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Biomes (6-3) Different climates lend to differing organisms & vegetations –Due to... Pptn., temp., soil type.

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Presentation on theme: "Biomes (6-3) Different climates lend to differing organisms & vegetations –Due to... Pptn., temp., soil type."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomes (6-3) Different climates lend to differing organisms & vegetations –Due to... Pptn., temp., soil type

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3 Dry woodlands and shrublands (chaparral) Temperate grassland Temperate deciduous forest Boreal forest (taiga), evergreen coniferous forest (e.g., montane coniferous forest) Arctic tundra (polar grasslands) Tropical savanna, thorn forest Tropical scrub forest Tropical deciduous forest Tropical rain forest, tropical evergreen forest Desert Ice Mountains (complex zonation) Semidesert, arid grassland Tropic of Capricorn Equator Tropic of Cancer

4 Major biomes Artic tundra Boreal forest (taiga); evergreen coniferous Temperate deciduous forest Temperate grassland Dry woodlands & shrublands (chaparral) Desert Tropical rain forest, tropical evergreen forest Tropical deciduous forest Tropical scrub forest Tropical savanna, thorn forest Semidesert, arid grassland Mountains

5 Mountain Ice and snow Altitude Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Coniferous Forest Tropical Forest Deciduous Forest Tropical Forest Deciduous Forest Coniferous Forest Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Polar ice and snow Latitude

6 Tropical desert (Saudi Arabia)

7 Temperate desert (Reno, Nevada)

8 Polar desert (northwest China)

9 Tropical grassland (savanna) (Harare, Zimbabwe)

10 Temperate grassland (Lawrence, Kansas)

11 Polar grassland (arctic tundra) (Fort Yukon, Alaska)

12 Tropical rain forest (Manaus, Brazil)

13 Temperate deciduous forest (Nashville, Tennessee)

14 Polar evergreen coniferous forest (boreal forest, taiga) (Moscow, Russia)

15 Desert Little ppt./vegetation Tropical; temperate; polar Cover 30% of Earth

16 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Fungi Gambel's quail Red-tailed hawk Collared lizard Jack rabbit Yucca Kangaroo rat Agave Roadrunner Diamondback rattlesnake Darkling beetle Darkling beetle Bacteria Prickly pear cactus Prickly pear cactus

17 Tropical –Hot/dry most of year –Few plants, rocks, sand Temperate –High day temps in summer; low temps in winter –More rain than tropical –Drought resistant; widely spaced plants Cold deserts –Cold winters; warm summers; low rainfall Semi-desert –Between desert & grassland –Thorn trees; shrubs; brief heavy rain

18 Survival techniques in deserts Drop leaves No leaves, store water in fleshy tissue Open pores for night Long tap roots Thick, waxy leaves (reduce evaporation) Biomass in seeds for years of dormancy Animals are small –Nocturnal –Some dormant during hot times –Insects/reptiles have thick coats to conserve water –Concentrated feces/urine

19 Natural Capital Degradation Deserts Large desert cities Soil destruction by off- road vehicles and urban development Soil sanitization from irrigation Depletion of underground water supplies Land disturbance and pollution from mineral extraction Storage of toxic and radioactive wastes Large arrays of solar cells and solar collectors used to produce electricity

20 Deserts Plant grow is slow Low species diversity Slow nutrient cycling Human impact –Off-road vehicles

21 Dry GrasslandMoist Grassland WarthogThompson's gazelle WaterbuckGrant's zebra Beisa oryx Topi Cape buffaloWildebeest

22 Dry Thorn ScrubRiverine Forest Dik-dikEast African eland Blue duikerGreater kudu Bushbuck Black rhino Giraffe African elephant Gerenuk

23 Grasslands (prairies) Enough water for grasses Little amount of trees Grazing by herbivores Fires keep shrubs & trees from growing 3 types –Tropical –Temperate –Polar

