Presentation on theme: "By: Holly McGarvey. Why It’s Important That There Are Habitats A habitat is a place where something lives, such as a person, animal, or plant. It’s Important."— Presentation transcript:
Why It’s Important That There Are Habitats A habitat is a place where something lives, such as a person, animal, or plant. It’s Important That There are Habitats Because… A habitat gives shelter to people, plants, and animals. Each habitat provides a different and unique variety of food for the people, plants, and animals that live there.
It’s Important To Have A Variety of Habitats Different plants and animals need certain conditions to live in. Having a wide variety of habitats means that the earth has a wide variety of plants and animals. For example: A polar bear could not live in the desert and a rattle snake would not survive in the Arctic because the climates are not right for them.
What The Arctic Habitat Is Contains ocean surrounded by continents and islands It includes parts of Russia, Scandinavia, Alaska, Greenland, and Canada Only part is covered by ice all year long The Arctic Tundra is the land part of this area Characteristics: Low temperatures Short vegetation Long winters Brief growing season No trees Windy The red line shows the Arctic Habitat
The Arctic Tundra is very cold. The average temperature is -30 C, but it often goes down to -60 C. There are long periods without sunlight in the winter. It is dark 24 hours a day from early October until early March in parts of the tundra. For a short time during the summer it is light 24 hours a day. The ground stays permanently frozen except for a few inches at the top that thaw in the summer.
Arctic Tundra Animals There are no amphibians or reptiles in the Arctic There are insects, land mammals, and birds in the Arctic Tundra There are 48 species of land mammals in the Arctic, 22 of them live in the Canadian Arctic. They are: Hare Marmot Ground squirrel Vole Lemming Muskrat Porcupine Coyote Wolf Fox Grizzly Bear Polar Bear Ermine Weasel Mink Wolverine Otter Lynx Moose Caribou Musk-ox Dali Sheep
Arctic Animal Adaptations In the Arctic animals have had to adapt to the cold temperatures and a lack of natural shelter. They do the following things to adapt: Hibernate and migrate during winter Dig into the ground and snow for protection Have fur or feathers and fat for warmth Many have two layers of fur or feathers during the winter and then they shed the extra layer during the summer. Some young, like the Snowshoe Hare, are born with fur so they don’t freeze. Many animals have fur that matches their surroundings. Some animals, such as the Arctic Fox and the Snowshoe Hare, change from brown to white from summer to winter to camouflage. Arctic Fox in winter Arctic Fox in summer
Endangered Species Two animals have become extinct in the Arctic. They are the: Sea Mink the Great Auk The animals that are endangered are the: Peary Caribouthe Eskimo Curlew There is also a concern about the polar bear because the polar ice is melting due to global warming. This is affecting their ability to find and get food.
There are 1700 plants in the Arctic (which is not that many compared to other places) 400 of them are flowering plants There are no trees in the Arctic The types of plants are: Lichen MossShrubFlowerGrass An interesting fact about Cotton Grass is that Eskimos use the seed heads for babies diapers and for wicks in their oil lamps. Cotton Grass Seed Head
Because of the cold temperatures, wind, and short growing season in the Arctic, plants have had to adapt. They do the following things to protect themselves: Grow small and close together Grow close to the ground Have sturdy stems Have furry or wax coatings Have shallow roots because of the permafrost Produce flowers more quickly than usual Mostly perennials grow (the plant doesn’t die in the winter, the roots stay in the ground) so the plant can start growth easier in the Spring. Short, sturdy stems Close to the groundFurry covering
This food web shows the Arctic food chain. People are the top of the food chain, plants are the bottom of the food chain, and big and small animals are the rest. What would happen if there was a missing link in the food chain? If one of the links in the food chain dies off, it could create an overpopulation of one animal or cause extinction of another animal. For example: if polar bears become extinct, it might create an overpopulation of Arctic foxes which would then eat too many lemmings and that would create a problem for snowy owls because lemmings are main food source for snowy owls.
Human Interference With The Arctic Habitat Humans are having a huge impact on the Arctic. There are several threats to animals. They are: Oil drilling and mining are increasing habitat loss and polluting the air, lakes and rivers. Global warming is melting the polar ice. This makes it harder for animals to find food and travel. Global warming is also melting the permafrost. This will make the ground soft and harder to travel in and it will affect the plant adaptations. Hunting and increase of human population are killing too many animals and destroying their habitats. Since 1979, the size of the summer polar ice cap has shrunk more than 20 percent. (Illustration from NASA)