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Ecological Aspects of Pest Management Ecosystem Concept.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecological Aspects of Pest Management Ecosystem Concept."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecological Aspects of Pest Management Ecosystem Concept

2 Ecosystem Concepts Individuals Individuals Population Population Community Community These are influenced by physical environment These are influenced by physical environment Complex of biotic/abiotic factors in an ecosystem Complex of biotic/abiotic factors in an ecosystem

3 Ecosystem Concepts Individual - primary importance to study Individual - primary importance to study Behavior, physiology, morphology, response to others of same species Behavior, physiology, morphology, response to others of same species Population - also of primary importance Population - also of primary importance Populations of different species coexist - Populations of different species coexist - Community Level - any given habitat seems to have a finite saturation level (K). Community Level - any given habitat seems to have a finite saturation level (K).

4 Ecosystem Concepts Ecological Niche Concept - Ecological Niche Concept -

5 Ecosystem Concepts Ecological Niche Concept - Ecological Niche Concept - Set of resources that provides a species with all of its requirements for existence and reproduction Set of resources that provides a species with all of its requirements for existence and reproduction Individual requisites necessary for survival Individual requisites necessary for survival Population requisites - broad vs. narrow Population requisites - broad vs. narrow Limit to number of species that can occupy an area (K). Limit to number of species that can occupy an area (K).

6 Ecosystem Concepts Structural complexity - 2 components Structural complexity - 2 components 1. Number of plant species, or species richness 1. Number of plant species, or species richness 2. Physical structure of system 2. Physical structure of system More plants than herbivores, more herbivores than natural enemies More plants than herbivores, more herbivores than natural enemies Different plant stages - different, new resources Different plant stages - different, new resources

7 Ecosystem Concepts Colonization of Islands Colonization of Islands

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9 Ecosystem Concepts r versus K strategists r versus K strategists r - early colonizers; r based on reproduction r - early colonizers; r based on reproduction r colonizers tolerate harsh conditions; then they modify their conditions, which allows other colonizers. r colonizers tolerate harsh conditions; then they modify their conditions, which allows other colonizers. 2 phases of colonization: 1) non-interactive phase; 2) Interactive phase. 2 phases of colonization: 1) non-interactive phase; 2) Interactive phase.

10 Ecological Concepts 5 factors influencing the number of arthropod species: 5 factors influencing the number of arthropod species: 1) Plant species diversity 1) Plant species diversity 2) Plant Structural diversity 2) Plant Structural diversity 3) Distance of community from source of colonists 3) Distance of community from source of colonists 4) Length of contemporary time available for colonization 4) Length of contemporary time available for colonization 5) Evolutionary time available for coevolution between herbivores and host plants. 5) Evolutionary time available for coevolution between herbivores and host plants.

11 Ecological Concepts Crop Islands - uncultivated areas can be overwintering/refuge sites for pests and beneficials - farmscaping, hedges/windrows. Crop Islands - uncultivated areas can be overwintering/refuge sites for pests and beneficials - farmscaping, hedges/windrows. Crop fields are invaded by insects coming from various distances Crop fields are invaded by insects coming from various distances Matrix - crops, uncultivated fields, fallow fields, other crops. Matrix - crops, uncultivated fields, fallow fields, other crops. Nature of the Crop Island - short or long term; broccoli versus orchard. Nature of the Crop Island - short or long term; broccoli versus orchard. Plant spp. diversity, plant structural diversity and length of time available Plant spp. diversity, plant structural diversity and length of time available

12 Ecological Concepts Short season crops - create stability; no equilibrium due to short time Short season crops - create stability; no equilibrium due to short time Humans moving pests/crops - Japanese beetle, Colorado potato beetle Humans moving pests/crops - Japanese beetle, Colorado potato beetle

13 Ecological Concepts Community succession Community succession Initial dispersers - wind dispersed seed - dandylions, thistles, milkweed, Initial dispersers - wind dispersed seed - dandylions, thistles, milkweed, Later - shrub seeds, tree seeds - carried by birds. Later - shrub seeds, tree seeds - carried by birds. r - reproductive strategy r - reproductive strategy K - competitive strategy K - competitive strategy

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15 Agroecosystems Island Biogeography Island Biogeography Community Succession Community Succession

16 Farmer’s Strategies 1) Mechanized and commercial preparation of seeds and planting to replace the natural dispersal system 1) Mechanized and commercial preparation of seeds and planting to replace the natural dispersal system 2) Fertilizers - replace natural cycles 2) Fertilizers - replace natural cycles 3) Chemical or power weeding 3) Chemical or power weeding 4) Soil preparation and treatment - replace natural systems 4) Soil preparation and treatment - replace natural systems 5) Application of controls - pesticides 5) Application of controls - pesticides 6) New varieties - against insects, disease and weeds. 6) New varieties - against insects, disease and weeds.


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