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Competências Básicas de Investigação Científica e de Publicação Lecture 3: Publishing, avoiding rejection and low citation rates 13/08/2013Ganesha Associates.

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Presentation on theme: "Competências Básicas de Investigação Científica e de Publicação Lecture 3: Publishing, avoiding rejection and low citation rates 13/08/2013Ganesha Associates."— Presentation transcript:

1 Competências Básicas de Investigação Científica e de Publicação Lecture 3: Publishing, avoiding rejection and low citation rates 13/08/2013Ganesha Associates

2 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates2 Publishing drives the scientific process New consensus view Old consensus view

3 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates3 Attribution of priority via peer review – It’s new (probably), you were the first ! Verification via peer review – Your conclusions are clear and plausible – Your methodology is appropriate Communication – Integration into the consensus view – Permanent archive – Replication Professional advancement !! – Broad readership – High rates of citation (= recognition) – CAPES Qualis points – $$$$$ For you, getting published is important…

4 So, the Editor has two choices… 05/06/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

5 Rejection: Royal Society for Chemistry “Articles submitted to our journals are pre- screened so the editor that is handling the article decides that the article is either out of the journal scope or that the article is clearly below the quality level of the journal. The pre-screening rates of our journals varies a lot. Our high quality journals have a pre screen rate of about 80%.” 05/06/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

6 Reasons for rejection Mismatch with journal aims and scope [submit to wrong journal] Failure to follow journal’s instructions to authors Badly written, bad English, bad Portuguese Lack of originality, novelty or significance [weak hypothesis] Flaws in study design [poor experimental design] Several of these problems are easily avoidable! 05/06/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

7 Lost in translation “Poor English” often used as a euphemism for “badly written” Poor Portuguese translates as poor English If the science is clear (title, abstract, intro, results) the chances of rejection are reduced

8 Which journal should I choose?

9 Selecting the best journal is important

10 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates10 The mycology journal ‘ecosystem’ – Important journals - Mycology Dept, UFPE (2006) Journal of Invertebrate Pathology Phytopathology Plant Pathology Mycological Research Plant Disease Applied and Environmental Microbiology Current Microbiology Genetics and Molecular Biology Molecular Plant Pathology Medical Mycology Mycopathology Applied Soil Ecology ………..and at least 10 more journals! – Note: only three titles contain a reference to mycology ! – Define your journal ecosystem carefully

11 Journal selection criteria Your hypothesis Aims and scope of journal Impact Factor Speed and ease of publication Publisher’s statistics on circulation, downloads Colleagues Qualis ranking

12 What is an Impact factor? For a given year, the impact factor is the average number of citations per paper published during the two preceding years. – A = number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by other indexed journals during – B = total number of articles published in 2006 and – 2008 impact factor = A/B. Used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates12

13 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013 Try to publish in international journals with good impact factors

14 Example: Nature press release July 2013 “The 2012 Journal Citation Report (JCR) places Nature Communications at #3 and Scientific Reports at #8 in the top 10 Multidisciplinary Sciences titles. Nature remains #1 in the Multidisciplinary Sciences, with an Impact Factor of , and is the most cited science journal in the world with 554,745 citations in 2012.”

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19 So getting published isn’t easy… Journal editors are fiercely competitive They only want to publish articles that will improve the standing of their journal So they select only those articles that they think will be highly cited… And reject the majority of articles sent to them [up to 90+%]

20 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates20 Implications for you! Identify the most important journals in your field Check their impact factors, Qualis rankings Read the ‘ Aims and Scope ’ statements for each journal carefully Does your hypothesis fit the Aims and Scope? Can you find similar articles in recently published issues?

21 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates21 Cell: Aims and Scope Cell publishes findings of unusual significance in any area of experimental biology, including but not limited to cell biology, molecular biology, neuroscience, immunology, virology and microbiology, cancer, human genetics, systems biology, signaling, and disease. The basic criterion for considering papers is whether the results provide significant conceptual advances into, or raise provocative questions and hypotheses regarding an interesting biological question.

