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The British Empire and Victorian Britain \. Sam Alexander’s book cover 1880.

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Presentation on theme: "The British Empire and Victorian Britain \. Sam Alexander’s book cover 1880."— Presentation transcript:

1 The British Empire and Victorian Britain \

2 Sam Alexander’s book cover 1880

3 Queen Victorian and her Indian servant Abdul Karim (the „Munshi”) „I am so very fond of him. He is so good and gentle and understanding, and is a real comfort to me”

4 Map of the British Empire 1888

5 The British Empire in 1939: dominions, India, dependencies

6 Colonial acquisitions 1819 Singapore 1821 Gold Coast 1829 Western Australia 1842 Hong Kong 1846 North Borneo 1886 Burma 1895 Kenya 1899 Sudan

7 „We seem, as it were, to have conquered half the world in a fit of absence of mind” (J. Seeley) „We seem, as it were, to have conquered half the world in a fit of absence of mind” (J. Seeley) „The British were not an imperially minded people; they lacked both a theory of empire and the will to engender and implement one” (Max Beloff) „The British were not an imperially minded people; they lacked both a theory of empire and the will to engender and implement one” (Max Beloff)

8 Thomas Jones Barker (1863): The Secret of England’s Greatness

9 Emigration Empire: outlet for all sorts Empire: outlet for all sorts : 10 million emigrants from the British Isles : 10 million emigrants from the British Isles 1830s: per month 1830s: per month

10 Ford Madox Brown: Last of England (1852)

11 The dwindling of the world Phineas Fogg (80 Days Around the World, 1873) Phineas Fogg (80 Days Around the World, 1873)

12 Lansdowne Bridge, India

13 Lansdowne Bridge

14 Empire Day (from 1898)

15 Empire day school tableau, with Britannia

16 Benjamin Disraeli and Victoria Benjamin Disraeli and Victoria

17 Abolitionist medallion: ‘Am I not a man and a brother?’ 1807: slave trade abolished 1807: slave trade abolished 1814: signatures 1814: signatures 1833: slavery abolished in the Empire 1833: slavery abolished in the Empire

18 „And what should they know of England who only England know?” „And what should they know of England who only England know?” (Rudyard Kipling, „The English Flag”) (Rudyard Kipling, „The English Flag”) English vs British identity Victorian England: imperial vision, responsibility

19 „There is a destiny now possible to us, the highest ever set befor a nation to be accepted or refused. Will you youths of England make your country again a royal throne of kings, a sceptred isle, for all the world a source of light, a centre of peace and mistress of learning and of the Arts, faithful guardian of timetried principles?... This is what England must do or perish; she must found colonies as fast and as far as she is able, formed of her most energetic and worthiest men; seizing every piece of fruitful wasteground she can set her feet on, and there teaching these her colonists that their chief virtue is to be fidelity to their country, and their first aim is to advance the power of England by land and sea.” (John Ruskin, 1870) „There is a destiny now possible to us, the highest ever set befor a nation to be accepted or refused. Will you youths of England make your country again a royal throne of kings, a sceptred isle, for all the world a source of light, a centre of peace and mistress of learning and of the Arts, faithful guardian of timetried principles?... This is what England must do or perish; she must found colonies as fast and as far as she is able, formed of her most energetic and worthiest men; seizing every piece of fruitful wasteground she can set her feet on, and there teaching these her colonists that their chief virtue is to be fidelity to their country, and their first aim is to advance the power of England by land and sea.” (John Ruskin, 1870)

20 „When the contrast between the influence of a Christian and a Heathen government is considered; when the knowledge of the wretchedness of the people forces us to reflect on the unspeakable blessings to millions that would follow the extension of British rule, it is not ambition but benevolence that dictates the desire for the whole country. Where the providence of God will lead, one state after another will be delivered into his stewardship” (Macleod Wylie, 1854) „When the contrast between the influence of a Christian and a Heathen government is considered; when the knowledge of the wretchedness of the people forces us to reflect on the unspeakable blessings to millions that would follow the extension of British rule, it is not ambition but benevolence that dictates the desire for the whole country. Where the providence of God will lead, one state after another will be delivered into his stewardship” (Macleod Wylie, 1854)

21 Material presence of the Empire Tea, coffee, sugar, silk, spices Tea, coffee, sugar, silk, spices Exotic plants introduced Exotic plants introduced British Museum: full of colonial loot British Museum: full of colonial loot (Elgin marbles, mummies, Sumerian winged bulls, Niniveh stone slabs) (Elgin marbles, mummies, Sumerian winged bulls, Niniveh stone slabs) Architecture: ‘colonial style’

22 Colonial Office, London

23 Chennai (Madras) Museum

24 Royal pavilion, Brighton

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26 Curzon Hall, Dhaka

27 Palace of the Mysore maharajah

28 Raffles sideboard 1

29 Raffles sideboard 2

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31

32 Pears soap ad

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34

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37 Great Exhibition, 1851

38 Great Exhibition, Egyptian pavilion

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40 Great Exhibition, Shakespeare exhibit Great Exhibition, Shakespeare exhibit

