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LAKESCAPING FOR WILDLIFE AND WATER QUALITY. Lakescaping  Definition Landscaping in areas that are lake front properties Landscaping in areas that are.

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Presentation on theme: "LAKESCAPING FOR WILDLIFE AND WATER QUALITY. Lakescaping  Definition Landscaping in areas that are lake front properties Landscaping in areas that are."— Presentation transcript:

1 LAKESCAPING FOR WILDLIFE AND WATER QUALITY

2 Lakescaping  Definition Landscaping in areas that are lake front properties Landscaping in areas that are lake front properties

3 Affects of Managing Lakeshore  Fisheries  Wildlife  Non-native plants and wildlife control  Water quality  Use of native plants  Landscape design  Forest management  Aquatic plants management  Management of swimming beaches  Watershed management  Lawn and garden management  Control of shoreline erosion

4 Involvement in Shoreline Activity  Local  County  State  Federal Zoning regulations, laws, and permits Zoning regulations, laws, and permits

5 Topics  Life at the water’s edge  The lake ecosystem  Solving lakeshore problems with buffer zones  Designing lakeshore landscapes  Site preparation and plant installation  Maintenance  Shoreline stabilization  Good stewardship practice  Lakescaping examples

6 Life at the Water’s Edge  Buffer Zone-extends 25 to 100ft above shoreline

7 The Lake Ecosystem  Watershed Lake Lake River River Stream Stream Wetlands Wetlands  Lakeshore is one of the most biological diverse natural communities Interaction between Interaction between SoilSoil WaterWater AirAir Long term stability and water quality Long term stability and water quality

8 Vegetation Profile

9 Habitat  Nesting & Nursery area  Cover Wildlife Wildlife Aquatic Aquatic  Feeding Food web Food web

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11 Lake Chemistry  Cycles Biological Biological Chemical Chemical Phosphorus-limiting factorPhosphorus-limiting factor OxygenOxygen Atmosphere Atmosphere Aquatic plants Aquatic plants Physical Physical Water transparencyWater transparency Interdependent Interdependent When one changes it affects the othersWhen one changes it affects the others

12 Solving Lakeshore Problems with Buffer Zones  Problems with groomed lakeshore Erosion and sedimentation Erosion and sedimentation Sandy beach maintenance Sandy beach maintenance Excessive plant growth and algal blooms Excessive plant growth and algal blooms Loss of wildlife habitat Loss of wildlife habitat Nuisance animals Nuisance animals Loss of leisure time Loss of leisure time

13 Buffer Zone  Definition Is a natural strip of vegetation along at least 75% of a property frontage Is a natural strip of vegetation along at least 75% of a property frontage  Vegetation used to create a buffer zone Native trees Native trees Shrubs Shrubs Wildflowers (forbs) Wildflowers (forbs) Grasses Grasses Sedges on land Sedges on land Emergent, floating and submergent aquatic plants Emergent, floating and submergent aquatic plants

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15 Designing Lakeshore Landscape  Consideration Climate Climate Water Water Soil Soil Plants Plants Animals Animals

16 Lakescaping Vs. Landscaping  Differences Lakescaping Lakescaping First assesses the growing environmentFirst assesses the growing environment Then selects plants to grow in that conditionsThen selects plants to grow in that conditions Preference to native plantsPreference to native plants Thrive in specific soils, moisture, and light conditions Thrive in specific soils, moisture, and light conditions Do not require supplemental water, fertilizer, pesticides or excessive labor Do not require supplemental water, fertilizer, pesticides or excessive labor Landscaping Landscaping First selects a plant for color, fragrance, or characteristicFirst selects a plant for color, fragrance, or characteristic Then alters growing environmentThen alters growing environment Needs fertilizer, pesticides and supplemental water Needs fertilizer, pesticides and supplemental water

17 Steps  Develop a plant list  Consider you needs and desires  Draw a base map  Create space by designing outdoor rooms  Design specific plantings