22 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates22 Genomics: Aims and Scope The goal of Genomics is to promote the understanding of the structure, function, and evolution of genomes in all kingdoms of life and the application of genome sciences and technologies to challenging problems in biology and medicine. The scope of the journal is broad and we welcome original, full-length, and timely papers in all of the following areas: – Comparative genomics analysis that yields valuable insights into conserved and divergent aspects of function, regulation, and evolution – Bioinformatics and computational biology with particular emphasis on data mining and improvements in data annotation and integration – Functional genomics approaches involving the use of large-scale and/or high- throughput methods to understand genome-scale function and regulation of transcriptomes and proteomes – Identification of genes involved in disease and complex traits, including responses to drugs and other xenobiotics – Significant advances in genetic and genomics technologies and their applications, including chemical genomics

23 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates23 Gastroenterology: Aims and Scope Gastroenterology publishes novel clinical and basic studies on all aspects of the digestive system, including the liver and pancreas, as well as nutrition. The types of articles Gastroenterology publishes include original papers, review articles, case reports, and special category manuscripts.

24 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates24 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Agricultural and Forest Meteorology is an international journal for the publication of original articles and reviews on the inter-relationship between meteorology and the fields of plant, animal and soil sciences, ecology, and biogeochemistry. Emphasis is on basic and applied scientific research relevant to practical problems in agriculture, forestry, and natural ecosystems. Articles must appeal to an international audience. Theoretical models should be tested against experimental data. Special issues devoted to single topics are also published.

25 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates25 Inside a primary journal: Cell Cell was launched in 1974 as the journal of exciting biology. Now a part of Elsevier ’ s Cell Press, a family of 15 journals, Cell ’ s Ph.D.-trained scientific editors work with authors, reviewers, and editorial board members with the goal of publishing 26 issues of the most interesting discoveries in biology every year

26 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates26 Cell’s editorial structure In-house Editor – Employed by the journal’s publisher to carry out administrative and copy-editing roles Editor-in-Chief – Major figure in the field Editorial Board – Represent all of the major sub-fields, act as advisors to the Editor-in-Chief. Usually recognised experts in their respective fields Referees – Selected by the Editorial Board, usually an expert in the specific area covered by the manuscript

27 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates27 Editorial evaluation process - Cell All submissions are initially evaluated in depth by the Editor- in-Chief or sent to an appropriate member of the Editorial Board. Papers that do not conform to the general criteria for publication will be returned to the authors without detailed review, typically within 3-5 days. Otherwise, manuscripts will be sent to reviewers who have agreed in advance to assess the paper rapidly. The editors will make every effort to reach decisions on these papers within 3 weeks of the submission date. Accepted papers will be published within 3 months of acceptance.

28 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates28 What is the Editor looking for ? Plausibility – Is the experimental design robust ? – How effectively have the alternative hypotheses been excluded ? Topicality – Is the work original – Is it interesting ? – Is it relevant ? – Is it useful ?

29 Covering letter format Address to the editor personally State your manuscript title and publication type Give a brief background, rationale and description of your results Explain the importance of your findings and why they would be of interest to the journal’s target audience Provide corresponding author details

30 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates30 The role of peer review – History – Anonymous – Multiple, to avoid bias – Validation/accreditation – Selecting the best Or avoiding the worse ? – Alternatives Neuroscience PLos One Elsevier

31 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates31 Peer review – the pros – A peer is someone who is of the same or equal standing as another. Thus peer review is review performed by individuals considered to be professional equals. – The process forces authors to meet the standards of their discipline and achieve scientific objectivity. – Publications and awards that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by scholars and professionals in many fields. – Peer review is important to achieve clear, precise writing. This is just as true for professional scientists as it is for students. – The outcomes of peer review are acceptance, conditional acceptance or rejection

32 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates32 Peer review – the cons – A peer is likely to be a competitor. How objective are they going to be ? – Most articles get published and the quality of articles published in high impact titles such as Nature is highly variable. – Authors are encouraged by the publishing process to exaggerate their claims and even be selective of the data being published, leading to bias – Negative findings are rarely published, leading to further bias when judging the effectiveness say of new medical technologies