41 Presence of the Empire Popular culture Popular culture Displays, dioramas, museums, ethnographic collections, zoos Displays, dioramas, museums, ethnographic collections, zoos Music halls, songs (Britannia, 1885) Music halls, songs (Britannia, 1885) Theatre melodrama Theatre melodrama School textbooks: the creation of imperial heroes School textbooks: the creation of imperial heroes

42 Clive of India, after the battle of Plassey

43 Gilbert and Sullivan: HMS Pinafore (1878) He is an Englishman! For he himself has said it, And it's greatly to his credit, That he is an Englishman! He is an Englishman! For he himself has said it, And it's greatly to his credit, That he is an Englishman! For he might have been a Roosian, A French, or Turk, or Proosian, Or perhaps Itali-an! For he might have been a Roosian, A French, or Turk, or Proosian, Or perhaps Itali-an! But in spite of all temptations To belong to other nations, He remains an Englishman! He remains an Englishman! For in spite of all temptations To belong to other nations, He remains an Englishman! He remains an Englishman! But in spite of all temptations To belong to other nations, He remains an Englishman! He remains an Englishman! For in spite of all temptations To belong to other nations, He remains an Englishman! He remains an Englishman!

44 Utopia, Ltd (1893) King Paramount

45 David Livingstone

46 Livingstone weak with fever

47 „These two pioneers of civilization – Christianity and commerce – should ever be inseparable” „These two pioneers of civilization – Christianity and commerce – should ever be inseparable” (David Livingstone) (David Livingstone)

48 „I take a practical mining geologist from the School of Miners to tell us of the Mineral Resources of the country, then an economic botanist to give a full reposrt on the vegatable productions – everything which may be useful in commerce. An artist to give the scenery, a naval officer to tell of the capacity of the river communications and a moral agent to lay the foundation for knowing that aim fully. All this machinery has for its ostensible object the development of African trade and the promotion of civilization” (David Livingstone, 1858) „I take a practical mining geologist from the School of Miners to tell us of the Mineral Resources of the country, then an economic botanist to give a full reposrt on the vegatable productions – everything which may be useful in commerce. An artist to give the scenery, a naval officer to tell of the capacity of the river communications and a moral agent to lay the foundation for knowing that aim fully. All this machinery has for its ostensible object the development of African trade and the promotion of civilization” (David Livingstone, 1858)

49 Stanley finds Livingstone

50

51 General Charles Gordon

52 Gordon pasha

53 „Gordon’s last stand”

54 General Gordon’s statue

55 Cecil Rhodes Cecil Rhodes Cecil Rhodes

56 Cecil Rhodes, „the Colossus” Cecil Rhodes, „the Colossus”

57 Map of Africa 1914

58 „We are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race.” (Cecil Rhodes) „We are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race.” (Cecil Rhodes)

59 Cecil Rhodes cartoon

60 The Raj Cantonments – ghettoes for the British Cantonments – ghettoes for the British (clubs) (clubs) 1857: Indian Mutiny 1857: Indian Mutiny 3 myths: Cawnpore, domestic intrusion, Lucknow

61 Allegory of the Indian Mutiny: „The British Lion’s Vengeance on the Bengal Tiger”

62 Edward Armitage: Retribution

63 Cawnpore massacre

64 Mutiny Mutiny

65 Doughty, English Homes in India

66 Miss Wheeler defending herself

67 Lucknow

68 T. J. Barker: The Relief of Lucknow

69 „The Indian Governement never ought to have tolerated the religion of the Hindoos at all. If my religion consisted of bestiality, infanticide and murder, I should have no right to it unless I was prepared to be hanged. The religion of the Hindoos is no more than a mass of the rankest filth that imagination ever conceived. The Gods they worship are not entitled to the least atom of respect. Their worship necessitates everything that is evil and morality must put it down. The sword must be taken out of its sheath, to cut off our fellow subjects by their thousand”. (Baptist preacher Charles Spurgeon, 1857) „The Indian Governement never ought to have tolerated the religion of the Hindoos at all. If my religion consisted of bestiality, infanticide and murder, I should have no right to it unless I was prepared to be hanged. The religion of the Hindoos is no more than a mass of the rankest filth that imagination ever conceived. The Gods they worship are not entitled to the least atom of respect. Their worship necessitates everything that is evil and morality must put it down. The sword must be taken out of its sheath, to cut off our fellow subjects by their thousand”. (Baptist preacher Charles Spurgeon, 1857)

70 Retributions

71 1826 Zoological Society of London (Stamford Raffles, Humphrey Davy etc.) 1826 Zoological Society of London (Stamford Raffles, Humphrey Davy etc.) 1830 Royal Geographical Society 1830 Royal Geographical Society 1836 Botanical Society of London 1836 Botanical Society of London 1843 Ethnological Society of London 1843 Ethnological Society of London


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