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Techniques in commercial cultivation, scientific harvesting and preservation of medicinal plants Dr. Indira Balachandran Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal Kerala.

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Presentation on theme: "Techniques in commercial cultivation, scientific harvesting and preservation of medicinal plants Dr. Indira Balachandran Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal Kerala."— Presentation transcript:

1 Techniques in commercial cultivation, scientific harvesting and preservation of medicinal plants Dr. Indira Balachandran Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal Kerala

2  Trees as pure crop Ceasalpinia sappan L. - Chappangam, Pathimukam Myristica fragrans Houtt. - Jati Emblica officinalis Gaertn. - Nelli Gmelina arborea Roxb. - Kumizhu  Shrubs as pure crop Plumbago indica L. - Chettikkoduveli Adhatoda beddomei Cl. - Chittatalotakam Holostemma ada-kodien Schult. - Atapatiyan Trichosanthes cucumerina L. - Patolam Acorus calamus L. - Vayambu Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel - Brahmi CULTIVATION

3  Shrubs as intercrops Adhatoda beddomei ( Vasa – Chittatalotakam) Parts used – Whole plant In Coconut plantations and for the first four years in Rubber estates 5 tender stem cuttings on each mound at an espacement of 2 ft On hill slopes directly in the soil Harvesting within 2 – 2½ years Total expenditure – Rs. 25,000 – 30,000 / acre Yield from intercrop – 6000 Kg – whole plant from 1 acre Yield from pure crop – 8000 Kg Price per Kg. – Rs. 15 Net Profit –Rs. 65,000 / acre (in intercropping) Rs. 95,000 / acre (from pure crop)

4  Shrubs as intercrops Nilgirianthus ciliatus (Sahachara – Karimkurinji) Parts used: Root and a part of stem Propagation by tender stem cuttings – In Rubber and Coconut plantations Harvesting time – within 2 –3 years Total expenses – Rs. 22,000 – 25,000 / acre Yield per acre – 8,000 – 10,000 Kg (root and stem) Price per Kg. – Rs (Fresh); Rs. 21 (Semi-processed) (Reduction in weight after drying 50%) Net Profit – Rs. 30,000 – 40,000 / acre

5  Shrubs as intercrops Baliospermum solanifolium (Danti – Nagadanti) Part used - Roots Propagation – Stem cuttings with 3 – 4 nodes 4 cuttings on each mound having one foot diameter and 20 cm height. More economical than planting rooted seedlings in pits Harvesting – within 2 –3 years Yield – 6000 Kg from 1 acre Total expenses – Rs. 30,000 / acre Price - Rs. 18/Kg - Semi-processed (cut into 2" long pieces) fresh roots Net profit – Rs. 78,000 / acre The leaves and tender aerial portion can be used as green manure to coconut trees

6  Shrubs as intercrops Plumbago indica (Chitraka – Chettikkoduveli) Part used – Roots Propagation by tender stem cuttings having 3 nodes Planted on raised manured beds without much interspace Alluvial soil with drainage capacity is more suitable Harvesting – within 1½ - 2 years Yield – 2 – 2½ tons Total expenses – Rs. 40,000 – 50,000 / acre Price per Kg – Rs. 55 Net profit – Rs. 70,000 – 87,500 / acre Additional profit can be made by the sale of seedlings of the above four items from 2 nd year onwards

7  Shrubs as intercrops Clitoria ternatea (Aparajita – Sankhupushpam) Parts used – Whole plant and roots Propagation through seeds Seedlings planted on raised beds at a distance of 20 cm Bright sunlight is required Harvesting – within 6 months Total expenses – Rs. 10,000 – 15,000 / acre Yield / acre – 2,000 – 2,500 Kg Price – Rs. 20 / Kg (Whole plant) Net Profit – Rs. 30,000 – 35,000 / acre

8  Shrubs as intercrops Coleus zeylanicus (Valakam – Iruveli) Parts used – root and stem Tender stem cuttings are planted on beds at 15–20 cm distance Harvesting – Within 6 – 9 months Expenses – Rs. 15,000 / acre Yield – 1000 Kg (dried and semi processed root and stem) Price – Rs. 65 – 70 / Kg Net Profit – Rs. 50,000 / acre

9  Shrubs as intercrops Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) Part used : Whole plant Can be cultivated in paddy fields and marshy places using stem cuttings Expenses – Rs. 50,000 / acre Yield – 10,000 – 12,000 Kg Price – Rs. 10 / Kg Net Profit – 50,000 – 70,000 / acre 3 harvests possible in a year

10  Shrubs as intercrops Pseudarthria viscida (Saliparni – Orila) Desmodium gangeticum (Prisniparni – Moovila) Part used - Roots As a cover crop in Rubber plantations for first 4 years Planting – Simple broadcasting of seeds in ploughed field Harvesting – Within 6 months Expense – Rs. 50,000 / acre Net Profit – Rs. 30,000 / acre

11 Special methods of cultivation Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. Sans. : Anantamulah, Sariba Mal.: Nannari, Naruneendi Propagation through seeds Usual Practice Planting of 4 leaved seedlings on raised beds at an espacement of 1 inch. Harvesting – Too expensive; wastage is high

12 Wastage during harvesting of H. indicus roots No. plants in one bundle Wt. of roots obtained (Kg) Wastage during harvest (gm)