18 Developing a plant list  Native landscaping in area  Properties Soil – sandy, rocky, mucky, etc Soil – sandy, rocky, mucky, etc Light conditions – full sun, part sun, or shady Light conditions – full sun, part sun, or shady Moisture Moisture Slope Slope  Take photo of other areas for ideas

19 Considering your Needs and Wants  What are the characteristics of your site Site inventory Site inventory  What do you need in your landscape Utility requirements Utility requirements  What do you want in your landscape Recreation desired Recreation desired  What can you do to improve the environment and water quality

20 Drawing a Base Map  Draw you property  Measure dimensions Buildings- windows and doors Buildings- windows and doors Driveways and walkways Driveways and walkways Landscape Landscape  Plot all measurement on large sheet of graph paper Suggested scale 1”=4’, 1”=8’, or 1”=16’ Suggested scale 1”=4’, 1”=8’, or 1”=16’

21 Creating Space by Designing Outdoor Rooms  Outdoor room – is an area in you landscape that accommodates your activities  Create with wall of Trees Trees Shrubs Shrubs Wildflowers Wildflowers Fence or other structure Fence or other structure  The Floor being Lawn Lawn Patio or Deck Patio or Deck  Consider ceiling

22 An Outdoor Room

23 Consult  State natural resources agency (DEQ) Minimum requirements Minimum requirements Buffer zoneBuffer zone PermitsPermits Michigan’s wetland regulatory program Michigan’s wetland regulatory program Wetland Protection ActWetland Protection Act Clean Water ActClean Water Act Permit Standards Permit Standards Public Interest TestPublic Interest Test Acceptable Disruption to Aquatic Resource TestAcceptable Disruption to Aquatic Resource Test Wetland Dependency / Alternatives Analysis TestWetland Dependency / Alternatives Analysis Test  Common Law  Local Regulations

24 Laws  Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Control  Subdivision Control Act  Michigan Environmental Protection Act  Michigan Endangered Species Act  Flood Plain Regulatory Act  Inland Waters  Shorelands Protection and Management  Sand Dunes Protection and Management

25 Designing Specific Planting  Aquatic Buffer Zone Emergent plants Emergent plants Submerged plants Submerged plants Floating plants Floating plants Absorb wave energy, hold fine sediments in place, and provide food and shelter for many fish and wildlife speciesAbsorb wave energy, hold fine sediments in place, and provide food and shelter for many fish and wildlife species  Upland Buffer Zone Herbaceous plantings Herbaceous plantings Woody Plantings Woody Plantings Protects the lake by filtering nutrients, leaves, and holds the bank soils in placeProtects the lake by filtering nutrients, leaves, and holds the bank soils in place

26 Emergent Plants  Grow in large colonies  Once established will spread  Establish 2 to 3 species in large groups Will move to where they are best suited Will move to where they are best suited  Grasses  Sedges  Forbs Arrange GrassesInter-planted with wildflowers

27 Herbaceous  Low-growing, non-woody, leafy, ground layer plant Sedges – triangular stem grass-like plants Sedges – triangular stem grass-like plants Grasses Grasses Wildflowers Wildflowers Plant grass and sedges approximately 3ft between individual plantsPlant grass and sedges approximately 3ft between individual plants Place wildflowers between the space of grasses and sedgesPlace wildflowers between the space of grasses and sedges

28 Woody  Trees and shrubs Shrubs Shrubs Space 6ft between each shrubSpace 6ft between each shrub Do not place any close then 2ft from grasses and sedgesDo not place any close then 2ft from grasses and sedges Shrubs can be planted right up to lakes edge without obscuring view Shrubs can be planted right up to lakes edge without obscuring view Design a filter or framed view Design a filter or framed view Add trees where need if desiredAdd trees where need if desired  Make sure you take in consider shade tolerance species for planting if using trees

