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11 ES1050 – Introductory Engineering Design and Innovation Studio Introduction to Design Process Customers’ Needs Product Design Specifications Prof. Paul.

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Presentation on theme: "11 ES1050 – Introductory Engineering Design and Innovation Studio Introduction to Design Process Customers’ Needs Product Design Specifications Prof. Paul."— Presentation transcript:

1 11 ES1050 – Introductory Engineering Design and Innovation Studio Introduction to Design Process Customers’ Needs Product Design Specifications Prof. Paul Kurowski

2 2

3 3 WHAT versus HOW First, designers need to know WHAT the customer wants Then, designers need to determine HOW to meet the customer requirements

4 4 What the customer wants? Customer requirements: Must be discriminatory Must be measurable Must be orthogonal (no overlapping of requirements) Must be universal (applicable to all alternatives under consideration) Must be external to problem (not impose design choices)

5 5 Customer Requirements: WHAT Examples of customer requirements (BBQ lighter) : Easy to use Lightweight Stylish Reliable Affordable Performs a desired function (lights up a BBQ) Customer Requirements are qualitative

6 6 Product Design Specifications: HOW Selected product design specifications (BBQ lighter) Length 20 cm Weight 0.1N Flame length 30mm Works 500 times on one load 0.2N force required to release the trigger Product Design Specifications describe features and characteristics present in the product. Product Design Specifications are quantitative, must be measurable in numbers with clearly specified units.

7 7 Product Design Specifications: HOW Other names for engineering design specifications include: Engineering design specifications Engineering requirements Design requirements Functional requirements Objectives and constraints Technical requirements Technical specifications

8 8 How can we classify product design specifications and what is their importance in satisfying customers’ requirements? Not all customers’ requirements can be met 100%, some are mutually exclusive so a compromise must be found. How to satisfy customers? Product Design Specifications:

9 9 As marketing requested it As sales ordered it As engineering designed it As production manufactured it As plant installed it What the customer really wanted ! Different Perspectives of the Same Problem

10 10 Kano Diagram of Customer Satisfaction Basic features  Must be present, expected Performance features  The more there is the happier the customer Excitement features  Exciting, new, unexpected features Over time, excitement features become basic features

11 11 Understanding the Customer

12 12 Quality Function Deployment * (QFD) is a technique developed in Japan during the mid-1970's for better understanding the design problem, in particular of customer needs. * Deployment: the distribution of forces in preparation for battle or work

13 13 Quality Function Deployment (QFD) General Comments: No matter how well the design team thinks it understands a problem, it should employ the QFD technique for all design projects, because in the process the team will learn what it doesn't know about the problem. The customer's requirements must be translated into measurable design targets before a large amount of time and resources are invested in the design effort. It is important to first consider what needs to be designed and, only after that is fully understood, to worry about how the design will look and work.

14 14 SHRUB PROTECTOR

15 15 We want to develop a new product. Something that will protect shrubs from being eaten by bunnies, groundhogs etc. We will use the QFD technique to link customer requirements with engineering specifications. Design Need Products that meet our needs Paths of the Design Process We are here SHRUB PROTECTOR

16 16 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? House owners, …… SHRUB PROTECTOR

17 17 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? Effective in protecting shrubs Easy to install Inexpensive Looks good Long lasting Adjustable to size SHRUB PROTECTOR

18 18 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? Effective in protecting shrubs5 Looks good2 Long lasting1 Easy to install4 Inexpensive3 Adjustable to size3 5 – very important, 4 – important 3 – somewhat important 2 - minimally important 1 – not that important SHRUB PROTECTOR

19 19 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? Size Strength of material Weight Oxidation resistance # of sections SHRUB PROTECTOR

20 20 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? SHRUB PROTECTOR

21 21 SHRUB PROTECTOR m% * Ndays[1] * % of modulus of elasticity of steel

22 22 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? SHRUB PROTECTOR

23 23 SHRUB PROTECTOR m% * Ndays[1]

24 24 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? SHRUB PROTECTOR ? (new product)

25 25 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? The eight basic steps in the Quality Function Deployment technique are: SHRUB PROTECTOR ? (new product)

26 26 SHRUB PROTECTOR

27 27 Summary of Steps in QFD 1. Identify the customers  Who are they? 2. Determine the customers' requirements  What do the customers want? 3. Determine relative importance of the requirements 4. Generate engineering specifications 5. Relate customers’ requirements to engineering specifications 6. Identify relationships between engineering requirements 7. Identify and evaluate the competition  How satisfied is the customer now? 8. Set engineering targets  How much is good enough?

28 28 CRAMPONS

29 29 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? People who walk on glaciers or snow fields CRAMPONS – STEP 1

30 30 Ability to walk on ice and hard snow Ability to climb on ice but no “hard core” climbing Lightweight Easy to attach Stays on firmly Easy to detach Snow won’t stick Use with “normal” boots CRAMPONS – STEP 2 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough?

