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Principles of Landscaping

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Landscaping"— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Landscaping
Maintenance, Xeriscaping & Water Gardens

2 The Landscape Industry
Also known as the green industry Improve natural environment Meet needs and desires of people

3 Landscape architect Professionals
Integrate the principles of art and science Know how plants and landscape factors will react to the environment around them

4 Prepare designs that show what, where and how objects and plants are installed
Utilize computers and mechanized equipment in conjunction with the design process – known as CAD – Computer aided design



7 3-D approach Allows the client to view a photographic image of the landscape design. Improves the clients understanding of the design Helps to visualize what it will look like when plants are mature

8 Landscape designers State have differing regulations
Generally 4-5 years of college training is required State may also require a license

9 Landscape designer Reduce actual dimensions of the area to be landscaped to a size that can be illustrated Plan is a collection of symbols that represent trees, shrubs, flowers, buildings, decks, etc,

10 Landscape designer Designs are drawn to scale
All symbols are reduced to the same proportion Common scales used in landscape drawings are: 1 inch =10 feet 1 inch = 20 feet

11 Landscape design Once the design is approved by the client, installation takes place

12 Landscape Contractor Career field that deals with the installation of landscapes Main link between the design and implementation


14 Landscape Contractor Must have knowledge of plant materials and proper planting technique Engineering and building skills May build brick patios, or stone or concrete brick retaining walls


16 Landscape Contractor Must be able to read and follow the scale drawing of the design. Landscape architect may subcontract installation work or other work such as paving and deck building

17 Landscape Maintenance Contractor
Care of the landscape once installed May often be called gardeners or professional horticulturists May spend all their time on a single client such as a golf course, large estate, shopping mall, cemetery or park

18 Landscape Maintenance Contractor
May serve numerous landscapes Typical tasks include: lawn care - fertilizing, weeding, mowing Tree and shrub care – fertilizing, pruning, mulching

19 Landscape Maintenance Contractor
Flower care Repair of walls, fences, walks and drives Painting and snow plowing

20 Landscape Maintenance Contractor
Fastest growing part of the business – management of landscapes once they have been installed Maintenance requirements must be kept in mind while developing the design

21 Landscape Maintenance Contractor
Poorly trained or careless maintenance workers can make the best landscapes look shabby All landscape professionals are interrelated

22 Objectives of Residential Landscaping
Determine the exact landscape needs and desires of the homeowner Determine the capabilities of the land (site) to fulfill those needs and desires

23 Objectives of Residential Landscaping
Develop the outdoor living areas of the landscape in a manner similar to the way indoor living areas are developed

24 Objectives of Residential Landscaping
Design the landscape in such a way that maintenance practices do not exceed that which the homeowner is willing to do Keep costs within the budget of the homeowner

25 Homeowner Interview Needs and desires of the homeowner best determined by an interview Allows for personal approach to landscaping

26 Interview Questions Size of family and ages
How much does the family use the outdoor areas Does family entertain frequently – size of groups

27 Interview questions Amount of privacy from neighbors and passing cars desired How much maintenance is homeowner willing to do

28 Interview Questions Specific plants that homeowner is fond of or family members are allergic to Service needs of the landscape – clothesline, trash cans, pets, garden etc. Will the family use the area after dark

29 Interview Questions How much does the family want to spend on the project Is the family willing to wait several years for the pants to reach their mature size or do they want large plants installed for immediate effect

30 Site Analysis Dimensions of property Topography
Quality of soil, top and sub Condition of lawn areas Types and condition of existing plants

31 Site Analysis Location of utility lines, meters, and utility easements
Good and bad views from the site Architectural style of the neighborhood

32 Site Analysis Environmental setting of the site and neighborhood
Existing natural features such as streams, rock outcroppings, specimen plants and wildlife habitat areas

33 Outdoor Room Concept

34 Outdoor Room Visualize the outdoors the same as the indoors
Outdoor rooms have walls, ceilings and floors just like indoor rooms do Primary difference is the materials used to construct them

35 Outdoor Room Outdoor walls may be constructed with shrubs, fences, brick or stone, exterior walls of buildings or trellises Floors may be natural earth, sand, stone, concrete, grass etc.


