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Eudicots Tricolpates. Angiosperm phylogeny Ceratophyllum Hornwort family, all aquatic Small flowers Absent perianth Few number of flower parts Unisexual.

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Presentation on theme: "Eudicots Tricolpates. Angiosperm phylogeny Ceratophyllum Hornwort family, all aquatic Small flowers Absent perianth Few number of flower parts Unisexual."— Presentation transcript:

1 Eudicots Tricolpates

2 Angiosperm phylogeny


4 Ceratophyllum Hornwort family, all aquatic Small flowers Absent perianth Few number of flower parts Unisexual flowers

5 Eudicots Tricolpate pollen Cyclic flowers - parts in whorls, members of individual whorls alternating Staminal filaments usually slender Starch grains in plastids

6 Eudicots

7 Ranunculales Berberidaceae Circaeasteraceae Eupteleaceae Lardizabalaceae Menispermaceae Papaveraceae Ranunculaceae

8 Ranunculales

9 Key features: contain alkaloid berberine, superior ovary without a hypanthium, herbaceous, toothed to lobed leaves, flower parts distinct and free, many stamens, seeds with tiny embryos and copious endosperm

10 Papaveraceae Sister to the other groups: Differs: –Fused carpels –Capsular fruits –Quickly deciduous sepals –Sap (either colored or clear)

11 Papaveraceae Poppy family 770 species in 40 genera Herbs to soft wooded stems Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) used for morphine, heroin, and codeine –Ornamentals: many poppies, bleeding heart

12 Papaveraceae Synapomorphies: Leaves often lobed, often colored sap, 2 sepals - quickly fall off, often 4 petals, 2 fused carpels with parietal placentation, fruit a capsule, seeds with arils

13 Papaveraceae Herbs to small shrubs with sap Leaves alternate and spiral often lobed Flowers bisexual, radial to bilateral –Sepals usually 2 or 3, falling quickly –Petals usually 4 or 6, sometimes numerous, often crumpled in bud –Stamens numerous –2 to numerous carpels, fused Fruit a capsule with arillate seeds

14 Papaveraceae

15 Argemone Corydalis (400) Papaver Sanguinaria Dicentra

16 Menispermaceae Moonseed family Twining vines or lianas 450 species in 71 genera Medicinal and poisons (curare - arrow poison), and ornamentals

17 Menispermaceae Synapomorphies: Twining vines or lianas, Flowers unisexual (usually dioecious), 2 ovules with 1 aborting, Fruit an aggregate of drupes 3 merous flowers

18 Berberidaceae Barberry family 650 species Widespread herbs and shrubs Ornamentals, including lawn shrubs

19 Berberidaceae Synapomorphies: 1 carpel Herbs or shrubs with variable leaves Flowers bisexual, radial, with 3-merous parianth –4-6 sepals, distinct –4-6 outer petals, 6 inner petals/staminodes –Usually 6 stamens, anthers open from the base by 2 flaps Fruit a berry

20 Berberidaceae Caulophyllum Jeffersonia Berberis (600)

21 Ranunculaceae Buttercup family 2000 species of herbs shrubs or vines Widespread especially in the northern hemisphere Many ornamentals

22 Ranunculaceae Synapomorphies: Herbs, shrubs or occasionally vines Leaves various (often lobed) Flowers usually bisexual, flower parts usually not 3-merous

23 Ranunculaceae Flower parts not 3-merous –4 to numerous tepals or differentiated into calyx (5) and corolla (5) –Stamens numerous, distinct –Carpels usually 5 to numerous, distinct Fruit follicles, achenes or berries

24 Ranunculaceae Hydrastis - Flowers 3-merous Fleshy follicles

25 Ranunculaceae Thalictroideae - –Paraphyletic grade Plesiomorphies –Berberine compounds –Yellow rhizomes –Small chromosomes Thalictrum Coptis

26 Aquilegia Hodges 1997

27 Ranunculoideae Synapomorphies: –4-5 merous parianth –Dry fruits –Large chromosomes and longer stomates –Chromosome number of 8 –No berberine

