Presentation on theme: "Some Weed Management Concepts For the Rio Grande Bosque Los Lunas Plant Materials Center USDA-NRCS Los Lunas, NM From Observations by Greg."— Presentation transcript:
Some Weed Management Concepts For the Rio Grande Bosque Los Lunas Plant Materials Center USDA-NRCS Los Lunas, NM From Observations by Greg
Los Lunas Plant Materials Center Control weeds because they compete with desired plants for water, light, and nutrients
Methods for Controlling Invasive Woody Species (23 pages) Describes control treatments with cost. Treatments include: Manual removal Mechanical grubbing Cut-stump herbicide application Ground based foliar herbicide Aerial herbicide By NM Interagency Weed Action Group
Identifies: 100 common invasive weed species 22 herbicides and rates for control by species Best time for herbicide application. (18 pages) Chemical Weed and Brush Control By: New Mexico State University
Minimize soil surface disturbances Minimize surface irrigation Control noxious weeds (NM List) immediately after disturbance Control invasive immediately after disturbance weeds when possible Weed Management Strategies for Vegetation Treatments
Minimize Soil Surface Disturbance to Minimize Weed Invasion When removing invasive tree and shrub species consider cut stump method instead of extraction if possible Use planting techniques that minimize surface disturbance (planting with a back hoe vs. auger which is preferred) However, soil disturbances that re-connects a site with the hydrology of the river is desirable since most farm weeds do not tolerate ponding
Elevation of flood plain reduced to promote seasonal flooding to establish riparian plant species on the Rio Grande in Belen, NM Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District Project Elevation of flood plain reduced to promote seasonal flooding to establish riparian plant species on the Rio Grande in Bernalillo, NM Bureau of Reclamation Project
Soil Moisture – The Key to Establishing Plants in Arid Regions Precipitation–Limited in quantity, variable in intensity, and erratic in nature Source: Department of Agriculture, 1998 Infiltration – Soil cover (bare, minimal plant litter, and rocky), soil texture, water repellency, disturbance, compaction, micro-topography, pre-existing moisture, surface evaporation Percolation – Water loss to evaporation, drainage below root zone, transpiration; effected by soil texture and hydraulic redistribution
Use Planting Techniques that Utilize Soil Moisture Reservoirs which Limit Surface Disturbance Riparian Shrub and Tree Plantings – tap into shallow groundwater Warm Season Grass Seeding – need a long pulse of shallow soil moisture for germination and early root extension, but also deeper soil moisture to allow establishment
Planting Cottonwood Poles Cottonwood pole cutting rooted near the soil surface and in the capillary fringe of the water table. Planting cottonwood pole cuttings on an ephemeral stream bank near Santa Fe, New Mexico.
8 – 6 – 4 – 2 – 0 – 2 -- Capillary Fringe Gooddings Willow Rio Grande Cottonwood Rio Grande Cottonwood Cottonwood and Willow Dormant Pole Plantings Tree Guard
Along the Rio Santa Fe Near Cochiti Pueblo, New Mexico Before planting in February 1994.Same site six years later.
Electric Rotary Hammer Drills for Planting Coyote Willow Whips Along the Rio Chama north of Espanola, New Mexico. Along the Rio Grande near Pilar, New Mexico.
More Willows Planted With Hammer Drills On the San Juan River near Waterflow, New Mexico. Same site seven months after planting willows.
Transplants Grown inTreepots and Tallpots (2 – 4 year stock) New Mexico olive grown in 14-inch treepots (7:1 shoot-to-root ratio) Skunkbush sumac grown in 30-inch tallpots (3:1 shoot-to-root ratio). New Mexico olive grown in 14-inch treepot (2:1 shoot-to-root ratio)
6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 – 0 – 1 – 2 - Treepot Deep-planted longstem treepot Embedded watering tubes Deep-planted longstem 30” tallpot Capillary fringe Deep-planted longstem treepot 30” Tallpot Feet Ground water Watering tube inserted in case water table drops Longstem Transplant Root Systems Connected to the Capillary Fringe Root crowns
Adventitious Root Development New Mexico olive by September of the second growing season Indigobush by September of the fourth growing season False willow by September of the fourth growing season
Burying the Root Crowns of Tallpot Transplants by Planting in Deep Holes to Reach Capillary Water On the Rio Grande in Bernalillo, New Mexico (December 2006) Same site by the 4 th growing season Rocky Mountain Native Plants Riffle, Colorado Producing ‘Longstem’ Transplants
Warm Season Grass Seeding in Belen, NM Hydro mulching a broadcast grass seeding in summer Average precipitation - 8 inches Soil surface texture - a sandy loam Weed control - mechanical (pond bank was reshaped) Seeding method - hand-broadcasted and hand-raked with volunteers Seeding rate - 60 pls/sq. ft Time of seeding - July Species seeded - mainly warm-season grasses Seeding depth - ½-inch (shallow) Post treatment - wood fiber hydro-mulch Same site after 7 years Same site after 2 Years
