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Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Tree Identification of Common Tree Species found in Ontario As simple as one – two – tree!

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Presentation on theme: "Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Tree Identification of Common Tree Species found in Ontario As simple as one – two – tree!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Tree Identification of Common Tree Species found in Ontario As simple as one – two – tree!

2 Topics covered  What is a tree?  Forest regions of Canada  Coniferous vs. Deciduous  What’s in a name?  Identification features  Coniferous trees of Ontario  Deciduous trees of Ontario

3 What is a tree?  Woody perennial plant  Grows to a height of at least 4.5 m  Two divisions:  Pinophyta (cone-bearing plants)  Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)


5 Coniferous vs. Deciduous Deciduous  Also known as hardwoods and broadleaf trees  Bears a leaf  Leaves fall off the tree in the autumn  Has a true flower  84 native species in Ontario Coniferous  Also known as softwoods and evergreens  Bears a needle-like or scale-like leaves  Needle or scale-like leaves do not fall in autumn (except for larch)  Bears a cone  14 native species in Ontario

6 What’s in a name?  Each tree has a common name and a scientific name.  Common name may change depending on where you live  Scientific names are grouped by Family, Genera and Species and never change.  Common Name: Sugar maple  Scientific name: Acer saccharum Marsh.  Family: Aceraceae  Genus: Acer  Species: Saccharum  Person who named the tree: Marsh.

7 How to identify a tree?  Learn the tree identification features  Know your site or habitat  Upland, lowland, soil type  Use a tree identification key  Determine whether coniferous or deciduous.  Check to see bud or leaf arrangement

8 Tree Identification Features 1.Leaf 2.Twig and bud 3.Bark 4.Size and form 5.Shade tolerance 6.Seed 7.Wood 8.Site or habitat

9 1. Leaf identification  A: Leaf type  B: Arrangement on twig  C: Leaf shape  D: Leaf margin

10 A: Leaf Types  Simple or Compound Leaf  Scale-like Leaf  Needle-like Leaf  Singly on twig  In bundles of 2, 3, 5 or more

11 Leaf Types continue Simple  undivided Compound  Divided into leaflets

12 Leaf Types continue In bundles of 5 In bundles of 2 Singly on twig Scale-like Leaf Needle-like Leaf

13 B: Leaf Arrangement  Alternate  Leaves grow alternately on twig  Opposite  Leaves grow opposite of each other on twig  Whorled  Leaves grow in a circular fashion on the twig

14 C: Leaf Shape oval reversed oval heart-shaped linear cordate cuneate

15 D: Leaf Margins  Smooth  Toothed  Wavy or lobed

16 2. Twig and Buds  Twig with opposite bud arrangement Terminal bud Lenticels Leaf-scar Double compound leaf Leaflets Compound leaf End bud-scar Solid pith Lateral bud

17 Twig and Buds continue  Twig with alternate bud arrangement Terminal bud Lateral bud Leaf tip Midrib Sinus or Cleft Lobe Vein Leaf stalk Lenticels

18 3. Bark  Identifying features: White Grey Brown/Black Flaky Smooth Rough  Colour  Structure

19 3. Bark  Identifying features:  Pattern Furrowed Flat Topped Ridges

20 3. Bark  Varies by age and growth rate

21 4. Size and Form Form refers to the shape of the crown, the branches and the trunk. Each species has a characteristic form when grown in the open

22 5. Shade Tolerance  All tree species have a tolerance level for shade.  Intolerant  Species that cannot survive in shaded conditions. They need direct sunlight to grow.  Intermediate  Species that can survive in partially shaded conditions.  Tolerant  Species that can live in shaded conditions

23 Shade Tolerance Chart TolerantIntermediateIntolerant HemlockWhite pineRed pine Balsam firYellow birchWalnut IronwoodOakButternut BeechElmHickory Sugar mapleAshWhite birch SpruceBlack cherry CedarTamarack Red mapleJack pine Silver mapleWillow BasswoodAspens Poplars Grey birch

24 6. Seed  Acorns and Nuts e.g. oaks, American beech, American chestnut  Winged e.g. maples, eastern hemlock, spruces  Fleshy fruit and pods e.g. viburums, dogwoods, black locust