28 Ranunculoideae Synapomorphies: –Ranunculin –Fruits are achenes AnemoneRanunculus Clematis

29 Ranunculoideae Synapomorphies: –Petal-like tepals Delphinium Caltha

30 Eudicots

31 Proteales 4-merous flowers with stamens opposite Major groups: Platanaceae, Proteaceae, Nelumbonaceae

32 Platanaceae Plane tree or Sycamore tree 9 species all in Platanus Tropical to temperate regions of NA, south- central Europe, western Asia to Indochina Cultivated as ornamentals

33 Platanaceae Synapomorphies: Inflorescences of globose heads in unisexual heads (monoecious), apical placentation, Fruits achenes, in dense globose clusters

34 Platanaceae Trees with exfoliating bark Leaves palmately lobed and veined, stipules present Flowers unisexual (monoecious) –3-7 sepals –3-7 petals, lacking in carpellate flowers –3-7 stamens, filaments very short –5-9 carpels, distinct, ovaries superior, 2 ovules per carpel with one aborting Fruit dense achenes

35 Platanaceae Hybrid between P. occidentalis and P. orientalis

36 Proteaceae Protea family Widespread in tropics and subtropics in Australia and Africa 1770 species Many ornamentals and Macadamia nut

37 Proteaceae Synapomorphies: 4 tepals with edges abutting, 4 stamens, 1 carpel

38 Proteaceae Trees or shrubs Leaves usually alternate and spiral, stipules absent Flowers bisexual, radial or bilateral, conspicuous –4 tepals, often deeply cleft on one side –Stamens 4, usually adnate to tepals –1 carpel on a stalk Fruits follicles, nuts, achenes, drupes, or samaras

39 Proteaceae Grevilleoideae (flowers in pairs) Proteoideae (flowers single)

40 Proteaceae Protea Banksia Grevillea

41 Macadamia Nut

42 Nelumbonaceae Water lotus family with enlarged spongy receptacle

43 70 sp. 2 sp.

44 Gunnerales - Gunneraceae Blue-green algae as symbionts - Nostoc Large herbs with no stem (40-50 species) Plants dioecious

45 Core Eudicots Polygonales

46 Carnivorous 1 basal ovule Indehiscent fruits Plumbagin Basal placentation Vascularized hairs Polygonaceae Plumbaginaceae Droseraceae Nepenthaceae

47 Knotweed family Herbs, shrubs, trees, or vines 1100 species Includes: buckwheat, rhubarb, and sorrel Polygonaceae

48 Synapomorphy: Stipules present and connate into a thin sheath around the stem Polygonaceae

49 Herbs, shrubs, trees, or vines Leaves usually alternate and entire Flowers usually bisexual, radial –Perianth of 6 tepals, usually petaloid In 5s when 2 tepals are fused –5-9 stamens –2 or 3 carpels, basal placentation, 1 ovule Fruit an achene or nutlet Polygonaceae

50 Rumex (200) Fagopyrum Polygonum (150)

51 Plumbaginaceae Herbs or shrubs with alternate leaves, no stipules Flowers bisexual, in cymose inflorescences –5 sepals and 5 petals –5 stamens fused to petals –5 fused carpels Plumbago

52 Droseraceae Sundew family Insectivorous herbs 110 species, common in wet, low-nutrient, acidic soils Venus’s flytrap and sundews

53 Droseraceae Synapomorphies: Leaves rolled in a coil from the top, blade sensitive

54 Droseraceae Leaves simple with obscure venation, forming a snap-trap, mucilage-secreting hairs to digest insects Flowers bisexual, radial, white or purple –Usually 5 sepals –Usually 5 distinct petals –Usually 5 stamens, pollen released in tetrads –Usually 3 carpels Fruit a capsule

55 Droseraceae Drosera (80 spp) Dionaea Aldrovanda

56 Nepenthaceae ~ 82 species in Nepenthes Shrubs climbing with their leaves –Alternate entire and highly modified –Petiole, blade, tendril, and pendent urn-shaped pitcher (with operculum - lid) –Pitcher has fluid of digestive enzymes Old world tropics, 90 species in 1 genus, Nepenthes

57 Nepenthaceae Flowers unisexual (dioecious), small and greenish –Staminate flowers with 4 tepals and 4-numerous stamens –Carpellate flowers with 4 tepals and 4 fused carples

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