24 Savanna –Warm temps year round –2 dry seasons Grazing animals Lots of niches Competition for plants minimized Animals killed for coats, tusks Farmers try to raise cattle Loss of vegetation; soil compaction

25 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Fungi Bacteria Golden eagle Prairie dog Blue stem grass Blue stem grass Coyote Grasshopper sparrow Grasshopper sparrow Pronghorn antelope Prairie coneflower Prairie coneflower

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27 Temperate grasslands Cold winters; hot, dry summers Fertile soils NA; SA; Europe; Asia Grasses adapted to fire High evaporation Used to raise cattle & crops Easily plowed for crops Overgrazing leads to sagebrush desert

28 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All consumers and producers to decomposers Lemming Arctic fox Horned lark Mosquito Grizzly bear Long-tailed jaeger Caribou Willow ptarmigan Snowy owl Dwarf willow Mountain cranberry Moss campion

29 Polar grasslands (arctic tundra) Treeless Cold plains Long, dark winters Low ppt. Grass, mosses 6-8 weeks of summer Permafrost Migratory birds Small herbivores (lemmings, hares, voles) Predators (lynx, weasel, artic fox) Slow decomposition Soil is poor in nutrients Oil drilling & mining

30 Natural Capital Degradation Grasslands Conversion of savanna and temperate grasslands to cropland Release of CO 2 to atmosphere from burning and conversion of grassland to cropland Overgrazing of tropical and temperate grasslands by livestock Damage to fragile arctic tundra by oil production, air and water pollution, and off-road vehicles

31 Chaparral (temperate shrubland) Coastal regions that border deserts Evergreen shrubs Occasional trees Swift moving fires Ideal climate for humans Floods/mudslides

32 Forest Biomes Moderate to high rainfall 3 types –Tropical –Temperate –Boreal (polar)

33 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Fungi Bacteria Bromeliad Ants Tree frog Green tree snake Katydid Climbing monstera palm Squirrel monkeys Blue and gold macaw Harpy eagle Ocelot Slaty-tailed trogon Slaty-tailed trogon

34 Harpy eagle Toco toucan Wooly opossum Brazilian tapir Black-crowned antpitta Shrub layer Canopy Emergent layer Understory Ground layer Ground layer Height (meters)

35 Tropical rain forests –Near equator –Hot, humid conditions –Daily rainfall Broadleaf evergreens w/shallow roots Dense canopy Epiphytes (like orchids) Great diversity 2% of land surface ½ of terrestrial species Little litter on floor Poor soil

36 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Bacteria Fungi Wood frog Racer Shagbark hickory White-tailed deer White-footed mouse White oak Gray squirrel Hairy woodpecker Broad-winged hawk Long-tailed weasel Long-tailed weasel May beetle Mountain winterberry Mountain winterberry Metallic wood-boring beetle and Metallic wood- boring beetle and larvae Figure 6-31 Page 123

37 Temperate deciduous forest –Moderate, ave temps, abundant rain, long, warm summers Deciduous trees Few species of trees Sunlight penetrates canopy Thick layer of leaf litter Bears, wolves, deer Tree plantations (one type of tree) Migratory birds

38 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Bacteria Bunchberry Starflower Fungi Snowshoe hare Bebb willow Moose Wolf Balsam fir Blue jay Great horned owl Great horned owl White spruce White spruce Pine sawyer beetle and larvae Marten

39 Evergreen coniferous forests (boreal) –South of arctic tundra Long, dry extremely cold winters 6-8 hrs. of sunlight in winter 19 hrs. of sunlight in summer Coniferous trees (spruce, fir) Slow decomposition High soil acidity

40 Mountain biomes High-elevated forest Dramatic changes w/altitude Prone to erosion when vegetation is removed Great habitats/sanctuary for animals Help regulate climate Snow peaks reflect solar radiation Big part of hydrologic cycle Under pressure from humans


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