33 Alternatives: PLOS ONE PLOS ONE will rigorously peer-review your submissions and publish all papers that are judged to be technically sound. Judgments about the importance of any particular paper are made after publication by the readership. PLOS ONE features reports of original research from all disciplines within science and medicine. 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates33

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35 A letter of rejection Dear Author, We have received the reports from our advisors on your manuscript XYZ-D “Title********************************". With regret, I must inform you that, based on the advice received, I have decided that your manuscript cannot be accepted for publication in the Journal of Imaginary Microbiology. Below, please find the comments for your perusal. You are kindly requested to also check the website for possible reviewer attachment(s). I would like to thank you very much for forwarding your manuscript to us for consideration and wish you every success in finding an alternative place of publication. With kind regards, Editor

36 What to do next Unconditional rejection – Editor offers no opportunity for appeal – Show comments to colleagues – Revise as though the rejection was conditional – Submit to a different journal Conditional rejection – Regard this as an opportunity to improve your paper – Show comments to colleagues – Respond to all comments and record your actions in a covering letter – Consider submitting to a better journal!

37 Reviewer comments - example The paper needs to be formatted properly for the journal. This reviewer was only able to find information for papers submitted with Introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion sections while much of this is in the paper the format appears to be incorrect even for a short communication. It was difficult to find the number of samples taken or to understand the experimental set-up as written; changing the style to a more traditional journal format as suggested above would help with this. In addition the most important reference Brown et al 2013 is missing!

38 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates38 This paper describes clinical and cytogenetic finding in a child with retinoblastoma who had an aggressive fatal course. The authors postulate that this may be related to changes in chromosome 6. However, it is difficult to see how the findings here either promote or negate that hypothesis. In addition several other problems should be addressed: a.Abstract, line 9: could (not should) b.Abstract: define IO c.Staging details at the time of initial diagnosis are inadequate. Were scans done of the head? chest? abdomen? pelvis? bone? d.One assumes that the right eye was normal at initial diagnosis but this is not stated. Reviewer comments - example

39 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates39 e. Staging details at the time of initial relapse are inadequate. Were scans done of the head? chest? abdomen? pelvis? bones? f. What was the csf cytology at the time of initial relapse? g. What cytologic studies were performed on the ocular, marrow and other tumors at the initial relapse to prove that this was retinoblastoma? h. What is MADIT? i. If the authors are going to postulate that chromosome 6 abnormalities are important then other publications require more careful review and more detailed presentation of findings. How does one more case advance the hypothesis? Reviewer comments – example, cont’d

40 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates40 Author’s Hypothesis: This case represents a particularly aggressive form of retinoblastoma which can be diagnosed by the observation of a rare chromosomal abnormality Referees Hypotheses: The initial treatment of the retinoblastoma was ineffective But assuming it wasn’t: Several chromosomal abnormalities described – no evidence that specific chromosomal defect chosen was connected with the disease severity Reviewer Comments – main problems

41 Referee response letter Respond to all of the reviewers’ comments Describe all of the changes you have made in the letter Also describe the reasons why you have not made suggested changes Make it easy to see the changes have made in the manuscript itself – Refer to line and page numbers – Different color font – Highlight the text

42 Referee response letter If you disagree with the reviewer with the reviewer be clear why: – Reviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosen to use a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In my opinion, a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed. Moreover, the results would be more instructive and easier to compare to previous results. – Author response: We agree with the reviewer that a simple Gaussian fit would facilitate comparison with the results of other studies. However, our tailored function allows for the analysis of the data in terms of the Smith model [Smith et al, 1998]. We have added two sentences to the paper (page 3 paragraph 2) to explain the use of this function and Smith’s model.

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44 You… How can we improve our research outputs? – Quantity – Quality How can we avoid rejection? How can we increase citation rates? How can we publish in quality journals?

45 Main opportunities for success Start with a well-defined hypothesis that has its foundations firmly rooted in the international literature. Have a clear message Develop a well-structured writing style Understand the publishing process Choose the right journal at the beginning of the project 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

46 The research process Project proposal Experiment, results, analysis Write article Submit to journal Rejection/ acceptance Re-submit ?

