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Using 3-D Landscape Visualization to Simulate Forest Management Impacts David J. Buckley Pacific Meridian Resources Joseph K. Berry Berry & Associates.

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Presentation on theme: "Using 3-D Landscape Visualization to Simulate Forest Management Impacts David J. Buckley Pacific Meridian Resources Joseph K. Berry Berry & Associates."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Using 3-D Landscape Visualization to Simulate Forest Management Impacts David J. Buckley Pacific Meridian Resources Joseph K. Berry Berry & Associates Craig Ulbright Software Developer

3 Landscape Structure Analysis/Visualization To find out more about Landscape Structure Analysis and Visualization, visit our Web Site. You will find a wide array of information ranging from papers and presentations to project overviews and case studies. Web Site: Web Site: (Berry)

4 Integration of existing technologies Integration of existing technologies Commercial GIS software Commercial GIS software has limited capabilities for realistic 3-D visualization Scientific visualization Scientific visualization software is readily available but at individual plot/stand level only Virtual reality techniques are Virtual reality techniques are increasingly used in computer games and film making. Non-traditional GIS techniques Non-traditional GIS techniques 3-D object rendering (trees, soil, buildings) 3-D object rendering (trees, soil, buildings) Map animation (2-D and 3-D) Map animation (2-D and 3-D) Linking video/photos to maps Linking video/photos to maps 3-D Object Rendering (USFS SVS, 6/97) (Berry) Landscape Visualization (3-D Rendering) “Multimedia GIS”

5 3-D Visualization Approaches Image Draping -- is an established technique in GIS. Draping a topographic or thematic map onto a 3-D terrain surface is effective but relies on abstract colors, shading and symbols. Draping a satellite image, such as a digital orthophoto, results in good surface texture and can produce visualizations suitable for depicting landscape-scale vegetation patterns. However, the 3-D nature of landscape objects are not depicted and severe “pixelization” occurs in the foreground. 3-D Analyst (ESRI, 9/98) SportsTracker (MapTrek, 9/98) 10m SPOT using ArcTIN (ESRI, 6/95) (Berry)

6 Video Imaging -- is a computer technique that "cuts-and-pastes” digital photographic images to represent changes on the landscape. This approach produces high quality visualization output, but it is very manually intensive, contains no direct geo-referencing to a GIS database and often suffers from the artistic/subjective nature of the creation process. Video Imaging -- is a computer technique that "cuts-and-pastes” digital photographic images to represent changes on the landscape. This approach produces high quality visualization output, but it is very manually intensive, contains no direct geo-referencing to a GIS database and often suffers from the artistic/subjective nature of the creation process. Left image is an actual photo of western spruce budworm damage in the Deschutes NF, Oregon. Right image depicts what the same place might look like 5 years after the dead/damaged trees are removed. The diseased trees are “manually” erased from the scene and background trees and shrubs are inserted “pasted” in their place. (Imaging Systems Lab, Brian Orland, Director, University of Illinois, Dept. of Landscape Architecture) (Berry) 3-D Visualization Approaches (continued)

7 (Berry) Geometric Video Imaging -- combines video-imaging techniques with geometric registration, typically undertaken within a GIS. It's rarely used on a production basis, due to the difficulty in accurately geo-referencing the photographic video image with the 3-D perspective framework (wire-frames) generated by the GIS system. Geometric Modeling -- builds a 3-D geometric representation of individual landscape features, such as trees, represented as geometric objects (simple cones or complex tree shapes). The individual objects are assembled to create a forest stand or landscape view depicting the perspective from a given viewpoint. 3-D Rendering utilizes GIS inventories of tree types and densities. SmartForest (Orland, 9/98) Virtual Forest (Innovative Gis, 9/98) “Virtual Reality” 3-D Visualization Approaches (continued)

8 3-D trees with several sun angles are created and stored as bit mapped images for polygon rendering …3-D object design (trees) The Tree Designer is used to build custom 3-D tree symbols that represent forest components, such as different species, multi-age trees, seasonal effects, shrubs, and snags 3-D Rendering: Tree Design (Berry)

9 Landscape Visualization (Rendering Technique) Step 1) 3-D Terrain Surface Step 2) Polygon Containers Step 3) Surface Texture “Laying the Carpet” Step 4) Tree Objects Step 5) Final Composition Step 6) Atmospheric Effects “Pouring the Trees” (Berry)

10 Tree Symbol %Maturity #Trees Landscape Visualization (Rendering Technique) GIS dB Rendered Scene

11 (Berry) Landscape Visualization (GIS Rendering)

12 (Berry)

13 (Berry)

14 Summer Winter After Snowfall Before Fire After Fire Visualizing Forest Conditions …changing the landscape’s carpet and objects (Berry)

15 …with classified forest polygons Darker boundary lines identify forest parcels used for 3-D rendered scenes Species Species Stocking Stocking Height/age Height/age Ground Cover Ground Cover (Berry) Landscape Visualization (Case Study 1)

16 This is a general image of the watershed surrounding the primary lake showing harvest blocks. Texture Mapping is used to provide a realistic sky and lake surface as well as underlying colors for the blocks. Note the different species in the foreground stands (bottom left). This represents a multi-species stand. Observer Target (Berry) Landscape Visualization (Case Study 1)

