2 The course focuses on:Morphology (external plant structure)Anatomy (internal plant structure)Taxonomy (plant nomenclature, identification and classification)
3 GROWTH HABITS OF PLANTS Herb (Herba)Shrub (Renek)Tree (Berpokok)Climber(Memanjat)Epiphyte (Epifit)Parasite(Parasit)Saprophyte(Saprofit)Xerophyte(Zerofit)Mesophyte(Mesofit)Hydrophyte(Hidrofit)
4 Herb A non-woody plant; annual, biennial or perennial; with short-lived above ground organs. e.g. onion, padi, corn, bananaShrubA low lying woody perennial, having branches arising from the lower part of the stem.e.g. chilli, roses, hibiscus
5 Tree A woody perennial,tall, with a single trunk and produces branches at the upper region. e.g. durian, rambutan, tamarindClimber A plant with a long slender stem, produces branches and have specialised organ to cling to a support.e.g. bittergourd, pepper, pumpkin
6 Epiphyte A plant that grows on another plant but does not absorb food/nutrients from it (non-parasitic).e.g. Vanda orchidParasite A plant that grows on another plant and absorbs food/nutrients from it, to the extent of causing damage and death to the plante.g. Loranthus spp.
7 Saprophyte A plant that lives on decayed material or organic matter rich in nutrients such as in the axils of leaf sheaths of oil palm.e.g. fernsXerophyte A plant that lives in a dry habitat or places that lack water.e.g. cactus and some ferns
8 Mesophyte A plant that lives in a habitat with optimum supply of water; mainly field and horticultural crops of moist tropical and temperate regions.e.g. rubber, fruit species, forest speciesHydrophyte A plant that lives in water, either floating on the water surface or submerged, or thrives in muddy swamps, rivers and lakes. e.g. water lily, lotus
9 LIFE SPAN OF PLANTS Annual (Semusim) Biennial (Dua musim) Perennial (Saka)
10 AnnualA plant that complete its life cycle in one year or less (undergoes vegetative growth, flowers, produces fruits and seeds, and finally dies)e.g. paddy, wheat, barleyBiennial A plant that complete its life cycle in two years/seasons (undergoes vegetative growth in the first year/season and reproductive growth in the second year/season, and finally dies)e.g. carrot, radish
11 Perennial A plant that lives for many years (more than two years), some may reach up to a hundred year. The stem is either woody or herbaceous.Herbaceous perennial (Saka herba)e.g. banana, ginger, languasWoody perennial (Saka berkayu)e.g. mangosteen, durian, dokong
12 MORPHOLOGY OF ANGIOSPERMS Study on the external structures of higher plants : Root Stem (Vegetative) LeafFlower Fruit (Reproductive) Seed
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