Presentation on theme: "Water, Water Everywhere...."— Presentation transcript:
1Water, Water Everywhere.... Never mind saving for a rainy day. How about saving for a dry one?
2Archeological evidence show rainwater capture 4000 years ago Ruins of cisterns built as early as 2000 BC are still standing in Israel.
3Rainwater Renewable, sustainable high quality water source It is soft, neutral in pHFree from disinfection by-products, salts, minerals, and other natural and man-made contaminants
4IS IT SAFE?Absolutely -providing it is collected, stored and disinfected correctly.
5Rainwater Harvesting System Four main functions:catch rainwater from the roof and gutterstransport the water through the downspouts and pipesremove debris and clean the waterstore the water
6Rain Harvesting Systems As simple ascapturing rainin a barrelfor gardening
7Or Complex Requiring input from from architects, engineers, and filtration/water treatment specialists
8Types of systems Full: no other source of water, total house system Partial: back up well or city water: gardening, flushing toilets, laundryOccasional: seasonal, gardening
9Collection Techniques Above ground outdoor are Simple:reduce the amount of debris, pollen, bird droppings or organics from getting into the barrel.Protect the barrel/tank from UVControl access to mosquitoes
10For Indoor Use More attention and commitment Debris catchment devices and filtersFirst flush diverterPumps and pipingFilters and disinfectantsMaintenance and seasonal cleaningTesting
11How Much Water Do I Need? Start by looking at your water practices. Are there ways to conserve water on a daily basis?
12Indoor Water Conservation Average Indoor Water UseToilet flushing - 40%Bathing %Laundry %Cooking / Dishwashing - 10%
13Water Saving Appliances Water saving appliances pay for themselves in 1 or 2 years because they reduce the size and the capital cost of the cistern (ie. less water needs to be stored).Water-saving appliancesFaucet aerators and efficient showerheadsLow water use dishwashers and washing machinesOn-demand hot water unitsComposting toilets.
14ToiletsLow flush toilets lower indoor water use by as much as 15% & pay for themselves in a year.
16Summer Outdoor Water Use 1 watering can = 3.3 gal.3 ft. shrub in hot weather (1 week) = 7 gal.18 in. pot in hot weather (1 week) = 1.8 gal.40 deck pots – drip water (1 week) = 50 gal1 sprinkler full flow (for 1 hour) = 240 gal.Car washing (1/2 hour) = 120 gal.Pressure washing (1/2 hour) = 40 gal.
17What do you want your system to do? Decision #1What do you want your system to do?
18A few basic considerations before you get started: Annual Monthly RainfallCatchment SizeTank SizeCost
19Portland Monthly Average Participation Jan 072.86Jan 083.21Jan AnnualAverage4.09Feb.968.063.14March3.015.544.14April8.974.474.26May2.321.093.82June3.333.883.28July4.643.32Aug3.233.05Sept3.223.37Oct6.374.4Nov4.214.72Dec3.794.24
20Catchment Size How much rain will my roof collect? Measure the perimeter of your roof then calculate the area as if the roof were a flat surface (like a floor plan)
21Measure the roof ignoring the angle of the roof Measure the roof ignoring the angle of the roof. Length x Width gives us the square footage. 20’ x 50’= 1,000sq. Ft.20’ Wide50’ longBird’s eye view
22Calculate Potential Catchment Portland annual rainfall: in per yr(or 3.82 ft)Roof Area 20’ X 50’ = 1000 sq ft3.82’ of rain/yr X 1000 sq ft= 3820 cu.ft.3820 x .80 = 3056 cubic ft.(assuming an 80 % efficiency of collection)
237.5 gallons = one cubic foot 3056 cubic ft x 7.5 gal./cubic ft = 22,920 gallons per year
25How Much Water Do You Use? To determine the size of the tank and how much water you will need,you must calculate how much water your household uses in a day.
26Indoor Water Use Most homes use 50-60 gallons per person per day. Conservation minded households use G/P/D and some are as low as G/P/D.