25 7. Wood  Density  Colour  Grain Hemlock Cedar Oak Butternut

26 8. Site or Habitat  Soil structure, texture and fertility, moisture regime, slope and aspect and climate all have an impact on species of trees growing on a particular site  Examples:  Bog – black spruce, larch  Upland, rocky terrain – sugar maple, hickory, beech, red oak, jack pine  Lowland – black ash, red maple, elm, tamarack

27 Trees of Canada A great source of information! Written by: John Laird Farrar ISBN: 1-55041-199-3 Published by: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited and the Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada

28 Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Coniferous Needle Trees, Evergreens, Softwoods Class: Magnoliopsida Division: Pinophyta

29 Coniferous Leaf  Scale-like Leaf  Needle-like Leaf  Singly on twig  Needles in bundles

30 Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Scale-Like Leaf

31 Eastern Red-Cedar  Juniperus virginiana Eastern Juniper, Red juniper

32 Eastern White Cedar  Thuja occidentalis  Northern White Cedar, Swamp Cedar, Eastern Arbovitae

33 Other Conifers with Scale-Like Leaves common juniperJuniperus communisshrubnativeON, Canada creeping juniperJuniperus horizontalisshrubnativeON, Canada chinese juniperJuniperus chinensisshrubalienAsia savin juniperJuniperus sabinashrubalienEurope oriental cedarThuja orientalistreealienAsia sawara-cypressChamaecyparis pisiferatreealienJapon hinoki-cypressChamaecyparis obtusatreealienJapon

34 Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Needle-Like Leaf * Singly on Twig *

35 Balsam Fir  Abies balsamea  Canada Balsam, Canada Fir, White Fir

36 White Spruce  Picea glauca  Cat Spruce, Skunk Spruce, Pasture Spruce, Canadian Spruce

37 Blue Spruce  Picea pungens  Colorado Spruce, Silver Spruce

38 Red Spruce  Picea rubens  Eastern Spruce, Yellow Spruce

39 Black Spruce  Picea mariana  Bog Spruce, Swamp Spruce

40 Norway Spruce  Picea abies  Common Spruce

41 Eastern Hemlock  Tsuga canadensis  Canada Hemlock, Hemlock Spruce

42 Other Conifers with Needle-Like Leaves (Single Needles) dawn redwoodMetasequoia glyptostroboidestreealienAsia bald-cypressTaxodium distichumtreealienUSA japanese-cedarCryptomeria japonicatreealienAsia noble firAbies proceratreealienUSA nordmann firAbies nordmannianatreealienEurope spanish firAbies pinsapotreealienUSA white firAbies concolortreealienUSA serbian sprucePicea omorikatreealienEurope english yewTaxus baccatatreealienEurope japonese yewTaxus cuspidatashrubalienJapon canada yewTaxus canadensisshrubnativeON, Canada

43 Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Needle-Like Leaf * Needle Bundles *

44 Red Pine  Pinus resinosa  Norway Pine

45 Austrian Pine  Pinus nigra  European Black Pine

46 Jack Pine  Pinus banksiana  Black Pine, Gray Pine, Scrub Pine, Banksian Pine

47 Scots Pine  Pinus sylvestris  Scotch Pine

48 Mugho Pine  Pinus mugo  Swiss Mountain Pine

49 Eastern White Pine  Pinus strobus  Northern White Pine, Weymouth Pine

50 Pitch Pine  Pinus rigida

51 Tamarack  Larix laricina  American Larch, Alaska Larch

52 European Larch  Larix decidua

53 Other Conifers with Needle-Like Leaves (Needles in Bundles) umbrella-pineSciadopitys verticillatatreealienJapon bristlecone pinePinus aristatatreealienUSA japanese larchLarix kaempferitreealienJapon siberian larchLarix sibiricatreealienAsia deodar cedarCedrus deodaratreealienAsia atlas cedarCedrus atlanticatreealienAfrica cedar-of-lebanonCedrus libanitreealienAsia

54 Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Deciduous Broadleaf, Hardwoods, Flowering Trees Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida

55 Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Opposite Leaf Arrangement Simple Leaf Type