29 Budget Money and Time by Planting in Intervals

30 Lakeshore Transformation 1

31 Lakeshore Transformation 2

32 Lakeshore Transformation 3

33 Site Preparation & Plant Installation  Sourced of Native Plants Nurseries Nurseries Contract Growers Contract Growers Diggings from the wild Diggings from the wild Rescue plants from the blade of bulldozers Rescue plants from the blade of bulldozers Propagation of seeds Propagation of seeds Cuttings Cuttings Rootstock Rootstock  Planting Costs

34 Nurseries  Rules Purchase local-origin plants from local nurseries Purchase local-origin plants from local nurseries Not more then 200 miles awayNot more then 200 miles away Make sure plants bought are not collected from the wild Make sure plants bought are not collected from the wild

35 Contract Growing  Order them 3 to 6 months in advance  Necessary for large quantities  Typically half-down payment is required  Investment is worth the timely delivery of the plants you desire

36 Digging From the Wild  Digging is destructive Robbing plants of their natural beauty Robbing plants of their natural beauty Opens soil Opens soil Creating a seed bed for invasive weedsCreating a seed bed for invasive weeds Reduces reproductive potential Reduces reproductive potential  Digging some plants is illegal  Transplants are difficult to establish  Do collect seeds and propagate Seed collect is illegal on public property Seed collect is illegal on public property

37 Rescuing Plants from the Blade of the Bulldozer  Thousands of native plants are destroyed each year by construction  Permission to harvest is required  Must plant in a bed immediately  Best dug in the spring or fall, when cool In mid summer In mid summer Cut aboveground stems in half to reduce the amount of leaf surface that loses waterCut aboveground stems in half to reduce the amount of leaf surface that loses water Keep transplants out of the sun after diggingKeep transplants out of the sun after digging Keep exposed roots wetKeep exposed roots wet Aquatic plants need DNR permits Aquatic plants need DNR permits

38 Propagation from Seed  Collect seed in the summer and fall  Propagate wildflower and grasses indoors over the winter  Obtain permission from appropriate agencies to collect seeds on state land or from landowner on private property

39 Cuttings  Lakeshore shrubs Propagated from twig cuttings Propagated from twig cuttings Taken in springTaken in spring Before leavingBefore leaving Examples Examples WillowsWillows Red-osier dogwoodRed-osier dogwood

40 Rootstock  Portions of the root system without stems and leaves  Purchase fewer plants with larger sizes  Clean of seed and plant fragments So as not to introduce invasive species So as not to introduce invasive species

41 Planting Costs  Wildflower and grass plugs 6-12 plants $1 a plant $1 a plant  Woody bare-root plant in spring $8 per shrub and trees $8 per shrub and trees  Wet-meadow seed mix $40 per 1000ft² $40 per 1000ft² Small live plants -- $600 per 1000ft² Small live plants -- $600 per 1000ft²  Prairie kits $225 per 1000ft² $225 per 1000ft²  Prairie grasses and wildflowers large areas $1700 to $10,000 per acre $1700 to $10,000 per acre

42 Turf vs. Prairie

43 Site Preparation  Eliminate invasive weeds Reed canary grass, purple loosestrife, crown vetch, and common buckthorn Reed canary grass, purple loosestrife, crown vetch, and common buckthorn Takes time and persistenceTakes time and persistence Purple Loosestrife Common Buckthorn Reed Canary Grass Crown Vetch

44 Site Preparation  Eliminate turf Organic herbicides – scythe or superfast weed killer Organic herbicides – scythe or superfast weed killer Require permit from DEQ to apple herbicideRequire permit from DEQ to apple herbicide 10 to 14 days for sod to die10 to 14 days for sod to die Spot spray for at least to 2 day before plantingSpot spray for at least to 2 day before planting Remove sod with gas-powered sod cutter Remove sod with gas-powered sod cutter Labor intensiveLabor intensive Smother lawn Smother lawn black polyethylene plastic, old carpet shower curtains, or layer of newspaper or cardboardblack polyethylene plastic, old carpet shower curtains, or layer of newspaper or cardboard Takes all growing season – 5 to 6 monthsTakes all growing season – 5 to 6 months