27Total Number of People in the Home To Calculate How much your family uses, here are some of the factors:Total Number of People in the Home
28BathroomShowers: Number of showers. length of showers, flow rate (gallon per minute of the shower head)Baths per week, amount of water in tub
29Toilets: Number of time each person flushes, gallons per flush Faucets: times per day to shave, brush teeth, wash hands and minutes per use
30Dishes/LaundryDishes: how many dishes do you wash by hand, minutes water run with each wash, times dishes washed by dishwasher, times used per week, gallons per load (15 normal)Laundry: loads per week, water per load (55 gal normal)
31Outside Water Use Lawn or garden watered times a week, minutes watered Other uses: wash Car, fill pool, rinse furniture, clean equipment minutes per week
32Water Use Calculator Found on the web Allows you to enter all of your data and gives you the gallons per day used by your family
33So, let’s say you conserve water and have 4 members in your family. 4 x 30 gal per person = 120 gallons a day for the whole household.
34What size of tank does your family of four need? Using rainwater as yourprimary water source, youneed to consider how much of areserve your household will require.
35With an average of 3 inches per month, we still need to consider the possibility of a 50 day drought.120 gallons per day x 50 days of drought= 6000 gallons
36If you want the full home system, the tank needs to be 6,000 gallons. All indoor use systems share basic components and considerations.
37Roof MaterialGutters and DownspoutsRoof WashingStorage tankDistribution SystemFiltrationInstallation Costs
38The Roof Non toxic and inert (non leaching.) This is particularly true of the roof that is subject to the oxidizing affects of sun and air borne pollutants.Avoid lead flashings around sky lights or plumbing vents.
39Water Quality Water quality varies dependent on: Type of roof material Climate conditionsSurrounding environment
40Water QuantityThe quantity of rainwater that can be collected is also a function of roof texture.The smoother the better.
41Metal RoofMost common roofing material used for rain catchment is galvanized metal that has been painted or enameled with a non-toxic material (lead free).
42Other surfaces may be used if they do not contain lead, zinc coatings, or copper. Acceptable roofing also includes slate, reinforced concrete, cement tile, and terracotta tile
43Asphalt ShinglesAsphalt shingles produce less water and are harder to keep clean.Beware of the shingles that contain moss inhibitors for bathing and drinking.
44Cedar RoofsWater collected from cedar roofs is acidic for plants and is impractical for indoor use.
45Gutters The most common gutters are one-piece, baked aluminum gutters. Half-round vinyl is also excellent.
46Gutters and downspouts must be lead, zinc, and copper free
47Areas where the water can pool collect insects, organic materials and bacteria. Think of a gutter as a river - not a wetlands or swamp.
48Gutter Guard+ Keeps some debris out- Protects the debris that collects in the gutter from the sanitizing and self cleaning of sun and wind.
49Debris Traps Clean the water before it enters storage A small leaf trap and cleanable pipe systems to catch the larger heavier debris may be all that is required.
50DownspoutsAnything from non-copper chains to traditional aluminum downspouts can be used to get the water down from the gutters
51First Flush Amount of water to flush depends on: Roof and gutter slope Roof material smoothnessEnd useRain intensityAirborne pollutants (dust, smoke, auto exhaust)Tree debris
52Potable System First Flush Flush the first 0.02 inch of rain.Or 10.4 gal per 1,000 sq ft of catchment area.
