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Chapter 16 Ecosystems and Biomes Biogeography. Biogeography studies the ecology of a spatial location across time Ecology examines the interaction of.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Ecosystems and Biomes Biogeography. Biogeography studies the ecology of a spatial location across time Ecology examines the interaction of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 Ecosystems and Biomes Biogeography

2 Biogeography studies the ecology of a spatial location across time Ecology examines the interaction of a location’s abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) components [an open system] Ecology was coined/started about 100 years ago by Ellen Swallow at M.I.T.

3 Biotic structure can be hypothesized as a hierarchy of complexity and energy demand within an even greater hierarchy of living and non-living elements of scientific study

4 Ecology Studies Living / Non-Living Feedback Among Organisms Species Populations Communities Ecosystems Ecosphere (Biosphere)

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6 Laws of the Biosphere (1)Law of Production - Biotic Potential [BP] - carrying capacity (2) Law of Adaptation - Darwin’s Natural Selection (3) Law of Fertility - progression of producer-consumer-decomposer

7 Laws of the Biosphere, cont (4) Law of Succession - orderly and progressive sequence of vegetation introduction into newly created or recently modified landscapes - progression to climax vegetation

8 Laws of the Biosphere, cont (5) Law of Control - Limiting Factor Principle - Environmental Resistance [ER] --- density dependent (ex:disease; parasites) --- density independent (ex: climate; soil; human activity; catastrophe) predation

9 Connections: Energy Flow, Matter Cycling and Gravity Life on Earth is dependent on three connected factors: (1) One-way flow of high-quality (useable) energy from the sun (recognizing existence of chemosynthesis) (2) Cycling of matter and energy by living organisms through ecosystems (3) Gravity – constrains atmosphere and creates downward movement of matter / energy cycles (ex: rock cycle; gaseous cycle; biochemical cycle)

10 Carbon and Oxygen Cycles Figure 16.8

11 The Nitrogen Cycle Figure 16.9

12 The Sun: Source of Energy for Life Sun supplies radiant energy, visible light, energy for photosynthesis … primary productivity or biomass (C/sq. m/yr) [6H 2 O+6CO 2 +energy --- C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 ]; factor behind unequal heating that creates temperature zones and winds % hydrogen; 28% helium --- an immense fusion reactor

13 The Sun: Source of Energy for Life - A tiny percentage of solar ejected solar energy reaches the Earth [ %] % of this insolation is reflected by the atmosphere; remaining 66% warms the atmosphere/Earth surface - Most of this energy will inturn become long wave infrared radiation to heat the atmosphere – natural greenhouse effect

14 Functional Format: Chains/Webs (1) Abiotic (including Law of Tolerance/range of tolerance) (2) Autotrophs --- net primary productivity terrestrials: insolation; soil moisture and nutrients; atmospheric CO 2 / O 2 / O 3 ; plant age/species; etc marine: water depth; turbidity; nutrient load; pollution; etc

15 Functional Format: Chains/Webs, cont (3) Heterotrophs (secondary productivity) (1) Herbivores (2) Carnivores (3) Omnivores (4) Detritivores

16 Functional Format: Chains/Webs (4)Decomposers Ecological Pyramids - pyramid of organism numbers - biomass pyramid - productivity

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19 A species occupies a habitat and operates within an ecological niche (niche) - by niche, a species can be classified as a specialist or a generalist And within an ecosystem will develop biotic associations between plant and animal communities

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21 Species in an Ecosystem (1)Native Species (2)Alien (or Immigrant) Species (3)Indicator Species (4)Keystone Species

22 Traits of Vulnerable Species (1)Restricted Range and Habitat (2)Low Biotic Potential (3)Non-Adaptative Behavior (4)Specialized Diet

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24 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems (1)Forest- moderate-to-high annual precipitation; tree and smaller mass vegetation patterns --- classes: tropical rainforest tropical deciduous tropical shrub temperate deciduous evergreen coniferous Restatement of Table 16.2, p. 542

25 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems, cont (2)Grasslands – average annual precipitation patterns sufficient to support grass/shrub vegetation; drought may be common; vegetation bordering on xerophytic --- classes: tropical temperate arctic tundra

26 Classification of Terrestrial Ecosystems, cont (3)Deserts and semi-deserts- locations where evaporation exceeds precipitation; annual average precipitation < 10”; often nutrient- rich soil; frequently saltpan; true xerophytic vegetation --- classes: tropical temperate cold semi-desert

27 Classification of Marine Ecosystems Why are the oceans important? (1) the Earth surface is approximately 72% water (2) Their role in: hydrologic cycle; distribution of solar energy; CO 2 sink; generation of pressure systems; food source; habitat; minerals; pollution dispersion; etc

28 Classification of Marine Ecosystems, cont Ocean Zones Oceans have two major life zones (1) Coastal - relatively warm; nutrient rich; high-water mark to continental shelf; <10% of ocean area, contains 90% of marine species; high net primary productivity per unit of area

29 (1) Coastal, cont --- coral reefs – most threatened ecosystem in coastal zone We’ve mentioned: --- estuaries --- coastal wetlands --- beaches – barrier and rocky --- barrier islands

30 (2) Open Ocean-vast area of Earth oceans; only about 10% of marine species inhabit; average net primary productivity per unit is low -comprised by three vertical zones --- euphotic --- bathyl --- abyssal


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