45 Site Preparation  Soil preparation Live plants Live plants Elimination sod and invasive plant forElimination sod and invasive plant for Nothing else for native plantsNothing else for native plants

46 Planting Tips  Keep planting affordable Divide master plan into small sections and plant over 5 to 6 year period Divide master plan into small sections and plant over 5 to 6 year period  Plant emergent and floating plants in the spring-when water levels are low  Label plants  Cut a thin slice into root mass to simulate growth  Soak containerized plants before taking them out to plant  Installing Wide but not deep hole Wide but not deep hole Create a mound of soil Create a mound of soil  Dig wide enough to speed roots

47 Planting Tips  Bare-roots Wash roots Wash roots Plant before they leaf out and temp. moderate Plant before they leaf out and temp. moderate Cover with damp straw, compost, soil or wet burlap Cover with damp straw, compost, soil or wet burlap  Avoid burying plants too deep or to shallow  After planting water thoroughly  Planting in lake need to be anchored to prevent wash away  Exception to the rule of not adding soil amendments Shady upland Shady upland 3 to 6 inches of compost or manure3 to 6 inches of compost or manure

48 Seeding Tips  Within 15ft of lakeshore do not seed use living plants – soil erosion  Above 15ft seed and use cover crop of rye, oats, or mixed seed  On shallow slopes and flat grades place a light application of straw – prevent erosion  Keep new seedings moist  Most perennial species are slow to establish – have patience  Planting are difficult to differ from weeds – learn to identify native plant seedlings

49 The “No Planting” Technique  Mowing and competition keep native plant from growing Stop mowing up to lake shore Stop mowing up to lake shore Above 15ft kill lawn with herbicide-next to native plants Above 15ft kill lawn with herbicide-next to native plants Kill grass 5ft to 10ft at a timeKill grass 5ft to 10ft at a time Allowing for native plant to take over Allowing for native plant to take over  This will not work in areas with invasive species Buckthorn, reed canary grass, crown vetch, and smooth brome Buckthorn, reed canary grass, crown vetch, and smooth brome

50 Mulching  Prevent soil erosion  Keeps weed from germinating  Holds in moisture

51 Maintenance  Maintaining Aquatic plants  Maintaining Onshore plantings First season First season Second season Second season Long term maintenance – 3 years and beyond Long term maintenance – 3 years and beyond  Replacement

52 Maintaining Aquatic Plants  The trick is getting them established not long-term maintenance  Secure plants  Replant and anchor if uprooted or washed away  Some species will come back on their own

53 Maintaining Onshore Plantings  First season Benefit from supplemental watering Benefit from supplemental watering Need 1in of water per weekNeed 1in of water per week Keep weeds out Keep weeds out Once every two weeksOnce every two weeks Look out for invasive species Look out for invasive species Pull out will youngPull out will young Use mulch Use mulch Do not fertilize Do not fertilize Do not use insecticides and fungicides Do not use insecticides and fungicides

54 Maintaining Onshore Plantings  Second season Water only during drought periods Water only during drought periods Scout for weeds once every three weeks Scout for weeds once every three weeks Dig out the roots of unwanted treesDig out the roots of unwanted trees In spring cut back dried herbaceous vegetation In spring cut back dried herbaceous vegetation In fall leave dried vegetation In fall leave dried vegetation

55 Maintaining Onshore Plantings  Long-term maintenance (+3years) Beginning of each season cut back dried vegetation Beginning of each season cut back dried vegetation Scout for weeds once a month Scout for weeds once a month No watering is necessary No watering is necessary Leave dried vegetation standing in fall Leave dried vegetation standing in fall

56 Replacement  A few plants will not make it through the first year  In large gaps replant quickly – erosion  A continuous vegetative cover is the goal  Expect your lakeshore planting to change over time  Enjoy

57 Shoreline Stabilization  Bioengineering Stabilizes bank Stabilizes bank Uses living materials Uses living materials Creates habitatCreates habitat Self repairingSelf repairing cheaper cheaper

