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Serving Adults & Youth with Disabilities Under WIOA

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1 Serving Adults & Youth with Disabilities Under WIOA
California Workforce Association Youth Conference 2015

2 Overview of WIOA President Obama signed WIOA into law on July 22, 2014. Wide bipartisan majority (The Senate voted 93-5 and the House of Representatives voted 415-6). Reaffirms ongoing role of American Job Centers. Promotes program coordination and alignment of key employment, education, and training programs at the Federal, State, local, and regional levels. Builds on proven practices such as sector strategies, career pathways, regional economic approaches, work-based training. Complements and supports the President’s Job-Driven Workforce Vision and report issued by VP,

3 Programs under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act
Identifies the following as “core programs” that must engage in joint planning and report on common performance measures: Adults, Dislocated Workers, and Youth formula programs and Wagner-Peyser employment services administered by the Department of Labor; and Adult education and literacy programs and Vocational Rehabilitation state grant programs that assist individuals with disabilities in obtaining employment administered by the Department of Education. Authorizes the Job Corps, YouthBuild, Apprenticeships Indian and Native Americans, and Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker programs, and evaluation and research activities conducted by DOL.

4 Requires states to strategically align workforce development programs
Single Unified Strategic Plan - Every state will develop and submit a four-year strategy for core programs. Must be jointly approved by the Secretaries of Labor and Education within 90 days of receipt. Combined State Plan option– States can include other key partners such as Jobs for Veterans State Grant program, Unemployment Insurance, Trade Adjustment Assistance, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Perkins career and technical education programs.

5 Increases the quality and accessibility of services at AJCs
States will establish criteria to certify AJCs are accessible at least every 3 years to ensure continuous improvement, access to services (including virtual services), and integrated service delivery. Key programs and services will be available at AJCs Wagner-Peyser Employment Service is required to co-locate at AJCs. TANF is a new AJC required partner. States/local areas will integrate intake, case management, and reporting systems, including fiscal and management accountability systems.

6 WIOA-Focus on Disconnected Youth
Must spend at least 75 percent of funds on out-of-school youth, compared to 30 percent under WIA. Also changes youth eligibility requirements by establishing separate criteria for out-of-school and in-school youth

7 If you are serving Out of School or Disconnected Youth You are Serving Youth with Disabilities !!!
Swd drop out at 2X rates of peers w/o disabilities. Students with ED have worst outcomes. Arrest rates are relatively high for SWD who drop out. Between 28 percent and 43 percent of detained and incarcerated youthful offenders have an identified special education disability, a majority being learning disabilities.

8 Youth in Care have Many and Multiple Health and Behavioral Health Care Needs
Of youth who enter the child welfare system: Almost 90% have some health problem or need 55% have two or more chronic health care conditions Almost 25% have three or more chronic health care conditions 30-60% have developmental delays 50-80% have mental and behavioral health problems 30-40% are receiving special education services

9 WIOA -Separate criteria for out-of-school and in-school youth
In School Youth 14 to 21 Out of School Youth- 16 to 24 Must be low-income; attending school (as defined by State law); and one or more of the following: Basic skills deficient; youth subject to the juvenile or adult justice system; youth who are homeless, a runaway, in foster care or aged out of such care, pregnant or parenting; or youth who have a disability. No Income Eligibility for: school dropouts; youth who have not attended school for the most recent calendar quarter; youth subject to the juvenile or adult justice system; youth who are homeless, a runaway, in foster care or aged out of such care, pregnant or parenting; or youth who have a disability. Also includes low-income youth who are: basic skills deficient, English language learners, or Need additional assistance to enter or complete an educational program or secure or hold employment. There is a limitation that not more than 5 percent of in-school youth may be eligible under the category of needing additional assistance to complete an education program or secure or hold employment. The WIOA also establishes a special rule under which low-income includes any youth living in a high poverty area

10 Improves services to individuals with disabilities
AJCs will provide physical and programmatic accessibility to employment and training services for individuals with disabilities. Local boards may designate a standing committee to provide information and assist with operational and other issues related to compliance with non-discrimination and applicable accessibility requirements provide input regarding appropriate training for staff on these issues. Establishes a committee to advise the Secretary of Labor on strategies to increase competitive integrated employment for individuals with disabilities. Includes Departments of Labor, Education, Health and Human Services, Social Security Administration, and other partners.

11 Career Pathways for Youth
Registered Apprenticeship is recognized as a career pathway for Job Corps students. The Youth program may offer pre-apprenticeship training to prepare youth for Registered Apprenticeship. YouthBuild may offer work experience and skills training in coordination with pre-apprenticeship and Registered Apprenticeship programs.

