Presentation on theme: "Unpacking ‘Son preference’: the trajectory of a demographic variable Danièle Bélanger, PhD Associate Professor The University of Western Ontario."— Presentation transcript:
Unpacking ‘Son preference’: the trajectory of a demographic variable Danièle Bélanger, PhD Associate Professor The University of Western Ontario
Son preference in Vietnam 2003. Are Sex Ratios Increasing in Vietnam? Population. 58-2: 255-276. 2002. Son Preference in a Village in Rural North Vietnam. Studies in Family Planning. 33-4: 321-334. 2003. Childhood, Gender and Power in Vietnam. In: Communities in Southeast Asia: Challenges and Responses. H. Lansdowne et al. (Eds). Victoria: Centre for Asia-Pacific Initiatives, 380-402. 2002. Sex selective abortions: short term and long term perspectives. Reproductive Health Matters. 10-19. 194-196. 2004. Social Policy Reforms and Daughters' Schooling in Vietnam. International Journal of Educational Development. 24: 23-38.
Questions What is ‘son preference’ in demography? How is the concept constructed?
Introduction Review paper Also informed by my research All research investigating the causes or consequences of a parental or societal desire or preference for male children
Peer-reviewed articles on sex preference (Population Index, 1986-1999)
What is son preference? Encompassing term Underlying assumptions of the term Causes, manifestations, consequences
Son preference as a determinant of fertility Independent variable of fertility ‘Traditional’ behavior Should disappear with ‘modernization’
MANIFESTATIONS OF SON PREFERENCE FERTILITY Fertility behavior Fertility ntentions Contraceptive behavior Contraceptive intentions SEX RATIOS By age groups Mortality
Son preference as a determinant of health and mortality Differential treatment Focus on the family environment Lack of context
Son preference as a reminder that culture matters 1990s: clash between low fertility and desire for sons Missing girls
CONSEQUENCES Gender-based discrimination Prenatal Sex selective abortions Missing daughters/ Skewed sex ratios/ Skewed marriage market Migration/ Trafficking/kindapping Postnatal Differential treatment Health status/ Health outcomes Mortality
Causes Economic factors Poverty Cultural factors Culture theory
Son preference as having far- reaching consequences Shortage of women Gender inequalities Migration, trafficking, kidnapping Heterogeneity
Conclusion Need for more explanations Need for more contextualization Need for incorporation of other dimensions: community, State, policy, global