54The WISY Vortex Underground Filter Handles a ton of rainwaterInstalled undergroundStandard size for roof areas of up to 5000 sq ft.Small size for roof areas up to 2000 sq. ft.Self-cleaning filterCaptures over 90% of the rainwater
55The WISY Vortex Underground Filter Ground levelWater comes inFilterWater to tankOverflow and debris outlet
56Storage Tank Where are you putting it: Aboveground, under ground, in homeMost common residential tanks:Concrete, PVC, Fiberglass
57PVC…above ground Least Expensive Easy to Install 300-3,000 gallons Seasonal UseDark colors (UV protection)Gravity flow or pumpTank at Jackson Marine LabUniversity of New Hampshire
58Indoor PVC Tanks 300-400 gallon Fits through existing doorways Can connect multiple tanksWeight on cellar floor may be an issue
59Custom Concrete TanksUnder the deckUnder the home
60Prefab Concrete Tanks 1000 Gal Septic Tank Remove baffles Add one opening for water to return to houseGenest Concrete
61Concrete Tanks for Potable H20 Solvent-Free Coatings:Helps Waterproof the tankEnvironmentally friendlyNo taste or odorNo leachingCHEMTHANE 4200PW, Enviroline & AmTec
62Fiberglass Tanks Underground Four Season Safe, long-term storage of potable waterLarge capacityExpensive
63WISY Floating Suction Filter Fine Gauge Particulate Filter MeshFloatEnsures water is extracted where it is the cleanest.Back Flow Preventer
64Distribution System Recommended by Texas Guide to Rainharvesting Grundfos MQ3 PumpRecommended by Texas Guide to RainharvestingCompact, easy to install and operate.Pressure switch and tank built inSelf priming and water-cooled, low noise level.User-friendlyauto reset, alarm if dry running or overheating.Anti-cycling feature prevents the pump from repeatedly starting and stopping in the event of a dripping tap or a minor leak.Stops when the tank is dry, and restarts automatically when water is available again.
65Treatment of Rainwater Simpler than treating water from wellsRemove parasites, bacteria, and virus from bird droppings, as well as insects, and wind blown materials that are carried onto the roof.Toxins leached from the roofing system can include heavy metals, petroleum products, algae, moulds, and yeast.
67ChlorinationShock chlorination consists of mixing sufficient chlorine-based chemical with the tank water to create a solution containing 200 parts per million (ppm) of chlorineKills algae
68Sediment/Particulate Filter Different micron sizesRemoves:DirtSedimentRust Particles
69Sediment Filters Improve Water clarity Taste Odor Protects plumbing system andcharcoal filters from sediment build-up
70Carbon Filter Derived from coconut husk Easy to Install Relatively inexpensiveRemoves:chlorine, chloramine, chlorine disinfection by-products (trihalomethanes - THMs),Bad Taste and odorsmany organic contaminantsfine sediment
71Carbon Filter Does not change pH of water Pre-treatment for Reverse Osmosis and UV systems0.5 micron carbon block filters remove cysts ( Giardia and Cryptosporidium).01 filter inhibits Viruses
72Change filters regularly: Susceptible to mold…Filter collects “garbage” in your waterTaste change means change the filter…Reduced efficiency the longer they are used
73Minerals Minerals in solution can still permeate a charcoal filter. Are essential for health.
74Ultraviolet Light Purification Non-chemical approachNo harmful bi-products or chemicalsDoes not alter the taste, pH or other properties of the waterNot harmful to your plumbing or septic systemRemoves some volatile organic chemicals,Low MaintenanceEasy and cost effective to install and maintain
76Stage 2: UV Disinfectant Bacteria: E-coli and fecalColiform VirusesVirusesMold sporesAlgaeYeastProtazoa
77Reverse Osmosis Systems Ultrafiltration: Extremely fine membrane allow water molecules, but not larger compounds.The contaminated water is put on one side of the membrane and pressure is applied to stop, and then reverse, the osmotic process. Takes a lot of pressure, is fairly slow, but results is extremely finely filtered water.
78Reverse Osmosis Reduces Calcium Deposits Improves Taste, Odor, and Quality of WaterRemoves Existing ScaleReduces the Need for Household ChemicalsRequires No Chemical or Salt Regeneration
79Reverse Osmosis Requires high water pressure Water pressurization system may be required.Plumbing work necessaryMore costly replacement membranesRemoves Minerals
80Water DistillersThere is a growing awareness of distilled water's effects on the balance of minerals in the body, plus the acidic result that a typical distiller creates.Dissolved minerals in the water are more natural than pure water, and serve an important function in supporting the body's immune system and metabolism.Water without minerals can be a health problem. According to the U.S. EPA, "Distilled water (which is identical to RO water ~Ed), being essentially mineral-free.