56 Sugar Maple  Acer saccharum  Hard Maple, Rock Maple, Bird’s-Eye Maple

57 Red Maple  Acer rubrum  Swamp maple, soft maple

58 Silver Maple  Acer saccharinum  Soft maple, White Maple, River Maple

59 Black Maple  Acer nigrum  Black Sugar Maple, Rock Maple

60 Mountain Maple  Acer spicatum  Dwarf Maple, Moose Maple

61 Striped Maple  Acer pensylvanicum  Moose Maple, Moosewood, Goosefoot Maple

62 Norway Maple  Acer platanoides

63 Norway Maple “Columnare” “Erectum” “Olmsted” “Crimson King” “Crimson Sentry” “Drummondii “ “Harlequin” “Schwedler” “Globosum” “Globe” “Faasens Black” “Cleveland” “Emerald Queen”

64 Sweet Viburnum  Viburnum lentago  Nannyberry, Sheepberry

65 European Buckthorn  Rhamnus cathartica  Common Buckthorn, Purging Buckthorn

66 Other Deciduous Trees, Opposite Leaf Arrangement (Simple Leaves) sycamore mapleAcer pseudoplatanustreealienEurope amur mapleAcer ginnala shrub- tree alienAsia japonese mapleAcer palmatum shrub- tree alienAsia european cranberry viburnum Viburnum opulusshrub alien (naturalized) Europe wayfaring viburnumViburnum lantanatree alien (naturalized) Europe squashberry viburnumViburnum eduleshrubnativeON, Canada cranberry viburnumViburnum trilobumshrubnativeON, Canada eastern flowering dogwood Cornus floridatreenativeON, Canada cornelian-cherryCornus mas shrub- tree alienEurasia kousa dogwoodCornus kousatreealienAsia

67 Other Deciduous Trees, Opposite Leaf Arrangement (Simple Leaves) common lilacSyringa vulgaris shrub- tree alien (naturalized) Europe northern catalpaCatalpa speciosatreealienUSA southern catalpaCatalpa bignonioidestreealienUSA burning-bush euonymus Euonymus atropurpureus shrub- tree nativeON, Canada european euonymusEuonymus europaeustreealienEurope winged euonymusEuonymus alatus shrub- tree alienAsia button-bushCephalanthus occidentalisshrubnativeON, Canada katsura-treeCercidiphyllum japonicumtreealienAsia silver buffalo-berryShepherdia argentea shrub- tree nativeON, Canada

68 Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Opposite Leaf Arrangement Compound Leaf Type

69 Manitoba Maple  Acer negundo  Box-Elder, Ashleaf Maple

70 White Ash  Fraxinus americana  American Ash, Canadian White Ash

71 Black Ash  Fraxinus nigra  Swamp Ash, Hoop Ash, Basket Ash

72 Red Ash  Fraxinus pennsylvanica  Green Ash, Soft Ash

73 Horsechestnut  Aesculus hippocastanum  Common horsechestnut, chestnut

74 Other Deciduous Trees, Opposite Leaf Arrangement (Compound Leaves) ohio buckeyeAesculus glabratreealienUSA green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima treenativeON, Canada northern red ashFraxinus pennsylvanica var. austinitreenativeON, Canada blue ashFraxinus quadrangulatatreenativeON, Canada pumpkin ashFraxinus profundatreenativeON, Canada european ashFraxinus excelsiortreealienEurope amur corktreePhellodendron amurensetreealienAsia american elderSambucus canadensisshrubnativeON, Canada eastern red elderberrySambucus pubensshrubnativeON, Canada

75 Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Alternate Leaf Arrangement Compound Leaf Type