47 Project titles – the problem starts here Análise dos limiares de sensibilidade à pressão e à corrente elétrica em acupontos em indivíduos com e sem migrânea Frequência, localização anatômica e limiar de percepção dolorosa em pontos gatilhos miofasciais na cabeça e pescoço em mulheres com migrânea. Ultrassonografia e eletromiografia de superfície dos músculos flexores cervicais em mulheres com migrânea e cefaleia do tipo tensional

48 Titles are easily improved – focus on outcomes rather than methods DIAPHRAGM RELEASE MANUAL TECHNIQUE EFFECTS ON DIAPHRAGMATIC MOBILITY, RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN COPD PATIENTS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. MANUAL DIAPHRAGM RELEASE TECHNIQUE INCREASES TIDAL VOLUME IN ELDERLY COPD PATIENTS

49 Frequência, localização anatômica e limiar de percepção dolorosa em pontos gatilhos miofasciais na cabeça e pescoço em mulheres com migrânea. Context: Migraine is a very common pain syndrome and the mechanisms that can cause or aggravate the pain and the consequences of its chronicity are still not completely understood. Studies have shown that migraine is associated with a central sensitization phenomena in which noxious stimuli cause changes in the central nervous system, sensitizing cranial nociceptors and reducing their activation threshold. In this context, the constant peripheral nociceptive input due to myofascial trigger points in the muscles of the head and neck may be associated with the onset of the migraine attack. The elucidation of the role of trigger points in migraine is essential in order to establish and direct physical therapy through tools useful for patients with myofascial disorders associated with migrainous framework. Objective: To evaluate and compare differences in the frequency, anatomical location and sensory threshold pressure of the trigger points of the trapezius ( descending fibers ), masseter, sternocleidomastoid, in women with and without migraine.

50 Hypotheses – mechanism not measurement Patients with migraine have a higher amount of myofascial trigger points in the temporalis, masseter, sternocleidomastoid and descending trapezius muscles. Patients with migraine have a low threshold for pain sensation in these points. Cutaneous mechanical cephalic and extra- cephalic allodynia vary within one month

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53 Top ten journals in this field 1. Headache Total score: Pain Total score: Current pain and headache reports Total score: Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache Total score: The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Soc Total score: European journal of neurology : the official journal of the Eur Total score: Medical hypotheses Total score: Brain : a journal of neurology Total score: Chinese medicine Total score: Neurology Total score: 0.39

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57 Hypotheses - 2 Women with migraine and tension-type headache have a smaller cross-sectional area of the flexor neck and greater activation and fatigue of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, than women without migraine. Ten references, eight before 2010

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61 Conclusions Make sure your hypothesis is firmly rooted in the current literature Identify at least one journal that is publishing work based on similar hypotheses If your reference list does not contain many recently published articles, you have a problem

62 Measuring performance The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications

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64 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013 Why do papers not get cited?

65 Echocardiography evaluations for asymptomatic patients with severe obesity Abstract Objective: To study the systolic and diastolic function of asymptomatic patients with severe obesity using a Doppler echocardiography. Methods: Thirty candidates for bariatric surgery, with an average BMI of 49.2 ± 8.8 Kg/m2 and no previous history of heart disease were evaluated through transthoracic echocardiography. Results: Enlarged left chambers were observed in 42.9% of the sample, diastolic dysfunction in 54.6% and left ventricular hypertrophy in 82.1%, of which 50% of the cases presented the geometric pattern of eccentric hypertrophy. Indexation of left ventricular mass to height resulted in a significantly higher number of diagnoses for hypertrophy than indexation to body surface area (p = ), demonstrating that this index is more appropriate to determine ventricular hypertrophy in obese people. Correlations between left ventricular hypertrophy with obesity duration and pressure levels were positive as well as correlations between body mass index and diastolic dysfunction indicators. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that echocardiograms performed on asymptomatic severely obese patients can detect alterations in the cardiac structure that are common in cases of obesity cardiomyopathy and can be associated with the development of heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden death, enabling the identification of patients with greater cardiovascular risk. 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

