Presentation on theme: "PASTURE/RANGE ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT COLLEGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE,"— Presentation transcript:
PASTURE/RANGE ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT COLLEGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, ABEOKUTA
Definition Range management can therefore be define as the manipulation of dependent and controlling factor of the range ecosystem in other to maintain an equilibrium. Range can be define as the science and art of planning, directing range uses, so as to obtain and sustain animal production, consistent with the protection of a natural resource. It can also be define as the manipulation or a collection of characteristics of ecosystems change for goods and Services required e.g meat, milk, wool etc.
Importance of Range Management Multivarious uses-livestock/wildlife product, meat, milk, & skinBag, belt, leather industry, shoes Tourism (wildlife) Recreation Environmental values-Watershed protection Erosion control Desertification control Increase in soil fertility Socio Economic -Generation of employment Marriage – fulanis) Sources of Income Socio cultural (basis of social status) Socio political -Socio dislocation Socio conflict
Type of Range disturbances Timber exploitation Firewood however, farming urbanization, and infrastructural development. Result of Ecosystem disturbances Ecological disaster Erosion Desertification and flooding.
Factors affecting Range Ecosystem FACTORMANUPULATION A.Controlling factors: Climatic factorWeather modification, or burning, water spreading Geological materialsLand leveling, Terracing, fertilization, groundwater, recharge Available organisms Special introduction elimination and genetic improvement (Plant & Animal) B. Dependent factor Consumers Wild fauna Grazing management, wildlife management, insect and rodent control Livestock Grazing management livestock management disease control Vegetation Plant control, re-vegetation, hay management, control of plant disease Soil Mechanical treatment Nitrogen fertilization Decomposers & Transformers Direct manipulation Micro climate Shade shelter, mulching
VARIOUS TYPES OF VEGETATION Some of the vegetation are bush land, wood land, grass land, woody grassland, dwarf shrubs, grassland, permanent swamps and Barren land. BUSH LAND: It consist of woody plant of mostly shrubs with canopy of less than 6m in height and canopy covers more than 20% WOODLAND:This consist of woody plant up to 18m in height with an open or continuous but not close canopy. Grasses and herbs dominate the ground covers. GRASS LAND: This is dominated by grasses and occasionally consist of other herbs. WOODED GRASSLAND: Consist of grassland which scattered or group of Areas. The trees always conspicuous having canopy cover of less than 20%. Such area also are subjected to periodic burning. DWARF SHRUB GRASSLANDS: This consist of poor land sparsely covered by shrubs & grasslands not exceeding 1m in height. Sometimes which widely scattered shrubs and or stunted trees. PERMANENT SWAMPS: Consist of various types of communities associated by permanent stand of water and consist of sedges shrubs & aquatic plants. The area does not have animals but there could be climbing animals such as monkeys & lover reptiles. BARREN LAND: Land naturally devoid or particular plant. Hence there would be absence of browsing animals but there can be aves and big animals like reptiles.
Factors Affecting Rangeland Production Rainfall Temperature Relative humidity Light
EDAPHIC FACTORS (Soil factors) Soil moisture Simply means the amount of water retained by the soil after there is rain, evaporation, and leaching. This determine the capacity of the soil to support plant and hold nutrient. The land that usually leached easily will not have appreciable moisture capacity and hence will not be able to hold nutrient and water Soil depth This is a measure of the extent of available soil for crop production/plant growth, from the surface of the soil is the unweathered zone beneath. There is considerable variation in soil depth even in the same area, it may be from a few cm (feet) to 40 feet.
EDAPHIC FACTORS (Soil factors) Soil PH Is the acidity and alkalinity nature of the soil the knowledge of soil pH help to prescribe necessary treatment for the soil and the plant if the need be. Soil fertility Simply means how fertile the soil is. How rich in organic matter is the soil and how well a plant can grow in the soil without the application of either farmyard manure or inorganic fertilizer
VARIOUS GRAZING SYSTEM Rotational Deferred rotational Alternate or rest rotation Continuous grazing Seasonal grazing.
Grazing Capacity Total no of animal that can graze in a particular range land without depleting the range resources. (AUM) Animal Unit Month: is define as the dry weight of forage to provide for the animal in a unit month in a range land. USE FACTOR: Is the percentage of herbage or browse which may be consider as forage with proper grazing management.
METHOD OF RANGE UTILISATION MEASUREMENT AMethod based on before or after grazing or between grazed and ungrazed plots. BMethod based on measurement correlation or regression or factors related to utilization CMethod based on observation/general utilization and comparison with predetermines standard of utilization
RANGE IMPROVEMENT Benefit of range improvement 1.The quality of forage: The production, accessibility and maintenance of adequate supply of high quality forage is the bases of successful operation and the production of livestock and wildlife 2. The quality of forage by providing forage of greater palatability of higher movement content and of longer green growth period. 3.The animal production: This is often the 1 goal 4.Facilitation handling and caring of range animal this keep livestock more famed and docile 5.Control poisoning of livestock by poisonous plants by removing poisonous plant or by replacing the existing vegetation which non poisonous spp or by providing alternative sources of plantation poisonous plant.
RANGE IMPROVEMENT 6.Reduce fire hazard 7.These water yield or watershed by replacing woody spp which herbaceous plant 8.Control of insect on small animal by replacing their first plant often which desirable forage spp. 9.Control erosion: by stabilizing erosive soil on how potential or marginal site soil stabilization may justify restoration which only secondary consideration giving to forage production. 10.It reduces conflict between multiple uses of range resources. Access road can permit better distribution of livestock as well as proper harvesting of big game 11. Reseeding the degraded ranges can provide needed forage for livestock and clean water for fishing stream
SELECTING RANGE IMPROVEMENT The type of range improvement must be carefully considered and properly located and utilized to give maximum benefit. Guide line to consider in selecting and locating range improvement include 1.Use only proven method except on small seal undertake project only where practical and economical procedure can be use. 2.Range improvement must be compatible, as goal of ownership 3.Availability of local or contract labour need equipment supervisory or consultative assistant needed must be ensure 4.Evaluate when range improvement can be most effectively utilize in the land or range management plan, determine the factor limit animal production that can be solved by range improvement. 5.Changing in management practices that will be required and maintenance that will be needed in other to obtain full benefit from the range improvement practices.
SELECTING RANGE IMPROVEMENT 6.Expected cost benefit ratio range improvement are adjudged to after the greatest return on the investment is given priority. 7.Applied range improvement at appropriate stages of range deterioration, invading poisonous plant should be treated when they 1st appear since control is generally much less costly and more effective at that time. 8.Amount and characteristics of residual forage cover its existing plant stand adequate to satisfactorily respond to range treatment or would seeding be additionally required. 9.Locate range development in an area of great potential for range productivity areas which shadow or infertile Soil low site potential, low rainfall or steep topography often produce too little forage to justify extensive treatment. 10.Plan livestock handling facility that are practically beneficial both to the range land and range animal 11.Do not create new grazing distribution problem by spot treatment such as herbicide spraying moving or fertilization or improper location of livestock handling facility.