76 Butternut  Juglans cinerea  White walnut, Lemon Walnut, Oilnut

77 Black Walnut  Juglans nigra  American walnut

78 Shagbark Hickory  Carya ovata  Upland hickory, Scalybark Hickory

79 Shellbark Hickory  Carya laciniosa  Big shagbark hickory, Kingnut Hickory, Big Shagbark Hickory

80 Red Hickory  Carya glabra  Pignut Hickory, Black Hickory, Broom Hickory

81 Bitternut Hickory  Carya cordiformis  Swamp Hickory

82 Kentucky Coffeetree  Gymnocladus dioicus  Coffeenut

83 Black Locust  Robinia pseudoacacia  False Acacia, Common Locust

84 Honey Locust  Gleditsia triacanthos  Thorny Locust, Sweet Locust, Tree-Thorned Acacia

85 Showy Mountain Ash  Sorbus decora  Northern Mountain Ash, Dogberry

86 Staghorn Sumac  Rhus typhina  Velvet Sumac, Sumac Vinegar-Tree

87 Common Hoptree  Ptelea trifoliata  Wafer Ash, Stinking Ash, Three-Leaved Hop-Tree

88 Tree-of-Heaven  Ailanthus altissima  Ailanthus, Chinese-Sumac

89 Other Deciduous Trees, Alternate Leaf Arrangement, (Compound Leaves) siberian pea-treeCaragana arborescens shrub- tree alienAsia laburnum Laburnum anagyrroides x Laburnum watereri treealienEurope yellow-woodCladastis luteatreealienUSA japonese angelica- tree Aralia elatatreealienAsia common prickly-ashZanthoxylum americanum shrub- tree nativeON, Canada american mountain- ash Sorbus americana shrub- tree nativeON, Canada european mountain- ash Sorbus aucupariatree alien (naturalized) Europe shining sumacRhus copallina shrub- tree nativeON, Canada smooth sumacRhus glabrashrubnativeON, Canada poison-sumacToxicodendron vernix shrub- tree nativeON, Canada

90 Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Alternate Leaf Arrangement Simple Leaf Type – Lobed Leaf Margins

91 Sycamore  Platanus occidentalis  Buttonball, American Sycamore, American Plane-Tree

92 Sassafras  Sassafras albidum  White Sassafras, Cinnamon-Wood, Greenstick, Mitten-Tree

93 Tulip Tree  Lirodendron tulipifera  Tulip-Poplar, Yellow-Poplar, Tulip- Magnolia, Whitewood

94 Red Oak  Quercus rubra  Northern Red Oak, Grey Oak

95 Black Oak  Quercus velutina  Yellow Oak, Quercitron Oak

96 Pin Oak  Quercus palustris  Swamp Oak, Spanish Oak, Water Oak

97 White Oak  Quercus alba  Stave oak, Northern White Oak

98 Bur Oak  Quercus macrocarpa  Blue Oak, Mossycup Oak, Scrubby Oak

99 Swamp White Oak  Quercus bicolor  Blue Oak, Swamp Oak

100 Chinquapin Oak  Quercus muehlenbergi  Yellow Chestnut Oak, Yellow Oak, Rock Oak

101 Other Deciduous Trees, Alternate Leaf Arrangement, (Simple Leaves, Lobed Margin) london plane-tree Platanus occidentalis x Platanus orientalis treealienEurope white mulberryMorus albatree alien (naturalized) Asia sweetgumLiquidambar styracifluatreealienUSA northern pin oakQuercus ellipsoidalistreenativeON, Canada shumard oakQuercus shumardiitreenativeON, Canada scarlet oakQuercus coccineatreealienUSA dwarf chinquapin oakQuercus prinoides shrub- tree nativeON, Canada english oakQuercus roburtree alien (naturalized) Europe

102 Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Alternate Leaf Arrangement Simple Leaf Type – Toothed Leaf Margins