66 Echocardiography evaluations for asymptomatic patients with severe obesity Objective: To study the systolic and diastolic function of asymptomatic patients with severe obesity using a Doppler echocardiography. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that echocardiograms performed on asymptomatic severely obese patients can detect alterations in the cardiac structure that are common in cases of obesity cardiomyopathy and can be associated with the development of heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden death, enabling the identification of patients with greater cardiovascular risk. 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

67 Echocardiography identifies obese patients at risk of cardiovascular complications Objective: Can echocardiograms be used to identify patients at risk of cardiovascular complications? Conclusion: Echocardiograms detect common alterations in the cardiac structure in asymptomatic severely obese patients. These changes are associated with the development of heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden death. Thus, echocardiograms can be used to identify patients at risk of cardiovascular complications. 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

68 Use eTBLAST to identify similar articles 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

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70 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013 Hunt the hypothesis

71 Do malnutrition and fluoxetine neonatal treatment program alterations in heart morphology? Abstract: Growth and development events are observed in all organisms and can be modified by exogenous factors such as nutritional changes. Drastic morphological and functional alterations may occur during a vulnerable stage of development. The aim of this study was to investigate if malnutrition and/or fluoxetine neonatal treatment program alterations in heart morphology during the postnatal period. The sample consisted of 48 albino Wistar male rats. The rats were divided into two groups: nourished and malnourished. Pharmacologic manipulation was performed during the suckling period. The animals of each group were divided into two subgroups: saline-nourished and saline-malnourished, treated with sodium chloride solution, and fluoxetine-nourished and fluoxetine-malnourished, treated with fluoxetine. Half of the individuals in each subgroup were weighed and sacrificed on day 30 and the other half on day 71. Myocardial perfusion was performed and the heart subsequently weighed. The ventricles were cross- sectioned into two parts, which were fixed, dehydrated and sectioned. There were differences in body weight, heart weight, cross-sectional area and perimeter of the heart and in the cross-sectional area and perimeter of the cardiac cells among the groups at the different ages. Malnutrition appears to program alterations in heart morphology. However, malnourished animals that had undergone drug treatment did not exhibit the same changes 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