17 This view provides a ridge viewpoint overlooking the lake and adjoining harvest blocks. Note that there is little distinction in density of trees for the non- productive stands that cap the ridge areas compared to stands classified as productive on the hillsides. A rock slide also appears in this view in the lower right. Observer Target (Berry) Landscape Visualization (Case Study 1)

18 Trees have been reduced by 50% and re-planted for the non-productive stands that cap the ridges. Different textures have also been applied to the non- productive stands and the harvest blocks to aid in their distinction. Note the different underlying colors for the blocks in the valley at the end of the lake and the non-productive, less dense stands on the higher elevations. Observer Target (Berry) Landscape Visualization (Case Study 1)

19 This image presents a 'boat' viewpoint from the middle of the lake. The viewpoint is directly above the primary lake looking down the valley towards the harvest blocks. Observer Target (Berry) Landscape Visualization (Case Study 1)

20 This image illustrates how fog and haze can be used to add more realism to a forested visualization. Note the enhancement of the ridge in the foreground on the right side of the image. Observer Target (Berry) Landscape Visualization (Case Study 1)

21 Virtual Fly-By (Berry) Animation provides an added dimension to 3-D visualization… movement in space and time …rapidly sequencing a series of 3-D renderings creates a sense of movement “Fly-By”

22 Rendering “Fidelity” (Berry) Data Richness determines the “fidelity” of a landscape rendering. Ground cover and tree objects are assigned to polygons based on inferred forest conditions (limited data richness)… through detailed forest inventories (robust data richness) UPSHOT!!! …3-D rendering introduces a new element to “map accuracy” 1) Spatial Accuracy (positional), 2) Thematic Accuracy (classification) and 3) Rendering Fidelity (cartographic)

23 3-D Rendering Summary The striking realism of the rendered visualizations enhance communication of management plans in a more effective form. Future developments will extend these capabilities to a fully integrated view allowing interactive query of the 3-D rendered scene... Point-and-Click for text/data summaries (Berry) The integration of GIS and visualization technologies provides an operational platform for natural resource professionals and general public to consider the aesthetic impacts of landscape alternatives. “point and click” data retrieval

24 Landscape Visualization (Case Study 2) (Berry) Analysis of topographic information, provincial forest inventory and Landsat imagery of the Redfish Creek watershed near Nelson, BC, was used to derive landscape characteristics. Band 3 Band 4 Band 5

25 Landscape Visualization (Case Study 2) (Berry) Most Similar Neighbor analysis using canonical correlation was applied to find the best correspondence between the intensively inventoried subset of the landscape, about 20-25% of stands, and a less intensively sampled classified remotely sensed image… …the classified map was combined with the DEM and an older Aerial photo interpreted derived inventory, to generate an updated inventory (1999) for each forest stand. (ESSA Technologies, Vancouver, BC)

26 Landscape Visualization (Case Study 2) (Berry) Study area landscape with draped texture map, hydrography is in blue, roads in brown and primary forest stands in gold (3,699 polygons). Key viewpoint locations and orientation are identified. (Pacific Meridian Resources, Fort Collins, CO)

27 Landscape Visualization (Case Study 2) (Berry) Viewpoint 2 Initial Conditions 1999 Unmanaged 2049 Patch-Cutting 2049 Balanced Regime 2049 Initial Conditions 1999 Unmanaged 2049 Patch-Cutting 2049 Balanced Regime 2049 Viewpoint 3 The new inventory was then modeled using the Prognosis Model… growing trees, predicting mortality, establishing regeneration, predicting non-tree vegetation development, performing management activities, and calculating tree volumes to simulate the landscape for 50 years under different management regimes.

28 Viewpoint 3, Initial Conditions 1999 (Berry)

29 (Berry) Viewpoint 3, Unmanaged 2049

30 (Berry) Viewpoint 3, Patch-Cutting 2049

31 (Berry) Viewpoint 3 – Balanced Regime 2049

32 Using Advanced 3-D Visualization Techniques to Assess Historical Forested Landscapes GIS Applications in Forestry and Resource Management Example Project Example Project

33 Landscape Visualization Summary (Berry) GIS technology provides a new environment for more effectively communicating landscape characteristics and conditions-- moves maps beyond “ abstraction to realism.” 3-D Rendering enables users to visualize forest inventory data and simulate... “ what could be. ” Video Mapping enables capture data and images within its actual spatial context... “ what is. ”

34 Landscape Visualization (Video Mapping) (Berry) Multimedia GIS can be used to document actual conditions. Video Mapping geo- registers… Streaming Video Streaming Video Still Images Still Images Audio Audio Text Text Data Data …of existing landscape characteristics High Rendering Fidelity Documenting “real-world” conditions

35 Landscape Visualization (Video Mapping) (Berry) GPS coordinates are “stamped” directly on the video tape every second… …a database linking the GPS coordinates and tape position is automatically generated and used to construct a map of imagery locations. Imagery organiz ed by When and Where VMS200 by Red Hen Systems

36 Going Beyond Landscape Visualization (Berry) Landscape Structure Analysis provides information on the patterns and arrangements of landscape features… “ puzzle pieces. ” GIS Modeling provides a wealth of analytical tools that characterize spatial relationships... “ spatial interaction and context. ”

37 Unabashed Plug for Map-ematics Surface Modeling Spatial Analysis GeoStatistics


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