13 Special method – Cultivation in Bamboo Hemidesmus indicus 2 m long, thick, vertically split bamboo stems Remove nodal partitions except at basal node & make holes on lowest nodal partition Rejoin the two bamboo halves using nylon rope Fill the bamboo stem with potting mixture 2 or 3 rooted seedlings are planted on the top and the bamboo stems are kept erect in the soil Harvest the entire roots after two years by separating the bamboo halves No damage and wastage Yield – 300 g / bamboo bit

14 Propagation of Hemidesmus- stages Splitting of Bamboo

15 Removal of nodal portion

16 Making holes in the last nodal portion

17 Tying split bamboos with nylon rope

18 Filling Bamboo with potting mixture

19 Painting last internode and making hole in the ground for fixing bamboo

20 Overall view

21 Placing seedling on top of bamboo

22 Harvesting

23 Special method – Cultivation in long polybags Holostemma ada-kodien Schult. Sans. Jeevanthi; Mal. Atapathiyan Useful parts – Tuberous roots Propagation – Seeds and roots Usual practice Cultivated either on soil beds or on mounds Harvesting – Too expensive; wastage high Wastage during harvesting of H. ada-kodien No. of plants in one mound Fresh wt. of roots obtained (gm) Wastage during harvesting (gm)

24 Special method - Holostemma ada-kodien Half of the polybags are filled with potting mixture Keep them in 15 cm deep pits at a distance of 1ft 2 rooted seedlings are planted in each polybag Bamboo splits as support to the polybag and to the plant Organic manuring twice at 6 months interval Harvest after two years Roots are extracted by tearing the polybags No damage and wastage

25 Propagation in polythene bags using bamboo splits as support

26 Propagation in polythene bags Overall view

27 Harvesting of root from polybag

28 Harvesing, Semi-processing & storage Problems in existing practices Harvesting Unscientific harvesting of roots Roots from shrubs Eg.:Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa (Bala – Kurunthotti) Pseudarthria viscida (Saliparni – Moovila) Desmodium gangeticum (Prisniparni – Orila) Collection before seed setting and seed dispersal Wastage due to simple plucking No. Sida plants in a bundle Fresh weight (Kg) Wastage (gm) Wastage in harvesting Sustainable method Use iron crowbar for loosening the soil Collection after fruiting season Keep small area untouched for natural regeneration

29 Unscientific harvesting of tuberous roots Eg.: Asparagus racemosus Willd. The whole bunch of roots is dug out Large and medium sized roots are taken leaving the small ones as waste No. of roots from 2 yr old plant Fresh wt. (Kg)Wastage (Kg) Collect only large and stout tuberous roots Allow further growth of the plant Sustainable method Wastage in harvesting

30 Unscientific harvesting of roots from trees Eg.: Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth. ex Kurz No. of preparations in which used – 77 The whole tree is cut down to take the roots!!! Wastage during hervesting Sustainable method Collect only the mature side roots - tap root undisturbed Harvest of leaves 3 times / year, Harvest of fruits once a year Plant speciesAge of the tree (Yrs) Total raw drug obtained (Kg) Wastage (Kg) A. marmelos A. marmelos O. indicum O. indicum

31 Unscientific extraction of bark Eg.: Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Don By cutting down the entire tree and chopping the main stem and branches Removing the entire bark from the existing tree Wastage during harvesting Sustainable method Remove only 1/3 of the mature bark Remove only the outer and the middle bark leaving the inner bark for regeneration Advantage - Extraction 4 times a year without killing the tree Age of the tree (Yrs)Quantity of bark obtained (Kg)Wastage (Kg)

32 Extraction of bark from Holarrhena pubescens Unscientific methodSustainable method 

33 Unscientific collection of fruits Eg.: Emblica officinalis Gaertn Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Roxb. By cutting down the fruit bearing branches Sustainable method Collect the fruits alone by hand or with hooks (Precaution against mechanical damage) Unscientific extraction of black dammer Canarium strictum Roxb. Make incision on the stem& set fire underneath the tree Collect the exuded resin using chopper after a month Avoid fire setting underneath the tree

34 Collection at improper time Nature and quantity of chemical constituent – high seasonal variation Best time of collection – Highest content of active principles in plant parts – Maximum quantity on drying Eg.:Acacia catechu (Heart wood) – November–January Acorus calamus (Rhizome) – May–July Terminalia arjuna (Bark) – February–April

35 Semi-processing Small pieces get wasted while slicing (Roots& heart wood) and wastage will increase when slicing is done after drying (Tuberous roots) Fungal attack due to improper drying methods (Fruits, bark, whole plant etc.) Suggestion Keep the semi-processing yard clean Dry the raw material up to desired moisture content Eg.Gooseberry fruits: dry till fruits attain 65% loss in weight Holarrhena bark - dry till bark attain 67% loss in weight Oroxylum root chips - dry till attain 54% loss in weight Slice the raw material just after harvesting and washing

36 Problems in storage Fungal attack due to insufficient drying Rodent attack and contamination by excreta Attack of insects Decaying due to storage in unhygienic condition Suggestions: Proper drying, packing and storage in hygienic, well–ventilated go-downs Plant speciesDriage (%) Aegle marmelos37 Emblica officinalis65 Holostemma ada-kodien67 Holarrhena pubescens67 The required % of driage in various plant species Other remedial measures: Fumigation, treatment using chemicals and radioactive rays ? Further research & documentation is required

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