72 Introduction Long-term consequences in adult life dependent on environmental stimuli during critical periods of development (fetal, neonatal or infancy) have been evidenced by epidemiological and animal studies (Hales and Barker, 1992, Ozanne et al., 1998 and Lopes de Souza et al., 2008). The mechanism associated with these effects is called “programming”, whereby environmental aggression during a critical period of development would have permanent effects on the structure and function of the organs (Lucas, 1991). Nutritional status during the critical period of development has been considered an important inducer of programming in both animals and humans. A growth rate deficit, increased oxidative damage and changes in glucose/insulin metabolism have been observed in rats submitted early in life to either a maternal dietary-protein restriction (40–50% of normal intake) or to low-protein diet throughout gestation and lactation (Desai et al., 1996, Ozanne et al., 1998 and Toscano et al., 2008). In humans, a number of epidemiological studies have provided support to the association between low birth weight and metabolic diseases in adult life (Hales and Barker, 1992 and Ravelli et al., 1998). The effects of early malnutrition on cardiac development have been investigated.Hales and Barker, 1992Ozanne et al., 1998Lopes de Souza et al., 2008Lucas, 1991Desai et al., 1996Ozanne et al., 1998Toscano et al., 2008Hales and Barker, 1992Ravelli et al., 1998 Malnutrition prevents growth and causes an overall deterioration of tissue, especially a severe loss of muscular tissue, including cardiac muscle (Bergman et al., 1988, Almeida and Mandarim-de-Lacerda, 2005 and Toscano et al., 2008). During its development, the heart is damaged by the adverse effects of malnutrition (Fioretto et al., 2002). Animal studies show that malnutrition reduces heart cell mass proportionally to weight loss (Alden et al., 1987, Pissaia et al., 1980, Vandewoude and Buyssens, 1992 and Webb et al., 1986).Bergman et al., 1988Almeida and Mandarim-de-Lacerda, 2005Toscano et al., 2008Fioretto et al., 2002Alden et al., 1987Pissaia et al., 1980Vandewoude and Buyssens, 1992Webb et al., 1986 The interference in the growth and development processes caused by malnutrition is also seen in the balance of neurotransmitter systems. Regarding the serotonergic system, malnutrition in early life in rats reduces serotonergic fibers and serotonin (5-HT) reuptake sites in the hippocampus (Blatt et al., 1994). Even after short periods of food restriction, metabolic 5-HT changes and also changes in the levels of other substances, such as dopamine, were noted in rat pups (Ishida et al. 1997). It is well known that protein malnutrition early in life promotes an increase of 5-HT and norepinephrine levels in rat brain (Sobotka et al., 1974, Stern et al., 1975 and Resnick et al., 1979). There is also evidence that norepinephrine is increased in the heart of malnourished rats (Pissaia et al., 1980).Blatt et al., 1994Ishida et al. 1997Sobotka et al., 1974Stern et al., 1975Resnick et al., 1979Pissaia et al., 1980 Besides its action as a neurotransmitter, 5-HT plays a role in regulating the growth of neural and non-neural tissues (Buznicov et al., 2001). Serotonin is believed to act as a morphogenetic signal in rat embryos, possibly regulating the action or expression of other growth regulatory molecules (Yavarone et al., 1993). Manipulation of the serotonergic system may affect cardiovascular morphogenesis (Negibil et al., 2001) as well as regulating heart cell growth (Yavarone et al., 1993).Buznicov et al., 2001Yavarone et al., 1993Negibil et al., 2001Yavarone et al., 1993 According to these hypotheses, optimal serotonin levels may be mitogenic, although high concentrations of this amine seem to be inhibitory (Yavarone et al., 1993). The use of 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) during development of the embryo decreased the cell proliferation in the myocardium, cardiac mesenchyma and endothelium growth (Yavarone et al., 1993). Fetal and early infancy environmental exposure can impair cardiovascular health and functioning (Mone et al., 2004). Among the cardiovascular problems that may be caused by environmental exposure is abnormal anatomic development (Mone et al., 2004). Therefore there is increasing evidence that the cardiovascular system is susceptible to external influences throughout gestation and after birth (Mone et al., 2004). Considering the nutritional and the neurotransmitters influences on body and heart development it would be very opportune to compare the consequences of the early malnutrition and 5-HT pharmacological manipulations on body and heart growth. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate if malnutrition and/or fluoxetine neonatal treatment program alterations in heart morphology.Yavarone et al., 1993 Mone et al., /10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

73 Introduction Besides its action as a neurotransmitter, 5-HT plays a role in regulating the growth of neural and non-neural tissues (Buznicov et al., 2001). Serotonin is believed to act as a morphogenetic signal in rat embryos, possibly regulating the action or expression of other growth regulatory molecules (Yavarone et al., 1993). Manipulation of the serotonergic system may affect cardiovascular morphogenesis (Negibil et al., 2001) as well as regulating heart cell growth (Yavarone et al., 1993).Buznicov et al., 2001Yavarone et al., 1993Negibil et al., 2001Yavarone et al., 1993 According to these hypotheses, optimal serotonin levels may be mitogenic, although high concentrations of this amine seem to be inhibitory (Yavarone et al., 1993). The use of 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) during development of the embryo decreased the cell proliferation in the myocardium, cardiac mesenchyma and endothelium growth (Yavarone et al., 1993). Fetal and early infancy environmental exposure can impair cardiovascular health and functioning (Mone et al., 2004). Among the cardiovascular problems that may be caused by environmental exposure is abnormal anatomic development (Mone et al., 2004). Therefore there is increasing evidence that the cardiovascular system is susceptible to external influences throughout gestation and after birth (Mone et al., 2004).Yavarone et al., 1993Yavarone et al., 1993Mone et al., 2004Mone et al., 2004Mone et al., 2004 Considering the nutritional and the neurotransmitters influences on body and heart development it would be very opportune to compare the consequences of the early malnutrition and 5-HT pharmacological manipulations on body and heart growth. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate if malnutrition and/or fluoxetine neonatal treatment program alterations in heart morphology. 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

