Presentation on theme: "1. Review- List the major biomes and describe on characteristic of each Compare and Contrast- Choose two very different biomes- for each select a common."— Presentation transcript:
1. Review- List the major biomes and describe on characteristic of each Compare and Contrast- Choose two very different biomes- for each select a common plant and animal and compare how the plants and animals have adapted to their biomes 2.Sequence- Imagine you are hiking up a mountain in the temperate forest biome. Describe how the plant life might change as you climb toward the summit
CH 4 ECOSYSTEMS AND COMMUNITIES 4.4 Biomes
Biomes Described in terms of abiotic factors like climate and soil type, and biotic factors like plant and animal life Affected by latitude, winds, and proximity to mountains and oceans Associated with seasonal patterns of temperature and precipitation.
Tropical Rain Forest Home to more species than all the other biomes combined Get at least 2 meters of rain a year Canopy Tall dense trees form leafy covering 50+ meters high Understory Shaded region under canopy with shorter trees and vine.
Tropical Rain Forest
Abiotic Factors Hot and wet year-round Thin, nutrient-poor soils that erode easily Biotic Factors Plants have large leaves to compete for sunlight Buttress tree roots for support Epiphytic plants (parasitic) don’t touch ground Animals active all year Many adaptations for climbing, jumping, and/or flight.
Tropical Dry Forest Rainy seasons alternate with dry seasons Short period of rain is followed by a prolonged period of drought.
Tropical Dry Forest
Abiotic Factors Warm year-round, alternating wet and dry seasons Rich soils are subject to erosion Biotic Factors Deciduous plants lose leaves during dry season Extra thick waxy layer on their leaves to reduce water loss Estivation- reduced activity of animals during dry season Seasonal migration.
Tropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland More seasonal rainfall than deserts but less than tropical dry forests Grassy areas spotted with isolated trees and small groves of trees and shrubs Compacted soils, fairly frequent fires, and the action of large animals prevent some areas from turning into dry forest.
Abiotic Factors Warm, with seasonal rainfall Compact soil and frequent fires from lightning Biotic Factors Waxy leaf coverings and seasonal leaf loss High silica content in plants to make them less appealing for grazing Migrate during the dry season in search of water Burrow and remain dormant for dry season.
Desert Less than 25 centimeters of precipitation annually Extreme daily temperature changes Vary greatly depending on elevation and latitude.
Abiotic Factors Low precipitation and variable temperatures Soils rich in minerals, poor in organic material Biotic Factors Store water in their tissues Specialized leaves with low surface area Modified photosynthesis- stomata open at night Nocturnal Water comes from food Large extremities to aid body cooling.
Temperate Grassland Covered vast areas of the U.S. Maintained by periodic fires and heavy grazing by herbivores Now mainly crops due to high nutrients.
Abiotic Factors Thick, rich, high nutrient soil Biotic Factors Resistant to grazing and fire (grow from base) Wind dispersal of seeds Extensive root systems Camouflage and burrowing are common.
Temperate Woodland and Shrubland Frequent fires due to plants with high oil content Varries from Chaparral- mostly shrubland Woodland- oaks with large areas or grasses.
Temperate Woodland and Shrubland
Abiotic Factors Hot dry summers and cool moist winters Thin, nutrient-poor soils and experience periodic fires Biotic Factors Adapted to drought, tough waxy leaves Some seeds germinate only with fire Varied diets Camouflage.
Temperate Forest Deciduous and evergreen coniferous (cone bearing) trees Cold winters Rich, fertile soils with humus- decaying organic matter.
Abiotic Factors Cold to moderate winters and warm summers Year-round precipitation and fertile soils Biotic Factors Deciduous trees go dormant in winter Coniferous trees have “needles” to lower water loss Hibernation, migration, camouflage.
Northwestern Coniferous Forest Mild moist air from the Pacific Ocean Abundant rainfall due to mountains “Temperate Rain Forest” Variety of conifers, along with flowering trees and shrubs such as dogwood and rhododendron. Moss often covers tree trunks and the forest floor.
Northwestern Coniferous Forest
Abiotic Factors Mild temperatures High precipitation in fall, winter, and spring Cool dry summer Soils are rocky and acidic Biotic Factors Lush, dense plant growth, among the world’s tallest Browsers- wide variety in diet.
Boreal Forest Taiga Dense forests of coniferous evergreens Winters are bitterly cold, but summers are mild and long enough to allow the ground to thaw.
Abiotic Factors Moderate precipitation and high humidity Acidic and nutrient-poor soil Long cold winter and short mild summer Biotic Factors Conifers Shape sheds snow, low water loss, dark green absorbs sunlight Extra insulation- fat or downy feathers Migration
Tundra Permafrost Layer of permanently frozen subsoil Short cool summer thaws ground a few centimeters and becomes soggy Cold temperatures, high winds, a short growing season, and humus-poor soils also limit plant height.
Abiotic Factors Strong winds and low precipitation Long, cold, dark winters Poor soil Biotic Factors Low-growing plants avoid wind damage Many legumes Adaptations such as natural antifreeze, small extremities that limit heat loss, and a varied diet Migration.
“Others” Mountain Ranges Rainfall and temperature goes down as elevation goes up Polar Ice Caps.