37 Principles of Landscape Design
Simplicity Balance Focalization of interest Rhythm and line Scale and proportion

38 Simplicity Important in unity of design
Accomplished by repeating specific plants throughout the design Massing plant types or colors into groups rather than spacing them so that each plant is seem separately

39 Simplicity Straight lined or gently curving bed lines around shrub plantings


41 Balance Imagining the landscape placed on a seesaw
If properly balanced, both sides of the landscape should have equal visual balance

42 Balance May be symmetrical or asymmetrical
Symmetrical balance is achieved when one side of the landscape is an exact duplicate of the other side Common in formal designs


44 Balance Asymmetrical balance happens when one side of the landscape has the same visual weight as the other side but they are not duplicates


46 Focalization Viewers eye wants to see only one feature as being most important within any view. All other elements complement that feather – focal point

47 Focalization When looking at a house from the street, the viewers eye should go quickly to the front door In the back yard, the viewer may have no focal point to look at unless one is created

48 Focalization Focal points may be created by using especially attractive plants – specimen plants Statues Fountains and pools Flower masses

49 Focalization Once designed, all bed lines and plant arrangements should lead the eye of the viewer to the focal point





54 Rhythm and Line Contributes to the overall unity of the design
Responsible for a sense of continuity among different areas of the landscape Extending planting beds from one area to another

55 Rhythm and Line Shrub beds developed around an entrance can be continued around to the sides and into the backyard Helps to tie the front and rear areas of the property together

56 Rhythm and Line Repeating shapes, angles, or lines between various areas and elements of the design

57 Scale and Proportion Keep all elements in the correct size relationship Plants should add to human comfort in the setting Smaller plants are used in a children's play area – allows children to relate to the plants

58 Unity Master principle
Creates flow among scale and proportion, balance, accent, rhythm and simplicity Landscape design will complement surroundings and crate aesthetic appeal

59 Maintenance One of the fastest growing divisions of the hort industry
Caring for the landscape after installation

60 Involves technical knowledge and the following skills
Replace plant material Application of mulch to proper depth Application of soil amendments for proper pH and fertility needs

61 Cont Pruning Weed control Planting and caring for flower beds
Proper mowing Maintenance of landscape accessories – pools, fountains, lighting

62 Maintenance Important that the landscape maintenance personnel be able to determine the volume of mulch to cover a given area

63 Formula Length X widthX depth _in feet) __________________________
27 cubic feet/cubic yard

64 Mulch Most mulch is applied at a depth of three inches
Most common type of wood chips Hardwood bark and pine bark Vary in size from coarse to fine

65 Mulch Aesthetic appearance Water holding Organic matter Weed control

66 Mulch Can be purchased in bags or in bulk

67 Maintenance Power tools

68 Xeriscaping Practice water conservation in creative landscapes
Used extensively in the southwestern US


70 Xeriscaping Basic concepts Good design and planning Improving soil
Turf areas Use of ground covers Low water use


72 Basic concepts Plant selection Use of mulches
Use of low volume irrigation Proper landscape maintenance

73 Xeriscaping

74 Xeriscaping Necessary to group plants in relation to their water needs
Allows growth of high water use plants and still conserve water Use mass plantings with borders of lower plants in front and taller plants in back

75 Xeriscaping Soil can be improved to provide optimum growth and water conservation Addition of organic matter will improve aeration and water holding ability

76 Xeriscaping Turf areas should be seeded in drought tolerant grasses
Irrigate turf areas separately Mulches help to conserve moisture Mulch will reduce lost water due to evaporation and run off by 90%

77 Xeriscaping Low volume irrigation
Ground covers give the landscape a wide variety of texture and color and retain soil moisture Large turf areas transpire a lot of moisture



80 The Water Garden Adds a new dimension to the landscape
Sight and sound of water bring the garden alive especially when movement of water is used

81 Water Garden Water plants, fish, frogs add a contrasting dimension
Ponds attract wildlife such as birds and butterflies and beneficial insects

82 Water Garden Use caution in placing water gardens near where children may be playing Bridges over water features add interest Sized and shaped to fit the landscape

83 Water Garden Vary from small above ground

84 Water Garden Large in ground Pools

85 Water Garden In formal settings, water gardens are usually rectangular, square or circular Located in the center of the garden or in a straight line at the end of a path

86 Water Garden Edged in brick or flagstone
Informal – sweeping natural curves. Generally not symmetrically balanced Placed wherever they look good

87 Water Garden Edged with plants to blend into the surrounding garden

88 Locating the Water Garden
Most flowering plants require at least 6 hours of full sun Above ground containers need some shade during the hottest part of the day to keep water from overheating and damaging plants or fish

89 Locating the Water Garden
Should not be under trees If waterfalls or fountains are used, water garden must be near electricity to run the pump

90 Types of Ponds In ground – lined with pvc or rubber liners
Liners make it easy to install a pond nearly anywhere and of any size or shape Rubber liners last 20 years, PVC 10 years

91 Types of Ponds Liners last longer if completely covered and protected from sunlight Preformed rigid sided liners come in a variety of shapes and sizes

92 Types of Ponds Easy to install, can be used in ground or above
Flexible liners allow for greater creativity Above ground ponds can be any container that will hold water.

93 Water Plants Vary in size, shape and texture
Float on water as well as rise out of the water Select plants to grow to proper size for the size of the pond

94 Water Plants Must be adapted to your site
Select flower colors that blend well with the rest of the landscape



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