2What type of succession occurs after a natural process such as a volcanic eruption or flood? primary successionold-field successionsecondary successionclimax community
3What term is used to refer to the many feeding relationships that are possible in an ecosystem? food webenergy pyramidfood chainenergy transfer
4Which organism is likely to be in the bottom trophic level of a food chain? leopard sealsharkAlgaekiller whale
5Which of the following is an example of secondary succession? breaking down of bare rock by fungi and mossespioneer plants begin to grow after glacial meltinggrowth of plants after a forest is destroyed by fireappearance of weeds in cracks in a concrete surface
6Succession is possible because climates change over time.it is a rapid and chaotic process that is very difficult to control.existing plants reproduce quickly.new species make the environment less suitable for previous ones.
7Plants play a crucial role in the carbon cycle because they do not release carbon dioxide during cellular respiration.allow carbon to enter an ecosystem through photosynthesis.have special bacteria that live in their root systems.are chemically converted into fossil fuels when burned.
8Consumers are organisms that eat only other animal species.get solar or other energy indirectly.are also known as self-feeders.occupy an ecosystem’s lowest energy level.
9Where would you not find primary succession? a new island formed by a volcanic eruptiona gravel-filled valley that had been covered by a glacier until recentlya locked, abandoned asphalt parking lot in New York Citythe Amazon Rain Forest
10Fire Windstorm Flood drought What kind of natural disaster helps some forest communities by allowing some trees to release their seeds, by clearing away deadwood, and by encouraging new growth?FireWindstormFlooddrought
11Which of the following plants is likely to be a pioneer species? LichenshrubGrassoak tree
12Which of the following does not contain carbon from the bodies of plants and animals that died millions of years ago?Coalnatural gasOilphosphate salts
13If an insect eats a plant and a bird eats the insect, about how much energy from the plant is stored in the insect for the bird to use?90 percent10 percent50 percent1 percent
14Which kind of organism obtains energy only from producers? DecomposersomnivoresHerbivorescarnivores
15Which two kingdoms contain organisms that can use energy from the sun to make food? protists and plantsfungi and protistsfungi and plantsplants and animals
16Single-celled organisms with cell walls but no nuclei are fungi.protists.bacteria.sponges
17Which of the following is not a biotic factor in an ecosystem? RootsleavesInsectsoxygen
18One way that bacteria and fungi are important to the environment is that they produce oxygen.use the sun’s energy to make their own food.are a major food source in many ecosystems.break down dead organisms.
19Which of the following best describes a population? members of the same species living in the same place at the same timeall the red birds in an forest, park and zooall types of organisms living in the same place at different timesall members of the same species
20Humans have inadvertently promoted the evolution of insects that are resistant to insecticides by trying to control pests with chemicals.using insecticides that are outdated.using the wrong insecticide.using herbicides
21Which of the following describes soil and temperature in an ecosystem? abiotic factorsunnecessary factorsbiotic factorsselection factors
22Which of the following converts nitrogen in the air into a form plants can use? BacteriaprotistsFungianimals
23Most scientists classify organisms into five kingdoms.three kingdoms.six kingdoms.two groups.
24In order for evolution to occur in a population, individuals with a trait that is “naturally selected for” mustlive a long time.reproduce.leave the area.coevolve.
25The process of two species changing genetically in response to long-term interactions with each other isartificial selection.selective breeding.coevolution.resistance.
26An organism is resistant to a chemical if it has a gene that protects it from the chemical.it evolved overnight to be resistant to itdid not eat anything with the chemical on it.All of the above
27Some organisms are more likely to survive because they have certain physical traits.engage in certain behaviors.lack certain physical traits.All of the above
28The community of a pond is made up of all the abiotic factors in the water.resources organisms need.habitats in and around the water.populations of fish, insects, and other living organisms.
29The organisms most likely to belong to the same species are people at a football game.birds in a forest.bacteria inside a person’s body.fish in a pond.
30The energy in most ecosystems comes from green plants.wind.the sun.cows
31Which of the following is not an ecosystem? Desertcoral reefoak forestutility pole