58 Methods Below Normal Water Line  Wave – breaking devices  Plant – anchoring methods

59 Methods above Normal Water Line  Slop preparation Cut back to get 2:1 (horizontal to vertical) slope Cut back to get 2:1 (horizontal to vertical) slope  Erosion – control fabrics Revetments Revetments Rock Riprap Rock Riprap Wattles Wattles Live stakes Live stakes Willow Post Willow Post Brush Layers Brush Layers Brush Mattresses Brush Mattresses

60 Revetments

61 Rock Riprap

62 Wattles

63 Live stakes

64 Willow Post

65 Brush Layers

66 Brush Mattresses

67 Vegetation

68 Ice Action  Depends on Wind direction Wind direction Ice thickness Ice thickness Lake level Lake level Other factors Other factors  Land ridge Leave in place Leave in place Filters runoff from the yardFilters runoff from the yard Covered in vegetation – removal will expose the shoreline to erosionCovered in vegetation – removal will expose the shoreline to erosion

69 Cost Estimates

70 Good Stewardship Practices  IT ALL RUNS DOWN HILL Storm drains Storm drains Gullies Gullies Swales Swales Tiles Tiles Ditches Ditches  Use buffer strips

71 Maintaining a Vigorous and Environmentally Sound Lawn  Planning  Soil preparation for seeding or sodding  Seeding  Watering  Mowing  Fertilizing  Weed and insect control

72 Planning  Design a smaller lawn to reduce overall maintenance  Replace unnecessary lawn areas with shrub borders or herbaceous native plantings  Consider planting native ground covers that tolerate the adverse growing conditions found in these spots

73 Maintaining a Vigorous and Environmentally Sound Lawn  Planning  Soil preparation for seeding or sodding  Seeding  Watering  Mowing  Fertilizing  Weed and insect control

74 Soil preparation for seeding or Sodding  Soil test Soil type, pH, and nutrients Soil type, pH, and nutrients  Loosen soil before seeding or sodding  Till in compacted upland soils  Use aerator in compacted established lawn once a year in mid-spring or in the fall after Labor Day

75 Seeding  Select low-maintenance turf grasses  Read labels on seed packages carefully to learn what they contain  Do not buy cheap grass seed You get what you pay for You get what you pay for

76 Watering  Encourage deep rooting by watering seldom but thoroughly  Actively growing turf requires 1in of water per week  To survive hot, dry weather, lawn grasses naturally go into a state of dormancy  During severe drought, water dormant grass ¼ to ½ in every two to three weeks to keep crowns from dehydrating beyond the point of recovery

77 Mowing  Mow high  Mow frequently  Keep lawn mower blades sharp  Increase mowing height by ½ to 1in in midsummer  For small lawns consider using a manual, nonmotorized mower  Sweep up grass clippings blown onto pavement

78 Fertilizing  Leave grass clippings on the lawn Use a mulching mower Use a mulching mower  Low-maintenance lawn need just one application of fertilizer per year applies in the early fall  Use organic fertilizers Milorganite, Ringers, synthetic organics (Nitroform, Par-EX) Milorganite, Ringers, synthetic organics (Nitroform, Par-EX)  Sweep adjacent paved surfaces after applying fertilizer  Water lawn after applying fertilizer  Have soils test for lack of phosphorus Don’t use if not needed Don’t use if not needed

79 Weed and insect control  Insecticides are seldom needed for grass management  When needed us a broadleaf herbicides for weed control in the fall  In small yard pull weeds by hand  Spot treat individually with ready-to-use sprays  Read and adhere to labels on pesticides  Maintain a healthy lawn Weeds will not be able to establish Weeds will not be able to establish  Historically, lawns were composed of a variety of grasses and broadleaf plants Consider going back to a more diverse community of plants with in your lawn Consider going back to a more diverse community of plants with in your lawn