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76 Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in dry tropical forests of Northeast Brazil The arbuscular mycorrhizal association is one of the important strategies used by plants in arid and semiarid regions to support water scarcity and soil nutrient deficiency. In this study the diversity and activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were investigated in two types of dry tropical forest. Soil and roots samples were collected in areas of thorny dry woody savanna (TDWS) and in areas of mixed savanna and montane deciduous shrub (SMDS) in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Twenty seven species from 10 genera of Glomeromycota were identified, and Acaulospora was the most representative. An average of 50 spores per 100 g of soil was recovered from the two areas. The infection potential of the AMF was determined using colonized root fragments and extraradical mycelium and demonstrated the importance of these propagules for the colonization of roots. Under the same semiarid conditions, the two tropical dry forests studied harbored distinct AMF communities indicating that the soil and vegetation type are the key influencers of the composition and activity of these fungi in the studied areas. 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

77 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013 Using eTBLAST to find similar articles

78 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013 Other titles included Oecologia, New Phytologist…

79 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013 EDANZ Journal Selector

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83 Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a semiarid copper mining area in Brazil There are >160 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), whose taxonomic history is recent. Based on their symbiotic habit and morphology, Morton and Benny (1990) included all of the AMF in the order Glomales, with three families (Acaulosporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Glomaceae) and six genera ( Acaulospora, Entrophospora, Gigaspora, Glomus, Sclerocystis and Scutellospora). However, Redecker et al. (2000), using phylogenetic information obtained from morphological and molecular data, transferred the species of Sclerocystis to Glomus, reinforcing the proposal of Almeida and Schenck (1990). Morton and Redecker (2001) created two new families, Archaeosporaceae and Paraglomaceae, respectively, typified by the genera Archaeospora and Paraglomus, and currently the AMF are included in a new phylum: Glomeromycota (Schüssler et al. 2001) The distribution of AMF in natural Brazilian ecosystems has not been well studied: Trufem (1996) mentioned some species in the Amazon and Atlantic provinces, as well as in cerrado areas, without records for other important areas (caatinga in the northeast and pampas in the south). Taxonomic inventories of AMF in undisturbed areas were done in São Paulo (Bononi and Trufem 1983; Trufem 1988, 1990; Trufem et al. 1994; Gomes and Trufem 1998) and Santa Catarina (Stürmer and Bellei 1994). In cultivated areas there are records for the States of São Paulo (Trufem and Bononi 1985; Trufem et al. 1989, 1990; Grandi and Trufem 1991; Carrenho et al. 2001) and Pernambuco (Maia and Trufem 1990; Melo et al. 1997) The excess of heavy metals in soils has a direct toxic effect on plants, being deleterious to the AMF and having an impact on plant and microbial communities (Valsecchi et al. 1995). Various heavy metals are fungitoxic, reducing spore germination, mycelial growth and, consequently, mycorrhizal colonization (Nogueira 1996). An excess of Zn and Cu inhibits spore germination (Hepper 1979), while colonization can be reduced in the presence of high levels of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd (Gildon and Tinker 1983) There are apparently no papers that mention species of AMF in areas in Brazil that have been degraded by mining. However, taxonomic surveys in these areas are important to provide information regarding environmental impact and also about the AMF species that are adapted to this stress condition, and would be useful for revegetation programs. This paper deals with the identification of AMF species that occur in areas affected by copper mining, relating the presence of such species to the levels of environmental impact found in the areas and comparing the occurrence of these fungi with the local plant diversity. 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

84 Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a semiarid copper mining area in Brazil There are >160 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), whose taxonomic history is recent. The distribution of AMF in natural Brazilian ecosystems has not been well studied: The excess of heavy metals in soils has a direct toxic effect on plants, being deleterious to the AMF and having an impact on plant and microbial communities (Valsecchi et al. 1995).1995 There are apparently no papers that mention species of AMF in areas in Brazil that have been degraded by mining This paper deals with the identification of AMF species that occur in areas affected by copper mining, relating the presence of such species to the levels of environmental impact found in the areas and comparing the occurrence of these fungi with the local plant diversity. 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

