Presentation on theme: "The LGBT Movement The history of the movement from Stonewall through Gay Marriage, Gender Identity and Transgender Issues."— Presentation transcript:
The LGBT Movement The history of the movement from Stonewall through Gay Marriage, Gender Identity and Transgender Issues
To start; a few questions… The gay rights movement burst on to the political scene in 1969. Why then? What were the social conditions that fostered the appearance of this new social movement? What gains have this movement made in changing laws and attitudes? How has the movement evolved? What are some of the important debates within it?
LGBT Movement: A Brief History A Definition: “…the formation of durable organizations and community groups that promote a liberal agenda of equal rights and inclusion, premised on a conception of gay men and lesbians as a clearly demarcated social group with a fixed, ethnic-like identity.”
An LGBT Timeline The 1950’s In the 1950’s the Homophile Movement emerged first in New York City, with the Mattachine Society promoting assimilation politics. This is the first appearance of the gay political movement. Although largely unsuccessful, this movement laid the groundwork for the rise of the militant faction of the LGBT Movement.
Timeline (continued…) The 1960’s The 1960’s foster liberal ideas about sexuality. In 1969, three days of rioting ensue when police bust a mobster-run gay club, Stonewall Inn, in Greenwich Village. This is considered the symbolic beginning of the gay movement…
…more timeline… The 1970’s In the 1970’s, the Gay Liberation Front splinters, and is composed of largely white, middle class enclaves. Creation of National Organizations: National Gay Task Force, Gay Rights National Lobby, Human Rights Campaign. The movement attempts going into popular politics; Carter and the Democratic Party fail to push forward gay rights plank.
…even more timeline… The 1980’s Ronald Reagan voted into office for two terms, followed by George H.W. Bush for one term. The rise of the first challenge to the gay rights movement: the New Right (Moral Majority) The emergence of the AIDS epidemic. Reagan, the media, and the New Right label it as the “gay disease”. This galvanizes previously uninvolved gay men into the activist role.
…and last, but not least… The 1990’s The 1990’s social movements include those of racial politics (minorities previously not in movement), sexual expression, and the split between left/right political entities within gay communities. The repealing of gay rights, including the fighting against gay marriage is the most recent obstacle.
Gay Marriage Merriam-Webster Definition of Marriage: 1 a (1) : the state of being united to a person of the opposite sex as husband or wife in a consensual and contractual relationship recognized by law (2) : the state of being united to a person of the same sex in a relationship like that of a traditional marriage b : the mutual relation of married persons : WEDLOCK c : the institution whereby individuals are joined in a marriage 2 : an act of marrying or the rite by which the married status is effected; especially : the wedding ceremony and attendant festivities or formalities Merriam-Webster Definition of Civil Union: the legal status that ensures to same-sex couples specified rights and responsibilities of married couples Merriam-Webster Definition of Domestic Partner: 2 : either one of an unmarried heterosexual or homosexual cohabiting couple especially when considered as to eligibility for spousal benefits
Current Gay Marriage legislation by State There are currently 19 states that have a state constitutional amendment restricting marriage to one man and one woman There are currently 26 states that have a law restricting marriage to one man and one woman Of the above mentioned 45 states 13 of them have a law or amendment that contains language that does currently or could affect other legal relationships between same-sex couples such and civil unions or domestic partnerships There are currently 4 states that have no explicit provision prohibiting marriages between same-sex couples There is currently 1 state that issues marriage licenses to same-sex couples
Marriage VS Civil Union VS Domestic Partnership There are many right that are extended to married persons on both a federal and state level. A few of which are: Next-of-kin status, Joint tax filing, Death and bereavement leave, Family visitation rights, such as to visit a spouse in a hospital or prison. These rights are both afforded to married persons and recognized by both state and federal governmental institutions. This means that the majority of rights extended to married couples in one state are recognized by all other states as well as the federal government. Civil unions and Domestic partnerships can extend many of the same rights that marriages do but only on the state level and it is at the states discretion what rights are granted under these alternative partnerships. There is no federal mandate that requires Civil unions or Domestic partnerships granted in one state be recognized by any other state. It is up to individual state government whether or not these alternative partnerships will be recognized.
The Debate Within While all GLBT groups feel that there should be some form of legal process by which partners are granted the rights of marriage not all groups are advocating for “Gay Marriage.” Groups such as Beyond Marriage advocate a split from the dominate binary forms of partnership. They put forth the idea that traditional marriage may not be the answer. While they make a stand primarily for alternative partnerships among gay and lesbian couples, they also point out that Civil unions and Domestic partnerships may work better in many cases involving heterosexual couples and prove to be more effective. The primary goal of groups who push toward alternative partnerships is to break two common misconceptions: 1) That traditional marriage is the only way for people to show their commitment to one another. 2) That only those persons who enter in to traditional marriage are worthy of the rights and privileges granted to them.