12 Enhances the Job Corps program
Focus on opportunities that will lead to successful careers resulting in economic self-sufficiency and prospects for advancement or enrollment in postsecondary education, Amends assignment plan to provide for placements at centers closest to home that offer the type of career and technical education selected by the individual rather than just the centers closest to home.  Adds two exceptions to the general limitation that the period of enrollment is not to exceed two years. Under WIA the only exception was for completion for an advanced career training program. Under WIOA the first addition is for individuals with disabilities who would reasonably be expected to graduate if allowed to participate for up to 1 additional year. This provision could have significant implications since a large percentage of Job Corps enrollees have disabilities. The second is for individuals who participate in national service programs for a period equal to the period of national service

13 Career Development Is Featured Prominently Throughout WIOA-Title II Adult Ed
Increases funding for corrections education from not more than 10 percent under WIA to not more than 20 percent. Can fund integrated education and training, career pathways, concurrent enrollment, and transition to re-entry initiatives and other services with the goal of reducing recidivism Clarifies that integrated English literacy and civics education programs may provide workforce training.

14 Vocational Rehabilitation –Strong emphasis on Competitive Integrated Employment
Allows State VR agencies to prioritize serving students with disabilities. Allows State VR agencies to support advanced training in STEM and other technical professions. Dedicates half of the Federal Supported Employment program funds to provide youth with the most significant disabilities with the supports they need, including extended services of up to 4 years to enable them to obtain competitive integrated employment Requires career counseling .

15 Section 511-Limitations on Use of Subminimum Wage Pre-Employment-Under Age 24
Can’t be paid less than the Federal minimum wage unless individual received pre-employment transition services under the Rehabilitation Act or transition services under the IDEA (job exploration counseling, work-based learning experiences, counseling on post-secondary opportunities, workplace readiness training, and training on self-advocacy, other services if funds are available, and the individual applied for vocational rehabilitation services and was found ineligible (and has documentation of the finding), or was determined eligible for such services, has an individualized plan for employment, has been working toward an employment outcome in the plan with appropriate supports and services for a reasonable period of time without success, and the individual’s vocational rehabilitation case has been closed.  Must also receive career counseling and information referrals to Federal or State and other resources that offer employment-related services and supports which can not be provided by the entity with the certificate. Schools prohibited from contracting with sub-minimum wage providers for “transition services”.

16 Section 511- Limitations on Use of Subminimum Wage During Employment Regardless of Age
Individual may not continue to be employed at subminimum wage unless: every 6 months for the first year of such employment and annually thereafter, the individual is provided by the designated State unit career counseling and information and referrals, and is informed by the employer of self-advocacy, self- determination and peer mentoring opportunities available in the local area from an entity that does not have any financial interest in the individual’s employment outcome.

17 Vocational Rehabilitation –Strong emphasis on Competitive Integrated Employment
Increases services to youth with disabilities: Emphasizes need for ywd to have more opportunities to practice and improve their workplace skills, to consider their career interests, and get real-world experience Requires State vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies to make “pre-employment transition services” available to all students with disabilities. Requires set aside of at least 15 percent of funds to provide pre-employment transition services .

18 Serving YWD WELL Under Wioa
Resources and Strategies

19 New Youth Program Elements
Five New Elements (total of 14 program elements) Financial literacy Entrepreneurial skills training Services that provide labor market and employment information in the local area Activities that help youth transition to postsecondary education and training Education offered concurrently with and in the same context as workforce preparation activities and training for a specific occupation or occupational cluster

20 Emphasis on Work-based Learning
At least 20% of local Youth formula funds must be used for work activities such as: Summer jobs Pre-apprenticeship On-the-job training Internships Local Youth Formula Funds 20%

21 Guideposts for Success
Five Essential Components for All Youth: School-Based Preparatory Experiences Career Preparation & Work-Based Learning Youth Development & Leadership Connecting Activities Family Involvement & Supports The “Guideposts for Success,” a research-based policy and practice framework that delineates what all youth, including those with disabilities, need to succeed, Guideposts focused on serving youth, including those with disabilities,

22 Guideposts for Disconnected and Target Populations
Foster care, Juvenile justice system, Youth with mental health needs, and, Youth with learning disabilities,

23 National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities

24 Re-entry Programs for Out of School Ywd
The variety of reasons that students with disabilities drop out makes it difficult to implement a uniform approach to reentry. Most are so credit-deficient that returning to the traditional school system to obtain a diploma before they reach the allowable age limit is unrealistic. A growing number of school-college partnerships allow students with disabilities to simultaneously earn high school and college credits.