103 Red Mulberry  Morus rubra

104 American Beech  Fagus grandifolia  Red Beech

105 American Chestnut  Castanea dentata  Sweet Chestnut

106 Witch Hazel  Hamamelis virginiana  American Witch-Hazel, Snapping-Hazel, Spotted-Alder, Winterbloom

107 Basswood  Tilia americana  American Linden, Whitewood, Spoonwood, Bee-Tree, Lime-Tree

108 White Birch  Betula papyrifera  Paper Birch, Canoe Birch, Spoolwood, Silver Birch

109 Gray Birch  Betula populifolia  White Birch, Swamp Birch, Fire Birch, Wire birch

110 Yellow Birch  Betula alleghaniensis  Gold Birch, Swamp Birch, Curly Birch, Red Birch, Newfoundland-Oak

111 Speckled Alder  Alnus incana ssp.rugosa  Tag Alder, Gray Alder, Hoary Alder, Red Alder, River Alder

112 Blue Beech  Carpinus caroliniana  American hornbeam, Musclewood, Ironwood, Smooth-Barked Ironwood

113 Ironwood  Ostrya virginiana  American Hop-Hornbeam, Leverwood, Deerwood, Rough-Barked Ironwood

114 Pussy Willow  Salix discolor  Tall Pussy Willow, Glaucous Willow, Pussy Feet

115 Black Willow  Salix nigra  Swamp Willow

116 Golden Weeping Willow  Salix alba var. vitellina  White Willow, Weeping Willow, Common Willow, French Willow

117 Balsam Poplar  Populus balsamifera  Eastern Balsam Poplar, Hackmatack, Balm Poplar, Balsam, Rough-Barked Poplar

118 Eastern Cottonwood  Populus deltoides  Big Cottonwood, Necklace Poplar, Liard

119 Trembling Aspen  Populus tremuloides  Quaking Aspen, Aspen Poplar, Golden Aspen, Smalltooth Aspen

120 Largetooth Aspen  Populus grandidentata  Big-Toothed Aspen, Largetooth Poplar

121 Lombardy Poplar  Populus nigra  European Black Poplar, Column Poplar

122 Silver Poplar  Populus alba  White Poplar, Silver-Leaved Poplar, European White, Silver Maple

123 White Elm  Ulmus americana  American Elm, Grey Elm, Soft Elm, Water Elm, Swamp Elm

124 Rock Elm  Ulmus thomasii  Cork Elm, Winged Elm

125 Slippery Elm  Ulmus rubra  Red elm, Moose Elm, Soft Elm, Sweet Elm

126 Hackberry  Celtis occidentalis  Common Hackberry, Northern Nackberry, Bastard Elm, Nettle-Berry, Sugarberry

127 Common Apple  Malus sylvestris  Wild Apple, Paradise Apple

128 Pin Cherry  Prunus pensylvanica  Wild Red Cherry, Fire Cherry, Bird Cherry, Hay Cherry

129 Black Cherry  Prunus serotina  Black Chokecherry, Rum Cherry, Cabinet Cherry, timber Cherry, Wine cherry

130 Choke Cherry  Prunus virginiana  Eastern Chokecherry, Red Choke Cherry, Sloetree, Wild Cherry, Chuckley-Plum

131 Canada Plum  Prunus nigra  Red Plum, Black Plum, Wild Plum, Horse Plum

132 American Plum  Prunus americana  Wild Plum, Brown Plum, Red Plum, Yellow Plum

133 Fleshy Hawthorn  Crataegus succulenta  Succulent Hawthorn

134 Other Deciduous Trees, Alternate Leaf Arrangement, (Simple Leaves, Toothed Margin) chestnut oakQuercus montanatreealienUSA european beechFagus sylvaticatreealienEurope chinese chestnutCastanea mollissimatreealienAsia common winterberryIlex verticillata shrub- tree nativeON, Canada english hollyIlex aquifolium shrub- tree alien (naturalized) Europe american hollyIlex opaca shrub- tree alienUSA mountain-hollyNemopanthus mucronatus shrub- tree nativeON, Canada glossy buckthornRhamnus frangula shrub- tree alien (naturalized) Europe little-leaf lindenTilia cordatatreealienEurope white lindenTilia tomentosatreealienEurasia mountain paper birchBetula cordifoliatreenativeON, Canada european white birchBetula pendulatree alien (naturalized) Eurasia

135 Other Deciduous Trees, Alternate Leaf Arrangement, (Simple Leaves, Toothed Margin) cherry birchBetula lentatreenativeON, Canada green alderAlnus viridisshrubnativeON, Canada european black alderAlnus glutinosatree alien (naturalized) Europe beaked hazelCorylus cornutashrubnativeON, Canada american hazelCorylus americanashrubnativeON, Canada turkish hazelCorylus colurnatreealienEurasia european filbertCorylus avellana shrub- tree alienEurasia peachleaf willowSalix amygdaloidestreenativeON, Canada sandbar willowSalix exigua shrub- tree nativeON, Canada bebb willowSalix bebbiana shrub- tree nativeON, Canada littletree willowSalix arbusculoides shrub- tree nativeON, Canada balsam willowSalix pyrifolia shrub- tree nativeON, Canada