Transgender Issues Laura McReynolds Chelsea Donaldson Lauren Mueller Grace Jones
What We Are Covering Definitions History Discrimination Influences and Support Conclusion Questions
Definition: Just A Few Terms Gender Identity vs. Gender Expression vs. Sexual Orientation Cross-dresser vs. Drag Hermaphrodite/Intersex
What It Means To Be Transgendered Transgender vs. Transsexual Defies gender binary Gender neutral pronouns (Sie, Hir)
History: How does T fit into LGBT? Transgender: an ancient and modern idea 1953- first surgery (Christine Jorgensen) 1966- Compton’s Cafeteria 1975- Minneapolis anti-discrimination law 1993- Intersex Society of North America (ISNA)
Discrimination Within the Movement Movement started out conservative Excluded butch lesbian, feminine gay men, transgender people, and bisexuals Eventually turned from GL, to LGB, to LGBT
Discrimination Hospitals, restaurants, bathroom 1991 - Brandon Teena (Boys Don’t Cry) Laws –ENDA –Department of Fair Employment and Housing –The Real ID Act Goal: Social Equality
Influential Organizations C.O.G. (Conversion Our Goal) in 1967 STAR (Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries) in 1970 FTM 1980 Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD) 1985 Queer Nation 1990 ISNA 1993 GenderPAC 199 National Center for Transgender Equality (NCTE) 2003 Basic Rights Oregon SONG
Includes: Lucent, Apple, Chevron, Estee Lauder, Gap, General Mills, Johnson & Johnson, Kaiser Permanente, Walgreens, Toys R Us, Nordstrom, Staples, WAMU, Hewlett Packard, Nike, American Airlines, and more.
Questions Has your idea about transgender changed? Do you agree with transgender inclusion within the movement?
GENDER As a Human Rights Issue
Gender Identity Gender identity is a person’s sense of self regarding characteristics labeled as masculine, feminine, both or neither. An individual determines their own gender identity. A person’s gender identity is a statement or expression of their self identification.
Gender Expression Refers to things like clothing and behavior that manifests a person's fundamental sense of themselves as masculine or feminine, and male or female. This can include dress, posture, hair style, jewelry, vocal inflection, and so on.
Gender Stereotyping The act of trying to compel an individual's conformity to gender stereotypes, as well as negative expectations based on those stereotypes.
Discrimination An individual’s gender identity or expression may make other people uncomfortable but refusing to treat transgender, intersexed or gender- variant people in the same manner as other people is a violation of human rights.
Discrimination Children of all ages are bullied to conform to gender norms. This conformity to norms can create long term problems such as academic underachievement.
Employment Housing Public Accommodations Discrimination Examples of Gender Identity Discrimination
Discrimination 31% of Americans Now Covered by Anti-Discrimination Laws The following municipalities have recently passed anti- discrimination measures which include gender identity and expression. –The City Councils of Cincinnati, OH –Lansdowne, PA –Swarthmore, PA –King County, WA –Washington, D.C. The passage of these new laws mean that for the first time 31% of Americans now live in areas that ban discrimination based on gender identity and expression.
Discrimination Transgender people face many issues that negatively impact their quality of life due to prevalent transphobia in the US. Joblessness, homelessness, and acts of violence are a few. Through education we can fight for the right of all people to live their lives openly without the fear of abuse or discrimination.
Gender Facts Gender is excluded from federal hate crimes legislation. In a GenderPAC survey, 1/3 of gay, lesbian, and bisexual respondents who suffered workplace discrimination reported that it was due at least in part to their gender.
Gay-Straight Alliances Are student organizations, found primarily in American high schools and universities. Are intended to provide a safe and supportive environment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and their straight allies (LGBTA).
Gender Rights sexual orientation and gender identity/expression protections
Goals and Strategies of the LGBT Human Rights Movement Political Change –Political goals include changing laws and policies in order to gain new rights, benefits, and protections from harm, and educating elected officials. Cultural Change –End discrimination based on gender stereotypes by changing public attitudes.
Goals and Strategies of the LGBT Movement "For the lesbian and gay movement, then, cultural goals include challenging dominant constructions of masculinity and femininity, homophobia, and the primacy of the gendered heterosexual nuclear family.” - Mary Bernstein
Who is LGBT and who isn’t? As with other social movements there is conflict within the LGBT movement, especially about strategies for change and debates over exactly who comprises the people that these movements represent.