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1. Review- List the major biomes and describe on characteristic of each Compare and Contrast- Choose two very different biomes- for each select a common.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Review- List the major biomes and describe on characteristic of each Compare and Contrast- Choose two very different biomes- for each select a common."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. Review- List the major biomes and describe on characteristic of each Compare and Contrast- Choose two very different biomes- for each select a common plant and animal and compare how the plants and animals have adapted to their biomes 2.Sequence- Imagine you are hiking up a mountain in the temperate forest biome. Describe how the plant life might change as you climb toward the summit


3 Biomes  Described in terms of abiotic factors like climate and soil type, and biotic factors like plant and animal life  Affected by latitude, winds, and proximity to mountains and oceans  Associated with seasonal patterns of temperature and precipitation.

4 Regional Climate


6 Tropical Rain Forest  Home to more species than all the other biomes combined  Get at least 2 meters of rain a year  Canopy  Tall dense trees form leafy covering 50+ meters high  Understory  Shaded region under canopy with shorter trees and vine.

7 Tropical Rain Forest

8  Abiotic Factors  Hot and wet year-round  Thin, nutrient-poor soils that erode easily  Biotic Factors  Plants have large leaves to compete for sunlight  Buttress tree roots for support  Epiphytic plants (parasitic) don’t touch ground  Animals active all year  Many adaptations for climbing, jumping, and/or flight.

9 Tropical Dry Forest  Rainy seasons alternate with dry seasons  Short period of rain is followed by a prolonged period of drought.

10 Tropical Dry Forest

11  Abiotic Factors  Warm year-round, alternating wet and dry seasons  Rich soils are subject to erosion  Biotic Factors  Deciduous plants lose leaves during dry season  Extra thick waxy layer on their leaves to reduce water loss  Estivation- reduced activity of animals during dry season  Seasonal migration.

12 Tropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland  More seasonal rainfall than deserts but less than tropical dry forests  Grassy areas spotted with isolated trees and small groves of trees and shrubs  Compacted soils, fairly frequent fires, and the action of large animals prevent some areas from turning into dry forest.

13 Tropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland

14  Abiotic Factors  Warm, with seasonal rainfall  Compact soil and frequent fires from lightning  Biotic Factors  Waxy leaf coverings and seasonal leaf loss  High silica content in plants to make them less appealing for grazing  Migrate during the dry season in search of water  Burrow and remain dormant for dry season.

15 Desert  Less than 25 centimeters of precipitation annually  Extreme daily temperature changes  Vary greatly depending on elevation and latitude.

16 Desert

17  Abiotic Factors  Low precipitation and variable temperatures  Soils rich in minerals, poor in organic material  Biotic Factors  Store water in their tissues  Specialized leaves with low surface area  Modified photosynthesis- stomata open at night  Nocturnal  Water comes from food  Large extremities to aid body cooling.

18 Temperate Grassland  Covered vast areas of the U.S.  Maintained by periodic fires and heavy grazing by herbivores  Now mainly crops due to high nutrients.

19 Temperate Grassland

20  Abiotic Factors  Thick, rich, high nutrient soil  Biotic Factors  Resistant to grazing and fire (grow from base)  Wind dispersal of seeds  Extensive root systems  Camouflage and burrowing are common.

21 Temperate Woodland and Shrubland  Frequent fires due to plants with high oil content  Varries from  Chaparral- mostly shrubland  Woodland- oaks with large areas or grasses.

22 Temperate Woodland and Shrubland

23  Abiotic Factors  Hot dry summers and cool moist winters  Thin, nutrient-poor soils and experience periodic fires  Biotic Factors  Adapted to drought, tough waxy leaves  Some seeds germinate only with fire  Varied diets  Camouflage.

24 Temperate Forest  Deciduous and evergreen coniferous (cone bearing) trees  Cold winters  Rich, fertile soils with humus- decaying organic matter.

25 Temperate Forest

26  Abiotic Factors  Cold to moderate winters and warm summers  Year-round precipitation and fertile soils  Biotic Factors  Deciduous trees go dormant in winter  Coniferous trees have “needles” to lower water loss  Hibernation, migration, camouflage.

27 Northwestern Coniferous Forest  Mild moist air from the Pacific Ocean  Abundant rainfall due to mountains  “Temperate Rain Forest”  Variety of conifers, along with flowering trees and shrubs such as dogwood and rhododendron. Moss often covers tree trunks and the forest floor.

28 Northwestern Coniferous Forest

29  Abiotic Factors  Mild temperatures  High precipitation in fall, winter, and spring  Cool dry summer  Soils are rocky and acidic  Biotic Factors  Lush, dense plant growth, among the world’s tallest  Browsers- wide variety in diet.

30 Boreal Forest  Taiga  Dense forests of coniferous evergreens  Winters are bitterly cold, but summers are mild and long enough to allow the ground to thaw.

31 Boreal Forest

32  Abiotic Factors  Moderate precipitation and high humidity  Acidic and nutrient-poor soil  Long cold winter and short mild summer  Biotic Factors  Conifers Shape sheds snow, low water loss, dark green absorbs sunlight  Extra insulation- fat or downy feathers  Migration

33 Tundra  Permafrost  Layer of permanently frozen subsoil  Short cool summer thaws ground a few centimeters and becomes soggy  Cold temperatures, high winds, a short growing season, and humus-poor soils also limit plant height.

34 Tundra

35  Abiotic Factors  Strong winds and low precipitation  Long, cold, dark winters  Poor soil  Biotic Factors  Low-growing plants avoid wind damage  Many legumes  Adaptations such as natural antifreeze, small extremities that limit heat loss, and a varied diet  Migration.

36 “Others”  Mountain Ranges  Rainfall and temperature goes down as elevation goes up  Polar Ice Caps.

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