成化社会への挑戦-グローバル化のなかの公 共空間をもとめて」第一回「グローバル化の遠近法」世界 1999 六月号 九鬼周造 (1979) 「『いき』の構造」岩波文庫 九鬼周造 (1979) 「『いき』の構造」岩波文庫 小関彰一( 1995 )「新憲法の誕生」中公文庫 小関彰一( 1995 )「新憲法の誕生」中公文庫 服部之総( 1963 )「黒船前後」世界教養全集 17 平凡社 服部之総( 1963 )「黒船前後」世界教養全集 17 平凡社 藤澤令夫( 2004 )西洋古典叢書編集の辞 藤澤令夫( 2004 )西洋古典叢書編集の辞

15 References (cont.) ルイス・フロイス( 1991 )「ヨーロッパ文化と日本文化」(岡田章雄訳注) 岩波文庫 ルイス・フロイス( 1991 )「ヨーロッパ文化と日本文化」(岡田章雄訳注) 岩波文庫 Leclerc, Richard & Claude Roberge (1997) “Footsteps of the Quebec Missionaries in Japan ( 日本におけるケベック宣教団の足跡 )” Leclerc, Richard & Claude Roberge (1997) “Footsteps of the Quebec Missionaries in Japan ( 日本におけるケベック宣教団の足跡 )” 松岡正剛( 2002 )書評 平川祐弘( 1989 )「和魂洋才の系譜」河出書房新 社 松岡正剛( 2002 )書評 平川祐弘( 1989 )「和魂洋才の系譜」河出書房新 社 丸山真男( 1961 )「日本の思想」岩波新書 丸山真男( 1961 )「日本の思想」岩波新書 丸山真男・加藤周一 (1998) 「翻訳と日本の近代」岩波新書 丸山真男・加藤周一 (1998) 「翻訳と日本の近代」岩波新書 丸山真男( 1998 )「忠誠と反逆‐転換期日本の精神的位相」ちくま学芸文庫 丸山真男( 1998 )「忠誠と反逆‐転換期日本の精神的位相」ちくま学芸文庫 森銑三( 1963 )「おらんだ正月」世界教養全集 17 平凡社 森銑三( 1963 )「おらんだ正月」世界教養全集 17 平凡社 内藤虎次郎 (1925) 「大阪の町人學者富永仲基」 内藤虎次郎 (1925) 「大阪の町人學者富永仲基」 内藤虎次郎( 1963 )「日本文化史研究」世界教養全集 17 平凡社 内藤虎次郎( 1963 )「日本文化史研究」世界教養全集 17 平凡社 名取多嘉雄( 1982 )「和魂対洋魂 ― 明治期のおける宣教師たちの苦悩」 名取多嘉雄( 1982 )「和魂対洋魂 ― 明治期のおける宣教師たちの苦悩」 Nitobe Inazo (1905) Bushido Nitobe Inazo (1905) Bushido

16 Reference (cont.) Ota, Norio (2003) ‘What is Chushingura to current Japan?’, panel presentation, JCCC. Toronto. Ota, Norio (2003) ‘What is Chushingura to current Japan?’, panel presentation, JCCC. Toronto. __________(2005) ‘Wakon-Yosai (Japanese spirit, Western learning) and Globalization’, in WHY JAPAN MATTERS!, edited by Joseph F. Kess and Helen Lansdowne, Centre for Asia-Pacific Initiatives, University of Victoria, B.C. __________(2005) ‘Wakon-Yosai (Japanese spirit, Western learning) and Globalization’, in WHY JAPAN MATTERS!, edited by Joseph F. Kess and Helen Lansdowne, Centre for Asia-Pacific Initiatives, University of Victoria, B.C. 太田原高昭( 2002 )「内村鑑三と新渡戸稲造」 太田原高昭( 2002 )「内村鑑三と新渡戸稲造」 岡倉覚三( 1929 )「茶の本」(村岡博訳)岩波文庫 岡倉覚三( 1929 )「茶の本」(村岡博訳)岩波文庫 佐伯彰一( 1990 )「近代日本の自伝」中央文庫 佐伯彰一( 1990 )「近代日本の自伝」中央文庫 清水正之「感性の来歴-日本での科学技術受容の思想史から」 清水正之「感性の来歴-日本での科学技術受容の思想史から」 進藤宗幸・佐々木毅・武田清子・亀井俊介・西川潤( 1988 )「明治 120 年と 『国際化』-ナショナリズムの過去・現在・近未来」世界 1988 四月号 進藤宗幸・佐々木毅・武田清子・亀井俊介・西川潤( 1988 )「明治 120 年と 『国際化』-ナショナリズムの過去・現在・近未来」世界 1988 四月号 杉田玄白( 1963 )「蘭学事始」世界教養全集 17 平凡社 杉田玄白( 1963 )「蘭学事始」世界教養全集 17 平凡社 鈴木大拙( 1940 )「禅と日本文化」(北川桃雄訳)岩波新書 鈴木大拙( 1940 )「禅と日本文化」(北川桃雄訳)岩波新書 和辻哲郎( 1992 )「日本精神史研究」岩波文庫 和辻哲郎( 1992 )「日本精神史研究」岩波文庫 山本博史「自己理解と媒介の不在 ― 曺論文のひとつの読み方 ― 」 山本博史「自己理解と媒介の不在 ― 曺論文のひとつの読み方 ― 」 山崎正和 (1990) 「日本文化と個人主義」中央公論社 山崎正和 (1990) 「日本文化と個人主義」中央公論社


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