85 Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in dry tropical forests of Northeast Brazil Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) live in symbiosis with the roots of most terrestrial plants (Smith and Read, 2008, Willis et al., 2013). These fungi provide better conditions for the establishment of the host plant, especially under stress situations such as nutrient deficiency (Smith and Smith, 2012), drought (Cavalcante et al., 2001), soil degradation (Mergulhão et al., 2010) and the attack of plant pathogens (Sikes, 2010). Plants in arid and semiarid environments are exposed to high temperatures, soils with low fertility and long drought periods (Menezes et al., 2012). Water scarcity is considered the most important abiotic factor that limits the growth and productivity of plants in such ecosystems (Almeselmani et al., 2012). Thus, the mycorrhizal association is probably an essential condition for establishment, maintenance and productivity of plants in arid and semiarid environments. Most of the Northeast region of Brazil is characterized by a semiarid climate, with annual high temperatures ranging from 23 to 27ºC and low rainfall. In many areas the average annual rainfall is lower than 1000 mm (Menezes et al., 2012). This region is marked by torrential though extremely irregular rains, followed by periods of six to nine months of drought. The thorny dry woody savanna, composed of plants with adaptations to withstand drought (Giulietti et al., 2006) is the predominant vegetation type in this region and characterizes the biome known as Caatinga, which covers km 2 and represents 70% of the Northeast region (MMA, 2011). The Caatinga harbors a high biological diversity but is poorly studied. Furthermore, it is suffering from anthropic activity and the resultant loss of native fauna and flora (Albuquerque et al., 2012) with areas of preserved vegetation reduced to small fragments. Studies on the ecology of AMF have been conducted in this biome (Carneiro et al., 2012; Mello et al., 2012; Mergulhão et al., 2010), and 79 species of the group have already been recorded (Goto et al., 2010). However, more research is needed, especially in areas as yet not studied, to improve our knowledge about community structure for these important plant symbionts and the role they play in the Brazilian semiarid. New data on the occurrence and distribution of organisms in the Caatinga are essential not only to broaden the understanding about biological diversity of this and other semi-arid biomes but also because they constitute an important tool for its conservation. Thus, in this study we investigated the composition of AMF species, their infectivity potential, and the mycorrhizal conditions of the plants, analyzing the influence of environmental factors on these variables. 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

86 Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in dry tropical forests of Northeast Brazil Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) live in symbiosis with the roots of most terrestrial plants (Smith and Read, 2008, Willis et al., 2013). Plants in arid and semiarid environments are exposed to high temperatures, soils with low fertility and long drought periods (Menezes et al., 2012). Most of the Northeast region of Brazil is characterized by a semiarid climate, with annual high temperatures ranging from 23 to 27ºC and low rainfall. The Caatinga harbors a high biological diversity but is poorly studied. Studies on the ecology of AMF have been conducted in this biome (Carneiro et al., 2012; Mello et al., 2012; Mergulhão et al., 2010), and 79 species of the group have already been recorded (Goto et al., 2010) New data on the occurrence and distribution of organisms in the Caatinga are essential not only to broaden the understanding about biological diversity of this and other semi-arid biomes but also because they constitute an important tool for its conservation. 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

87 Conclusions Hypothesis quality needs to improve Authors can always make a better job of presenting their findings Always aim for an international journal, just makes sure it is the right one Structured Portuguese gives birth to structured English 02/10/2013Ganesha Associates 2013

88 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates88 Ten simple rules to help you get published – Read many papers, and learn from both the good and the bad work of others. It is never too early to become a critic – The more objective you can be about your work, the better that work will ultimately become. – Good editors and reviewers will be objective about your work. – If you do not write well in the English language, take lessons early; it will be invaluable later. – Learn to live with rejection. – Philip E. Bourne, PLoS – document&doi= /journal.pcbi document&doi= /journal.pcbi

89 17 June 2013Ganesha Associates89 Ten simple rules to help you get published – The ingredients of good science are obvious - novelty of research topic, comprehensive coverage of the relevant literature, good data, good analysis including strong statistical support, and a thought-provoking discussion – Start writing the paper the day you have the idea of what questions to pursue – Become a reviewer early in your career. – Decide early on where to try to publish your paper. – Quality is everything – Philip E. Bourne, PLoS – document&doi= /journal.pcbi document&doi= /journal.pcbi


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