80 Managing Invasive Non-Native Plants  Learn the difference between non-native and native plants Native Native Plants or species that have originated in an area and continue to grow in their ecological nichePlants or species that have originated in an area and continue to grow in their ecological niche Thrive because they are well adapted to the environmentThrive because they are well adapted to the environment Non-Native Non-Native Move or carried here through an unnatural processMove or carried here through an unnatural process New location devoid of competition and predatorsNew location devoid of competition and predators Purple loosestrife Purple loosestrife Eurasian water milfoil Eurasian water milfoil Reed canary grass Reed canary grass Curly-leaf pondweed Curly-leaf pondweed Yellow water Iris Yellow water Iris Flowering rush Flowering rush European frog-bit European frog-bit Hydrilla Hydrilla Ornamental water Lilies Ornamental water Lilies Water chestnut Water chestnut

81 Leaf Cleanup  Rake leaves soon after falling

82 Rain Gutters  Directed onto the lawn

83 Detergents  May contain phosphorus  Use ones without phosphorus  Do not bath in lake  Do not wash pets in lake  Do not wash car on property or park on lawn while washing Wash pollutants in to lake Wash pollutants in to lake SoilSoil NutrientsNutrients HydrocarbonsHydrocarbons gasolinegasoline

84 Septic System Maintenance  Make sure it is properly maintained  Pump it when it needs pumping Use a knowledgeable contractor Use a knowledgeable contractor  Left on maintained will cause the septic to fail Public health problem and violates local laws Public health problem and violates local laws  Do not dump chemicals down sink or toilet Will kill good bacteria Will kill good bacteria  Do not use a garbage disposal

85 Pet Management  Contribute to excess nutrients  Health hazard  Clean up after pet as soon as possible  Keep cats inside  Train dogs to not chase wildlife or restrain them

86 Mosquitoes  Tall grass does not cause a mosquito problems  Need mosquitoes standing water Remove clogged rain gutters, tire swings, whiskey barrel planters, neglected bird paths, and old pails Remove clogged rain gutters, tire swings, whiskey barrel planters, neglected bird paths, and old pails  Un-mowed area near water increase the predators of mosquitoes  Plant repentant plant Citronella, chamomile, basil, evening primrose, peppermint, comfrey, cloves, garlic, and thistle Citronella, chamomile, basil, evening primrose, peppermint, comfrey, cloves, garlic, and thistle  Put up bat houses

87 Enhancing Lakeshore Habitat  Nest boxes Purple martin Purple martin Tree swallow Tree swallow Eastern bluebird Eastern bluebird House wren black-capped chickadee House wren black-capped chickadee Barred owl Barred owl Screech-owl Screech-owl Wood duck Wood duck Hooded merganser squirrel Hooded merganser squirrel Common goldeneye Common goldeneye Common merganser Common merganser

88 Enhancing Lakeshore Habitat  Snag Management Snag is a dead tree either fallen or standing Snag is a dead tree either fallen or standing Habitat Habitat Flickers and Woodpeckers--downy, hariy, red-bellied, and pileatedFlickers and Woodpeckers--downy, hariy, red-bellied, and pileated Red, gray, and fox squirrelsRed, gray, and fox squirrels Wood ducksWood ducks Great crested flycatcher, Tree swallow, Eastern bluebirds, House wrens and Black-capped chickadeesGreat crested flycatcher, Tree swallow, Eastern bluebirds, House wrens and Black-capped chickadees White breasted nuthatches, Brown creeper, and Eastern kingbirdsWhite breasted nuthatches, Brown creeper, and Eastern kingbirds Bald eagles and OspreyBald eagles and Osprey SalamandersSalamanders SnakesSnakes InsectsInsects TurtlesTurtles DucksDucks Eastern phoebes, purple martins, and belted kingfishersEastern phoebes, purple martins, and belted kingfishers

89 Lakescaping Examples  Fish Lake

90 Thank You!

91 Lakescaping Examples  Bush Lake

92 Lakescaping Examples  Eagle Lake

93 Lakescaping Examples  Gervais Lake

94 Lakescaping Examples  Big Sandy Lake

95 Lakescaping Examples  Big Marine Lake


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