Presentation on theme: "Bellringer 4.28.14 What is plant propagation? What is a plant that is propagated asexually? Why would a grower want to asexually propagate?"— Presentation transcript:
Bellringer 4.28.14 What is plant propagation? What is a plant that is propagated asexually? Why would a grower want to asexually propagate?
Plant Propagation Remember when you did this?
Now people do this.
What is plant propogation? Plant propagation is the process of artificially or naturally propagating (distributing or spreading) plants
2 Types of Plant Propagation Sexual propagation —involves the exchange of genetic material between parents to produce a new generation. Asexual propagation —does not involve exchange of genetic material, so it almost always produces plants that are identical to a single parent.
What are the reasons for propagating plants asexually? Asexual propagation in plants involves the reproduction of new plants using only the vegetative parts of the parent plant. This is made possible by the plant’s ability to regenerate missing plant parts.
Sexual Propagation Flower parts
Seeds are Formed by… Pollination :The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the female stigma by a pollinating agent such as wind, insects, birds, bats, or in a few cases the opening of the flower itself.anthersstigma Fertilization: The fusion of two gametes (sperm and ovum) to produce a zygote that develops into a new individual with a genetic heritage derived from both parents.gametes zygote
Seeds- A packaged plant surrounded by endosperm (food) and protective seed coat Germination of a Bean Seed
Cuttings Cuttings involve removing a piece from the parent plant and that piece then re-grows the lost parts or tissues. New plants can be grown from parts of plants because each living plant cell contains the ability to duplicate all plant parts and functions. Some plants will reproduce readily from cuttings and others take a considerable amount of time and care.
Leaf Cuttings- Use only the leaf Vein cutting from leaf Remember Polarity or which way is up! Leaf Section Cutting African violet
How do leaf cuttings grow? Origins of roots and shoots varies Meristem tissue - Group of embryonic cells that can differentiate and produce new cells Compounds trigger growth of roots and shoots Root apical meristematic tissue of onion Shoot apical meristematic tissue
Stem Cuttings- Use the stem and leaves or just the stem. Cuttings should be 6-10” long & between nodes Dibble, then place cutting in soil
How Do Stem Cuttings Work? How roots develop –Response to wounding-induced differentiation –Cells begin to divide –Callus begins to form –Certain cells begin to divide and initiate root development
Stem Cuttings (cont’d.) Preparing the cutting Planting the cutting
Tubers and Rhizomes Tuberous plants can be dug up and the tubers separated. In separating the tubers, each must have a segment of the crown that contains at least one eye or bud. Rhizomes grow and develop buds along their length. The rhizomes can be dug and cut into sections that each contain at least one eye or bud. Tubers Rhizomes
Division- To separate a clump into individual plants-Used for perennials and some houseplants Photos from Garden Gate Magazine Dig up Mother Plant Clean off root ball Separate roots to find individual plants and plant
Divisions Division is the cutting or breaking up of a crown or clump of suckers into segments. Each segment must have a bud and some roots. These segments are replanted and grow into new plants identical to the parent. Carefully dig the plant, loosening the roots and lifting the plant from the soil.
Layering- Growing new plants while attached to the mother plant. They are later separated. Ground layering Air layering
Layering Layering causes roots to develop on shoots that are still attached to the parent plant. The stem is not cut from the main plant until it has rooted. Simple layering is done by bending a branch to the ground and burying a portion of it while the tip remains uncovered.
Grafting and Budding- Used to attach one plant to the other for strength or variety Bud-grafting Whip Grafting
Grafting Grafting involves the joining of different segments of two different plants of the same species. Grafting allows gardeners to produce plants identical to a parent plant. It also allows growers to control size and shape of a tree or shrub. On the negative side, some grafting attempts will be rejected.
Budding or Bud Grafting Bud grafting is faster, easier and less messy than other forms of grafting. This method uses a newly developed latent bud, taken from under a live leaf. Budwood is collected from healthy branches that grew since spring and from young trees because they produce a large amounts of new growth. Use buds from the middle section of the branch.
How can I propagate my bulbs? Tunicate Bulbs –Cuttage (8 Sections) Non-tunicate Bulbs Bulb Scales
When to propagate Late spring and early summer= optimal growing time Depends on type of cutting Need to check resources for specific plants. Each one may have an optimal time Some seeds need to go through stratification or period of cold to break dormancy Some seeds need to be scarified or scratched
Equipment and Hygiene- Keep everything clean so disease is not spread Pruning knife Hand cutters Watering Can Liners and Light Sterilize all tools with alcohol after use!
Soil Purpose of soil –Larger particles (sand) holds plant in place –Smaller particles hold water and nutrients Ingredients in soil –Vermiculite= Holds moisture –Perlite= Increases aeration –Peat=Moisten –Helps stop decomposition –Sand=Drainage –Sphagnum Moss= Holds water well, lightweight Recipes and proportions vary depending on plant!
When can I plant it? Gently tug on the cutting to see if your plant has developed a good root system Repot in larger pot if necessary
Have fun and enjoy your new plants!
EXIT SLIP 1.What are two advantages of asexual propagation? 2.Name a plant that can be propagated from a leaf cutting 3.What is a meristem? 4.Why are meristems important for propagation?