Presentation on theme: "Floral Design What is the history of floral design and what are some techniques used by florists?"— Presentation transcript:
Floral Design What is the history of floral design and what are some techniques used by florists?
Key Questions How were flowers used in past civilizations? How can you increase flower vase life? What are the rules that control correct color use? What are the four major wiring techniques? What are the different types of permanent flowers?
How were flowers used in past civilizations? Classical flower arranging Egyptians Used flowers to beautify homes Used flowers as offerings to gods in ceremonies Created simple designs Used roses, narcissus, water lilies, bachelor buttons, violets
Greeks Scattered petals on ground during festivals Made floral wreaths to be worn or carried Romans Floral garland- a rope-like arrangement, similar to a wreath without the circular form
European Floral Design Rooted in Greek and Roman cultures Design periods Renaissance Baroque Flemish Victorian
Oriental Floral Design Buddhist priest used flowering shrub branches in ceremonies Chinese priests used large pottery urns, rather than placing the branches directly on the altar Ikenobo design Developed by Japanese Had specific written rules Each flower has a specific meaning and exact location in an arrangement
American Floral Design Victorian design style- pattern of early American design style brought from Europe Williamsburg design style- American version of Victorian style. Large round floral arrangements using different kinds and colors of flowers Corsage- small bouquet for a woman to wear, became popular in the 1920s
How can you increase the vase life of flowers? Most cut flowers imported from South America Conditioning cut flowers 1. Remove excess foliage and thorns Remove any leaves below water in bucket Bacteria will quickly decompose leaves Thorns may damage other flowers 2. Re-cutting stems Bubbles of air in stem block water uptake Make fresh cut removing ½” to 1” of old stem Make fresh cut under water to prevent new air bubbles
3. Flower preservatives Chemicals added to water to increase vase life of cut flowers Prevent bacterial growth Vase life- period of time after cutting flowers that they can be held and look good Always use plastic buckets 4. Water for flowers Use warm tap water (100-105 degrees) Place in 34-38 degree cooler
What are the rules that control correct color use? Color is the most important element in visual arts Primary colors Red, Yellow, Blue Secondary Colors Green= blue + yellow Violet= blue + red Orange= red + yellow
Red and yellow Warm colors Advance to viewer Blue and green Cold colors Move away from viewer Hue- pure color without adding black or white Tint- white added to hues Shade- black added to hues
Analogous colors- hues next to each other on the color wheel Analogous color scheme- combining three touching hues Complementary colors- hues directly opposite each other, one primary the other secondary
What are the art principles used in floral design? Proportion and scale Proportion- pleasing relationship in size and shape Scale- deals with relative size among things Height of arrangement to container size- Tall containers- 11/2 to 2 times as tall as the height of the container Low containers- 11/2 to 2 times as tall as the width of the container
Balance Physical balance- actual stability of plant materials, will not fall over Visual balance- perception of arrangement being in balance in appearance Symmetrical balance- two equal halves when vertical line drawn through center Asymmetrical balance- two halves not equal- informal
Rhythm Related, orderly organization of design elements Dominance One design element is more prevalent than other elements
Ten cardinal design rules 1. Create arrangement height with placement of first flower 2. Work down from top of arrangement to the container 3. Place small flower or buds at top of the arrangement 4. Place large flowers near the container 5. Use light color flowers near the top of the arrangement 6. Use dark color flowers near the container
7. Place flowers at the top of arrangements farther apart. 8. Place flowers near the container closer together. 9. Start at the back of the arrangement and work toward the front. 10. Establish the focal point at the top edge of the container.
What are the four major wiring techniques? Florist wire is 18” long with diameter fo #18 to #30 Smaller #= larger diameter Larger #= smaller diameter Number 18, 20, and 22 wire used for funeral bouquets and other floral arrangements Number 24 to 30 used for corsage and wedding bouquets Floral tape- floral stem wrap to cover wires
Pierce Method Works best on flowers with large calyx Ex. Roses and carnation Daisy Hook Method Works best for corsages and boutonnieres made of daisies Wrap-around method Used to make a small cluster of filler flowers for corsages or wedding bouquets Splinting method Helps support weak flower stems Roses and carnation usually need support
What are the different types of permanent flowers? 1950s- manufactured plastic flowers became popular Silk flower- artificial flowers made of polyester, introduced in the 1970s Natural material- dried flowers and weeds used in arrangements