Control Weeds Before Seeding Since they compete for water, light, and nutrients Available Tools Include Application of pre-emergence or post-emergent herbicides Mowing or burning. Los Lunas Plant Materials Center
Adapted LLPMC Plant Material Releases (plant populations from service area) Drought Common NameSpecies Cultivar Tolerance Indian ricegrass* Achnatherum hymenoides Paloma High Blue gramaBouteloua gracilis Hachita High Galleta Pleuraphis jamesii Viva High Alkali sacatonSporobolus airoides Salado High Sideoats gramaBouteloua curtipendula Vaughn Medium Alkali muhly Muhlenbergia asperifolia Westwater ---------- Seeded at 60 pls/sq ft. (included 20 pls/sq ft. of Indian ricegrass with 79 % dormant seed) http://plants.usda.gov
Shrub Species that Maybe Easily Established by Seeding Fourwing saltbush Atriplex canescens Winter fat Krascheninnikovia lanata
Los Lunas Plant Materials Center Seed Primary Root System Seminal Roots Coleoptile Adventitious Roots Mesocotyl (Subcoleoptile Internode ) Warm-Season Grass Panicoid Development Cool-Season Grass Festucoid Development Adventitious Root Development Warm-Season versus Cool-Season Grasses ½”
“Inverse Texture Effect” The storage capacity is 4 to 9% for sands, 11 to 15% for sandy loams, and 17 to 23% for fine-textured soils A one inch infiltration event might penetrate 12” in a sand (rapid), 8” in a sandy loam, and 5” in a silty-loam (very slow) Coarse-textured soils hold less water per unit depth but much of the water is sufficiently deep to avoid evaporation whereas in a fine-textured most of the water can be lost to evaporation Therefore, sandy soils often have more useable soil moisture in arid environments than fine textured soils.
Time of Seeding During a Period of Adequate Moisture This requires a series of precipitation events (pulse) that produce a sufficient amount of soil moisture to allow germination and enough root extension to survive succeeding dry periods (at this seeding location, a minimum of 20 days)
Time of Seeding, Continued Warm-season grasses (C4) – July – October (Growth optimum near 90 ° F with minimal growth below 60 ° F, (T.A. Jones, 1997) Cool-season grasses (C3) – July – March (Growth optimum near 70 ° F and continue as low as 35 ° F [T.A. Jones, 1997]) Fall seedings are generally preferred (ETs are low, soil temps warm enough to allow growth) Grass mixes (warm-season and cool-season) – July – October Note: Generally avoid seeding in the months of May and June because they are usually hot, dry, and very windy
January 0.31 0.44 0.38 Establishment Year 2004 February 0.310.46 0.38 March 0.330.54 0.44 April 0.340.52 0.43 May 0.460.50 0.48 June 1.180.70 0.94 1.54 July 1.642.35 2.00 1.98 August 0.892.47 1.68 0.92 September 0.361.56 0.96 0.94 October 0.441.25 0.84 0.73 November 0 0.54 0.27 1.05 December 00.57 0.27 0.46 Total 6.26 11.9 6.96 7.62 Thirty Year Average Precipitation at Los luans, NM (12 miles northwest form the grass seeding) Precip. Min. (in) Precip Max (in) Mean (in) Actual Precip (2004) Source: NMSU LL Science Center Fall killing frost = 10/28 Last spring killing frost = 4/15
Soil Moisture Distribution in Arid Environments Upper 2 4-inches of soil dries out rapidly by evaporation following a precipitation event (little water available for plant uptake) Soil moisture in the top 4 12-inches can persist for several weeks Moisture under unsaturated conditions at depths below 12-inches is primarily lost by plant transpiration (no evaporation and no drainage)
Los Lunas Plant Materials Center Patterns of Soil Water Loss over Time Sandy Loam Surface Soil (0.4 to 1.2 inch depth) Soil Water Content (% vol.) Drying Time (hr) Source : Roundy et al. 1997 Gravel Mulch ¼”
Mulching is a Required Post-Seeding Technique for the Southern Desert Reduces soil surface evaporation and seedling evapotranspiration Lowers soil temperatures Protects soil surface and seedlings from raindrop impact Protects seedlings from desiccation by wind and sandblast damage Reduces surface erosion Improves Infiltration
Currently Evaluating Products with Potential to Increase Available Surface Soil Moisture for Seedling Establishment Wood straw® Mulch Trial – Resistance to movement by wind and water and persists longer than hay $514/Ton Granular hydrogels (starch-based) deposited (dry) into the furrow during seed drilling at a rate of 10, 20, and 30 Lbs/acre in replicated studies Open furrow for demonstration
An Alternative to Large-Scale Seeding Seed Source Islands Because of the expense of most native seed, the cost of seed dispersal operations, and the limited success of such seeding in arid regions often makes large scale seeding difficult to justify.
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