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Multi-factorial predispositions to emerging infectious diseases: A case of land cover and weather changes and their role in the increased occurrence of.

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Presentation on theme: "Multi-factorial predispositions to emerging infectious diseases: A case of land cover and weather changes and their role in the increased occurrence of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Multi-factorial predispositions to emerging infectious diseases: A case of land cover and weather changes and their role in the increased occurrence of Lyme disease in North Dakota Michael Muleme; Anthony W. Wamono; Eugene S. Berry; Margaret L. Khaitsa

2 OUTLINE Introduction –Review on Lyme disease Methodology Results and Discussion Conclusions

3 Lyme disease Most commonly reported vector borne disease in U.S., Europe and Asia Cause: Borrelia burgdorferi – U.S.A B. afzelii and B. garinii – Asia All the three species – Europe Diagram of Borrelia burgdorferi, MDH

4 Lyme disease Hosts: humans, dogs, horses Deer Chipmunks, mice Vectors: Black-legged ticks Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes pacificus Lyme disease hosts [9]

5 Pathogenesis of Lyme disease Erythema migrans in Lyme patients, MDH

6 Lyme disease: climate Ashley and Meentemeyer, – Average temp 10.8 o C (50 o F) and 19.4 o c (70 o F) – Total precipitation between 19.7cm (7.7 inches) and 37.8cm (14.9 inches). NE & Mid-west USA: Richard Ostfield, 2000

7 Lyme disease: climate McCabe and Bunnel, 2004 :Correlation between climate and Lyme disease, , NE and MW US Dark dots show significance at 95% CI Early spring and summer precipitation were significant

8 Lyme disease: Environment Habitat for black legged ticks Adapted from (MDH) Woody and bushy habitat Provides food and cover for hosts like mice and deer (MDH). Allan, Keesing, Ostfield, Forest fragmentation < 2 ha High nymph density High mice population Low vertebrate hosts High density of infected nymphs

9 Objectives of the study To describe the distribution of Lyme disease cases in North Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin from 1990 to 2010 To assess the influence of climate (temperature and precipitation) and the environment on the occurrence of the disease in North Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin

10 Methodology Data sources Lyme cases –MNDH, WIDH and NDDH –VDL – Animal Lyme cases Climate –NOAA Land use –NASS Human Population –US Census 2010 Data Analysis –Multiple regression, SAS procedure –Arc GIS

11 Objective 1 To describe the distribution of Lyme disease cases in North Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin from 1990 to 2010

12 Human Lyme cases in ND, MN and WI

13 Objective 2 To evaluate the influence of climate and environmental factors on the occurrence of Lyme disease cases in North Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin from 1990 to 2010

14 Climate and Lyme disease in ND, MN and WI, Mean Temperature summer – (ND),63.15 – (MN), – (WI) winter 7.31 – (ND) 9.36 – (MN), – (WI) Fall – (ND), – (MN), 2.52 – 8.15 (WI) Spring – (ND), – (MN), – (WI)

15 Climate and Lyme disease in ND, MN and WI, Annual Precipitation ND – inches MN – inches WI – inches

16 Multiple regression analysis of climate variables and Lyme cases VariableDFEstimate Standard Error t Value Pr > |t| Average summer temperature Total summer precipitation Duration of Summer temperatures Annual precipitation Total Winter precipitation Average winter temperature Total spring precipitation Average spring temperature Total fall precipitation Average fall temperature

17 Land-use changes in ND, MN and WI Forest land coverage ranged 500,000 – 1000,000 acres in ND, 12,000,000 – 16,000,000 acres in MN and from 13,500,000 – 16,000,000 acres in WI. Shrub land cover increased in ND to above 1000,000 acres while that in WI and MN fluctuated below 1000,000 acres.

18 Land use and human population Increase in human population Increased incidence of Lyme disease

19 General remaks –Increase in Average fall temperatures results in a prolonged activity of ticks –High annual precipitation results in increased tick survival –Forests and shrub lands support tick, mice and vertebrate host species. –Increased population results in increased human exposure to ticks.

20 Conclusion Increase in total annual precipitation (P = 0.025) and average fall temperatures (P = ) were significantly associated with the increased occurrence of Lyme disease in ND, MN, WI. Increase in shrub land, forest and woody wetland coverage in ND, which are reported to favor proliferation of ticks, deer and small mammals could be contributing factors to the increased cases of Lyme disease.

21 Acknowledgements Graduate committee: Dr. Margaret Khaitsa Dr. Peter Oduor Dr. Penelope Gibbs Anthony W. Wamono Curt Doetkott Prof. J D Kabasa and Margaret L. Khaitsa PI USAID/HED Grant

22 References WHO (World Health Organization), Disease outbreaks. Available at: Knowles, WRLFMD,, Encyclopedia of Earth, 4.jpg 4.jpg Alexandersen S., Mowat N., 2005,. Current Topic on Microbiology Immunology, 288:9-42. Ayebazibwe, C., Mwiine F. N., Balinda S. N., Tjørnehøj K., Muwanika V. B., Ademun A. O. R., Siegismund H. R., Alexandersen S., 2010c,, Transboundary Emerging Diseases, (in press). 9. d4ebed3861f4bb1850f7b5458e967c96-a4%20Lyme%20Disease%20transmission.jpghttp://scienceblogs.com/clock/wp-content/blogs.dir/458/files/2012/04/i- d4ebed3861f4bb1850f7b5458e967c96-a4%20Lyme%20Disease%20transmission.jpg Wellcome trust jpg jpg Chowell G, Rivas AL, Hengartner NW, Hyman JM, and Castillo-Chavez C Critical response to post-outbreak vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease Keeling MJ, Woolhouse MEJ, May RM, Davies G, Grenfellk BT Modeling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease. Nature, 421: 136 – 141 McCabe GJ, Bunnell JE Precipitation and the occurrence of Lyme disease in the northeastern US, Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases, 4(2):

23 References Ashley TS, Meentemeyer V Climatic analysis of Lyme disease in the United States. Climate Research, 27: 177–187. FMD Reference Laboratories Information System - ReLaIS, NDDA (North Dakota Department of Agriculture, diseasehttp://www.nd.gov/ndda/disease/foot-and-mouth- disease MDH (Minnesota Department of Health Lyme slide), %3Aj2323tveixc&cof=FORID%3A10&ie=UTF-8&submit=GO %3Aj2323tveixc&cof=FORID%3A10&ie=UTF-8&submit=GO Richard Ostefield, Institute of Ecosystem studies, Brian F. Allan, Felicia Keesing, Richard S. Ostfeld. Effect of Forest Fragmentation on Lyme Disease Risk, Volume 17, Issue 1, pages 267–272, February 2003Volume 17, Issue 1,

24 MwebaleMurakoze


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