Presentation on theme: "1. Review- List the major biomes and describe on characteristic of each Compare and Contrast- Choose two very different biomes- for each select a common."— Presentation transcript:
11. Review- List the major biomes and describe on characteristic of each Compare and Contrast- Choose two very different biomes- for each select a common plant and animal and compare how the plants and animals have adapted to their biomes 2.Sequence- Imagine you are hiking up a mountain in the temperate forest biome. Describe how the plant life might change as you climb toward the summit
3BiomesDescribed in terms of abiotic factors like climate and soil type, and biotic factors like plant and animal lifeAffected by latitude, winds, and proximity to mountains and oceansAssociated with seasonal patterns of temperature and precipitation.
6Tropical Rain ForestHome to more species than all the other biomes combinedGet at least 2 meters of rain a yearCanopyTall dense trees form leafy covering 50+ meters highUnderstoryShaded region under canopy with shorter trees and vine.
8Tropical Rain Forest Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors Hot and wet year-roundThin, nutrient-poor soils that erode easilyBiotic FactorsPlants have large leaves to compete for sunlightButtress tree roots for supportEpiphytic plants (parasitic) don’t touch groundAnimals active all yearMany adaptations for climbing, jumping, and/or flight.
9Tropical Dry Forest Rainy seasons alternate with dry seasons Short period of rain is followed by a prolonged period of drought.
11Tropical Dry Forest Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors Warm year-round, alternating wet and dry seasonsRich soils are subject to erosionBiotic FactorsDeciduous plants lose leaves during dry seasonExtra thick waxy layer on their leaves to reduce water lossEstivation- reduced activity of animals during dry seasonSeasonal migration.
12Tropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland More seasonal rainfall than deserts but less than tropical dry forestsGrassy areas spotted with isolated trees and small groves of trees and shrubsCompacted soils, fairly frequent fires, and the action of large animals prevent some areas from turning into dry forest.
14Tropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland Abiotic FactorsWarm, with seasonal rainfallCompact soil and frequent fires from lightningBiotic FactorsWaxy leaf coverings and seasonal leaf lossHigh silica content in plants to make them less appealing for grazingMigrate during the dry season in search of waterBurrow and remain dormant for dry season.
15Desert Less than 25 centimeters of precipitation annually Extreme daily temperature changesVary greatly depending on elevation and latitude.
17Desert Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors Low precipitation and variable temperaturesSoils rich in minerals, poor in organic materialBiotic FactorsStore water in their tissuesSpecialized leaves with low surface areaModified photosynthesis- stomata open at nightNocturnalWater comes from foodLarge extremities to aid body cooling.
18Temperate Grassland Covered vast areas of the U.S. Maintained by periodic fires and heavy grazing by herbivoresNow mainly crops due to high nutrients.
20Temperate Grassland Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors Thick, rich, high nutrient soilBiotic FactorsResistant to grazing and fire (grow from base)Wind dispersal of seedsExtensive root systemsCamouflage and burrowing are common.
21Temperate Woodland and Shrubland Frequent fires due to plants with high oil contentVarries fromChaparral- mostly shrublandWoodland- oaks with large areas or grasses.
23Temperate Woodland and Shrubland Abiotic FactorsHot dry summers and cool moist wintersThin, nutrient-poor soils and experience periodic firesBiotic FactorsAdapted to drought, tough waxy leavesSome seeds germinate only with fireVaried dietsCamouflage.
24Temperate ForestDeciduous and evergreen coniferous (cone bearing) treesCold wintersRich, fertile soils with humus- decaying organic matter.
26Temperate Forest Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors Cold to moderate winters and warm summersYear-round precipitation and fertile soilsBiotic FactorsDeciduous trees go dormant in winterConiferous trees have “needles” to lower water lossHibernation, migration, camouflage.
27Northwestern Coniferous Forest Mild moist air from the Pacific OceanAbundant rainfall due to mountains“Temperate Rain Forest”Variety of conifers, along with flowering trees and shrubs such as dogwood and rhododendron. Moss often covers tree trunks and the forest floor.
29Northwestern Coniferous Forest Abiotic FactorsMild temperaturesHigh precipitation in fall, winter, and springCool dry summerSoils are rocky and acidicBiotic FactorsLush, dense plant growth, among the world’s tallestBrowsers- wide variety in diet.
30Boreal Forest Taiga Dense forests of coniferous evergreens Winters are bitterly cold, but summers are mild and long enough to allow the ground to thaw.
32Boreal Forest Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors Moderate precipitation and high humidityAcidic and nutrient-poor soilLong cold winter and short mild summerBiotic FactorsConifersShape sheds snow, low water loss, dark green absorbs sunlightExtra insulation- fat or downy feathersMigration
33TundraPermafrostLayer of permanently frozen subsoilShort cool summer thaws ground a few centimeters and becomes soggyCold temperatures, high winds, a short growing season, and humus-poor soils also limit plant height.
35Tundra Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors Strong winds and low precipitationLong, cold, dark wintersPoor soilBiotic FactorsLow-growing plants avoid wind damageMany legumesAdaptations such as natural antifreeze, small extremities that limit heat loss, and a varied dietMigration.
36“Others” Mountain Ranges Polar Ice Caps. Rainfall and temperature goes down as elevation goes upPolar Ice Caps.