Presentation on theme: "CNC’s Rare Treasure: Our Old Growth Forest Bill Hopple."— Presentation transcript:
CNC’s Rare Treasure: Our Old Growth Forest Bill Hopple
Outline Our Geologic History Eastern Deciduous Forests –Forest Layers –Forest Types –Old Growth Features of the Krippendorf Forest –Horticultural Legacy –Defining Species Challenges to our forest today –Invasive Species
A Forest over A Sea
Geologic History Bedrock Formation –Ordovician Seas – 450,000,000 ya –Sedimentary – Limestone & Shale Tectonic Plates –North American Plate moves north Uplift – Cincinnati Arch Lexington Peneplane Pleistocene Glaciation –2,000,000 ya
Glacial Periods in SW Ohio Pre-Illinoian Glacier –About 1,000,000 ya Illinoian Glacier –250,000 ya Wisconsian Glacier –70,000-19,500 ya Note: Kansan Glacier ( 2M ya) did not reach SW Ohio
Glacial Deposits Glacial Till –Sand, gravel, soil, erratics carried by glacier Glacial Outwash –Carried by melt waters –Sorted by size when deposited
Ohio Soils Divided mainly into those topsoils resultant from glacial activity and those not impacted
Ohio Surface Water Primarily small streams low to mid-gradient rivers and oxbows. Few natural lakes.
Cincinnati Bioregion 4 Ecoregions Defined by: –Geology –Topography –Climate –Hydrology –Soil type –Vegetation –Wildlife –Land Use
Loamy, High Lime Till Plains Eco-region Wisconsinan deposits -rolling landscape -clay, silt, sand, boulders -alkaline, fertile soils -Beech-Maple Forest Loam - Soil composed of sand, silt, clay
Hills of Bluegrass Eco-region -unglaciated -narrow ridges and valleys -neutral, well drained soils -Oak Hickory Forest
Beech-Maple Forest Beech-Maple forests once covered much of Ohio, including parts of Hamilton and Clermont counties. Abundance of beech and (sugar) maple trees (in some cases up to 90% of the trees are of these two species).
Mixed Mesophytic (Mesic) Forest on well-drained soil, usually a loam. a high species diversity of trees and other plants generally appear lush. Most of the Eastern Deciduous Forest can be described as Mesic.
Mixed Mesophytic (Mesic) Forest
Oak-Hickory Forest A forest of nut producing trees: various species of oak, hickory, formerly chestnut (now surviving only as understory sprouts). Understory of flowering dogwood, sassafras, hackberry, hawthorn. The shrub layer is distinct, dominated by species characteristic of acidic soils; blueberries, huckleberries, and laurels. Some shrubs are evergreen.
Bottomland Hardwood Forest Also known as Riverine Forests - moist sites along rivers and floodplains. Spring flooding may be an annual occurrence Box Elder, Sycamore, Cottonwoods, Silver and Red Maple occur. Some invasion by oak, hickory forest species. Open spaces allow herb growth in though cover may be minimal throughout a large portion of the year.
Bottomland Hardwood Forest
Forest Succession Field or forest opening Colonization by herbaceous plants Early successional shrubs & trees –Shrub spp –Red Cedar & Black Locust Deciduous trees –Mid successional –Young Forest –Mature Forest Old Growth Forest
Many old trees – greater than 150 years All age classes Standing deadwood Prevalence of fallen trees High species diversity - in all forest layers Deep top soil with rich humus layer No signs of human influence
Carl & Mary Krippendorf 1897 Carl purchased 75 acres in Perintown 1900 House built as a wedding present
Shrub Layer Spicebush Service Berry Bladdernut Leatherwood Buttonbush
CNC Species/Habitat Diversity Vegetative Assessment and Species lists –Dr. Barry Dalton - NKU’s Center For Applied Ecology 2009 – Land Management Plan –Connie O’Connor, Ed. Director –Jason Brownknight, Land Preservation Specialist
Land Management Need for diversity of species and habitats available for teaching –Catalog forest and habitat types –Prioritize – protect natural heritage & unique habitats; retain some diversity for teaching. –Management methods Seasonal mowing and burning Selective cutting or other physical removal Selective use of herbicides White tail deer
Common invasive species at Rowe Woods Amur Honeysuckle Lesser Celandine Garlic Mustard Multiflora Rose Wisteria Purple Loosestrife Autumn Olive Burning Bush (euonymus) Wintercreeper (euonymus) English Ivy Asian Bittersweet
Garlic Mustard Lesser Celandine
Burning Bush (Euonymus)
Wintercreeper (Euonymus) English Ivy Asian Bittersweet
Land Steward Volunteers Began in Active Volunteers Nearly 1500 Vol. Hours Nearly 200 Acres Treated
Trees "I think that I shall never see A poem lovely as a tree A tree whose hungry mouth is prest Against the earth's sweet flowing breast; A tree that looks at God all day, And lifts her leafy arms to pray; A tree that may in Summer wear A nest of Robins in her hair; Upon whose bosom snow has lain; Who intimately lives with rain. Poems are made by fools like me, But only God can make a tree." Joyce Kilmer. December 6, 1886-July 30, 1918.