31 31 5 – very important, 4 – important 3 – somewhat important 2 - minimally important 1 – not that important Ability to walk on ice and hard snow5 Ability to climb on ice but no “hard core” climbing2 Lightweight3 Easy to attach3 Stays onfirmly5 Easy to detach2 Snow won’t stick4 Use with “normal” boots any size5 CRAMPONS – STEP 3 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough?

32 32 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? Walk on ice, snow Easy climb Lightweight Easy to attach Stays on firmly Easy to detach Snow won’t stick Normal boots CRAMPONS – STEP Low maintenance 3 Customer requirements and their relative importance 1 - 5

33 33 CRAMPONS – STEP 4 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough?

34 34 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? Walk on ice, snow Easy climb Lightweight Easy to attach Stays on firmly Easy to detach Snow won’t stick Normal boots Material # of spikes front. # of straps Time to attach Force to dislodge CRAMPONS – STEP # of spikes rear. Time to detach Low maintenance 3 Finish Material no stick plates Engineering specifications Customer requirements and their relative importance Scale Notes: Material is material density as % of steel Material of no stick plates is coefficient of friction with snow Days: # of days in salt spray to first sign of corrosion

35 35 CRAMPONS – STEP 5 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough?

36 36 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? Walk on ice, snow Easy climb Lightweight Easy to attach Stays on firmly Easy to detach Snow won’t stick Normal boots Material # of spikes front. # of straps Time to attach CRAMPONS – STEP # of spikes rear. Time to detach Low maintenance 3 Finish Material no stick plates Relations between customer requirements and engineering specifications Scale 1 – 9 1 – week relation 9 – very strong relation Force to dislodge UNITS % days s s N ABSOLUTE IMPORTANCE %11%7% 33%15% 9% RELATIVE IMPORTANCE Relative importance of engineering specifications

37 37 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? CRAMPONS – STEP 6

38 38 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? Walk on ice, snow Easy climb Lightweight Easy to attach Stays on firmly Easy to detach Snow won’t stick Normal boots Material # of spikes front. # of straps Time to attach Force to dislodge CRAMPONS – STEP # of spikes rear. Time to detach Low maintenance 3 Finish Material no stick plates Relations between engineering specifications Scale UNITS % days s s N ABSOLUTE IMPORTANCE %11%7% 33%15% 9% RELATIVE IMPORTANCE

39 39 CRAMPONS – STEP 7 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough?

40 40 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? CRAMPONS – STEP 7 B A

41 41 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? Walk on ice, snow Easy climb Lightweight Easy to attach Stays on firmly Easy to detach Snow won’t stick Normal boots Material # of spikes front. # of straps Time to attach Force to dislodge CRAMPONS – STEP # of spikes rear. Time to detach Low maintenance 3 Finish Material no stick plates AB 3 5 Competition evaluated Scale UNITS % days s s N Competition rated Mass A B g Price $ ABSOLUTE IMPORTANCE %11%7% 33%15% 9% RELATIVE IMPORTANCE

42 42 CRAMPONS – STEP 8 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough?

43 43 1.Identify the customers: Who are they? 2.Determine the customers' requirements: What do the customers want? 3.Determine relative importance of the requirements: Who versus what 4.Generate engineering specifications: How will the customers' requirements be met? 5.Relate customers, requirements to engineering specifications: Hows measure whats? 6.Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the "hows" dependent on each other? 7.Identify and evaluate the competition: How satisfied is the customer now? 8.Set engineering targets: How much is good enough? CRAMPONS – STEP 8 Walk on ice, snow Easy climb Lightweight Easy to attach Stays on firmly Easy to detach Snow won’t stick Normal boots Material # of spikes front. # of straps Time to attach Force to dislodge # of spikes rear. Time to detach Low maintenance 3 Finish Material no stick plates AB 3 5 UNITS % days s s N OUR TARGETS UNITS % days s s N A B g Price $ Our engineering targets ABSOLUTE IMPORTANCE %11%7% 33%15% 9% RELATIVE IMPORTANCE

44 44 CRAMPONS – STEP 8 Engineering targets (Design Specifications)

45 45 DESIGN INFLUENCE ON PRODUCT COST Specification Development % of product cost committed Conceptual Design Detailed Product Design Time Having completed the design specification phase we have already committed 40% of product cost!