136 Other Deciduous Trees, Alternate Leaf Arrangement, (Simple Leaves, Toothed Margin) shining willowSalix lucidatreenativeON, Canada laurel willowSalix pentandratreealienEurasia crack willowSalix fragilistree alien (naturalized) Europe golden willowSalix albatreealienAsia hybrid white willowSalix alba x Salix fragilistreealienEurasia meadow willowSalix petiolaris shrub- tree nativeON, Canada heartleaf willowSalix eriocephala shrub- tree nativeON, Canada satiny willowSalix pellita shrub- tree nativeON, Canada basket willowSalix viminalistree alien (naturalized) Eurasia purple-osier willowSalix purpurea shrub- tree alienEurasia violet willowSalix daphnoides shrub- tree alienEurope simon poplarPopulus simoniitreealienAsia

137 Other Deciduous Trees, Alternate Leaf Arrangement, (Simple Leaves, Toothed Margin) carolina poplar Populus nigra x Populus canadensis treealienEurope scotch elmUlmus glabratree alien (naturalized) Europe siberian elmUlmus pumilatree alien (naturalized) Asia english elmUlmus proceratree alien (naturalized) Europe japonese zelkovaZelkova serratatreealienAsia dwarf hackberryCeltis tenuifolia shrub- tree nativeON, Canada downy serviceberryAmelanchier arborea shrub- tree nativeON, Canada smooth serviceberryAmelanchier laevis shrub- tree nativeON, Canada roundleaf serviceberry Amelanchier sanguinea shrub- tree nativeON, Canada mountain serviceberry Amelanchier bartramianashrubnativeON, Canada wild crab appleMalus coronariatreenativeON, Canada siberian crab appleMalus baccatatreealienEurope

138 Other Deciduous Trees, Alternate Leaf Arrangement, (Simple Leaves, Toothed Margin) sweet cherryPrunus aviumtree alien (naturalized) Asia sour cherryPrunus cerasustree alien (naturalized) Eurasia japonese flowering cherry Prunus serrulatatreealienAsia amur choke cherryPrunus maackiitreealienAsia pear hawthornCrataegus calpodendron shrub- tree nativeON, Canada fireberry hawthornCrataegus chrysocarpa shrub- tree nativeON, Canada dotted hawthornCrataegus punctatatreenativeON, Canada downt hawthornCrataegus mollistreenativeON, Canada cockspur hawthornCrataegus crus-gallitreenativeON, Canada scarlet hawthornCrataegus coccinea shrub- tree nativeON, Canada fanleaf hawthornCrataegus flabellata shrub- tree nativeON, Canada one-seeded hawthornCrataegus monogynatree alien (naturalized) Europe washington hawthornCrataegus phaenopyrumtreealienUSA

139 Caring for Your Land Series of Workshops Alternate Leaf Arrangement Simple Leaf Type – Smooth Leaf Margins

140 Pawpaw  Asimina triloba  False Banana, Pawpaw Custard- Apple, Prairie Banana

141 Black Gum  Nyssa sylvatica  Black Tupelo, Sourgum, Pepperidge

142 Cucumber Tree  Magnolia acuminata  Cucumber Magnolia, Pointed-Leaved Magnolia

143 Other Deciduous Trees, Alternate Leaf Arrangement, (Simple Leaves, Smooth Margin) alternate-leaf dogwood Cornus alternifolia shrub- tree nativeON, Canada rosebay rhododendron Rhododendron maximumtreenativeON, Canada redbudCercis canadensistreenativeON, Canada saucer magnoliaMagnolia X soulangiana shrub- tree alienEurasia sea-buckthornHippophae rhamnoides shrub- tree alienEurasia russian-oliveElaeagnus angustifoliatree alien (naturalized) Eurasia silverberryElaeagnus commutata shrub- tree nativeON, Canada common smoke-treeCotinus coggygria shrub- tree alienEurasia osage-orangeMaclura pomiferatreealienUSA

144 Presentation made possible by  Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources  Ontario Stewardship  Ontario Forestry Association  Eastern Ontario Model Forest  With contributions from:  City of Ottawa  Purdue University

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