46 46 CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS IMPORTANCE RELATIONSHIP MATRIX COMPETITION TARGETS ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS CORRELATION MATRIX WHO? 1. Identify customers: Who are they? QFD Chart also called HOUSE OF QUALITY

47 47 CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS IMPORTANCE RELATIONSHIP MATRIX COMPETITION TARGETS CORRELATION MATRIX WHO? 2. Determine customers’ requirements: What do customers need and want? ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS QFD Chart also called HOUSE OF QUALITY

48 48 CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS IMPORTANCE RELATIONSHIP MATRIX COMPETITION TARGETS CORRELATION MATRIX WHO? 3. Determine the relative importance of customers’ requirements. ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS QFD Chart also called HOUSE OF QUALITY

49 49 CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS IMPORTANCE RELATIONSHIP MATRIX COMPETITION TARGETS CORRELATION MATRIX WHO? 4. Generate engineering requirements (PDS): How will the customers’ requirements be met? ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS QFD Chart also called HOUSE OF QUALITY

50 50 CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS IMPORTANCE RELATIONSHIP MATRIX COMPETITION TARGETS CORRELATION MATRIX WHO? 5. Relate customers’ requirements to engineering requirements ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS QFD Chart also called HOUSE OF QUALITY

51 51 CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS IMPORTANCE RELATIONSHIP MATRIX COMPETITION TARGETS CORRELATION MATRIX WHO? 6. Identify relationships between engineering requirements ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS QFD Chart also called HOUSE OF QUALITY

52 52 CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS IMPORTANCE RELATIONSHIP MATRIX COMPETITION TARGETS CORRELATION MATRIX WHO? 7. Identify and evaluate competition. How satisfied is the customer now? ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS QFD Chart also called HOUSE OF QUALITY

53 53 8. Set engineering targets How much is good enough? CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS IMPORTANCE RELATIONSHIP MATRIX COMPETITION TARGETS CORRELATION MATRIX WHO? ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS QFD Chart also called HOUSE OF QUALITY

54 54 HAVE WE MET OUR TARGETS AT THE END OF THE DESIGN PROCESS? Beginning of design process: PDS End of design Process: Prototype ?

55 55 GARLIC PRESS Customers:restaurant chefsoccasional users Customers’ requirements: Fast83 Easy to clean42 Durable82 Inexpensive19 Makes “good texture” of garlic75 Easy to use48

56 56 PROFESSIONAL GARLIC PRESSES Price $100 - ???

57 57 Price $15-$30 GARLIC PRESSES FOR OCCASIONAL USERS

58 58 GARLIC PRESS Customer requirements Fast Easy to clean Durable Inexpensive Good texture of garlic Easy to use Engineering specifications: Size[mm] Elasticity of material[% of modulus of elasticity of steel] Weight[N] Oxidation resistance[days under salt spray until first corrosive damage] Ease of cleaning[min] Force required to operate[N]

59 59 GARLIC PRESS

60 60 BBQ LIGHTER Customer requirements (simplified list) Lights up BBQ Easy to operate Safe Lasts long time Inexpensive

61 61 BBQ LIGHTER Initial engineering specifications (simplified list) Neck length 180mm Force to release the trigger 3N Safety switch requiring two hands operation Gas tank volume 20cm 3 PCB injection molded housing 180mm Trigger Safety switch Housing Lights up BBQ Easy to operate Safe Lasts long time Inexpensive

62 62 BBQ LIGHTER

63 63 BBQ LIGHTER Competitive engineering specifications (simplified list) Neck length 180mm >>>>>> 220mm Force to release the trigger 3N >>>>> 2N Safety switch requiring two hands operation - unchanged Gas tank volume 20cm 3 >>>>> 25cm 3 ABS housing >>>>> Nylon housing 180mm Trigger Safety switch Housing

64 64 The QFD technique ensures that the problem is well understood by forcing the designer(s) to do an in-depth investigation of the problem. The QFD technique can be also applied during the later phases of the design process. We may use this technique to develop a better measure for functions, assemblies, or components in terms of cost, failure modes, or other characteristics. FURTHER COMMENTS ON QFD

65 65 1. Product Planning- Translating what the customer wants (in their language, e.g., portable, convenient phone service) into a list of prioritized product/service design requirements (in your language, e.g., cell phones) that describes how the product works. It also compares your performance with your competition's, and sets targets for improvement to differentiate your product/service from your competitor's. 2. Part Planning - Translating product specifications (design criteria from step 1) into part characteristics (e.g., light weight, belt-clip, battery-driven, not- hardwired but radio-frequency based). 3. Process Planning - Translating part characteristics (from step 2) into optimal process characteristics that maximize your ability to deliver Six Sigma quality. 4. Production Planning - Translating process characteristics (from step 3) into manufacturing or service delivery methods that will optimize your ability to deliver Six Sigma quality in the most efficient manner (e.g., cellular antennas installed with overlapping coverage to eliminate dropped calls). FOUR PHASE QFD APPROACH

66 66 FOUR PHASE QFD APPROACH Product PlanningComponent Design Process PlanningProduction Planning

67 67 TWO PHASE QFD APPROACH


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