25 Other Reentry options for Ywd include:
career and technology centers at which students can obtain a GED, then enroll in a career training program and earn credits that transfer to degree programs at local college online programs operated by charter schools, adult education providers, community colleges, for-profit organizations, and public school districts through which students can earn high school credits; GED programs on college campuses that enable students to obtain GEDs and get support transitioning into postsecondary education; collaborative GED/career training programs that enable students to obtain GEDs in addition to occupational skills training. district alternative schools and charter schools specifically geared toward returning dropouts; high schools that integrate on-site job training and enable students to earn credit for work experience; adult high schools which students can attend in the evenings to acquire credits toward a high school diploma while co-enrolled in regular high schools; adult high schools and adult education programs at which students can apply credits earned for life experience such as employment, skills training certifications, and military training toward a high school diploma; adult education centers at which students can complete their high school diploma through self-paced classes, online classes, or by meeting competencies;

26 Strategies for Locating and Reenrolling Students
Phone calls and text messages. Letters. personalized letters to students asking them to return to school. Home visits. Teams of school personnel and volunteers visit homes of out-of-school youth to encourage them to return to school and provide them with their reenrollment options. Social networking sites. School personnel “friend” students on Facebook to share information with them about reentry programs. Information sharing between schools and districts. Schools and districts share names of students who have dropped out of school or reenrolled in school. Collaboration with community-based organizations. Youth-serving organizations provide student referrals or serve as distribution sites for information on reentry programs. Some provide outreach workers

27 Strategies for Locating and Reenrolling Students
Partner with for-profit organizations. School districts pay private companies that specialize in dropout recovery to locate students and reenroll them Reengagement fairs. Representatives from district schools, charter schools, trade schools, community colleges, and GED testing centers attend fairs to provide on reenrollment options. Reengagement centers. Students attend centers to have their transcripts evaluated, find out about reenrollment options, take online credit recovery courses, and get life-skills training. Media campaigns. Reentry programs are advertised in newspapers, on cable television channels, radio stations, billboards, and flyers posted throughout the community. Direct outreach. School teams go to housing developments, malls, sporting events, and other locations where out-of-school youth congregate, to share information with youth about reentry programs.

28 Six Characteristics of Reentry Programs
displays the six key characteristics of reentry programs and illustrates the interactive role that partnerships play in the other five areas.

29 Promising Practices Richmond Public Schools’ Dropout Prevention Initiative in Virginia Superintendent and mayor went door-to-door to meet with dropouts to convince them to reenroll in school. Several teams also canvassed the city to locate out-of-school youth Students offered rides to the Adult Career Development Center where counselors were on hand to help students develop Individualized Learning Plans (ILPs) and to coordinate other services that would facilitate their return to school (Calos, 2010). Recovery specialists continue to visit “no shows” and truant students at their homes on an ongoing basis throughout the year. All recovered students participate in a two-day intake process during which time a counselor and social worker review their transcripts, help them develop long- and short-term goals, and problem-solve barriers to their returning to school ( With SWD IEP meetings are also held to determine what transition services are needed .

30 Promising Practices Volusia County Schools in Florida
Offers online options at all of the district’s high schools, alternative schools, dropout reentry programs, and community learning centers. Students who are unable to attend school during regular school hours can attend Volusia Virtual School, on either a full- or part-time basis. Two Storefront Schools, specifically geared toward students who have dropped out, have been in operation since Students take online courses for half a day and spend the other half of the day working or engaging in community service. Students earn credits for participating in these activities, allowing for accelerated diploma completion. The curriculum is performance-based and individualized, enabling students with disabilities to progress at their own pace. There are many embedded features of the online programs, such as text-to-speech and graphic organizers, that also benefit students with disabilities In addition to accommodations outlined on students’ IEPs, such as having tests read to them and receiving extended time to complete tests, teachers provide alternative instructional materials for students on an as-needed basis

31 Dropout Prevention Interventions for SWD-What Seems to Work
Assign adult advocates/mentors to students at risk of dropping out. Utilize data systems that support a realistic diagnosis of the number of students who drop out and that help identify individual students at high risk of dropping out. Provide academic support and enrichment to improve academic performance.

32 Dropout Prevention Interventions for SWD
Improve students’ classroom behavior and social skills. Personalize the learning environment and instructional process. Provide rigorous and relevant instruction to better engage students in learning and incorporate job training/career awareness

33 Career Development Process - Three Components
Self Exploration - Exploring their personal interests, skills, values to better understand themselves Career Exploration - Learning about various career options using online career information AND hands-on activities (meeting employers, job shadowing, career mentors, workplace tours, etc.) Career Planning & Management – Developing a wide array of skills and experience needed to pursue careers, postsecondary ed, & other life goals: Work-based learning; Career/work readiness skills; job search skills; financial literacy; .

34 Career Development Strategies Guidepost Area 2
All Youth Need: Self-exploration activities to learn about their skills, interests & career options Career exploration activities including site visits, guest speakers, job shadowing; includes learning about education/ training entry requirements & earning potential/benefits Opportunities to practice through work experiences i.e. internships, community service work, part-time jobs Soft skills training to gain job-seeking & workplace basic skills

35 Career Development Strategies Guidepost Area 2
In addition, youth with disabilities need: To understand benefits planning To learn to communicate their disability-related work support and accommodation needs To learn to find, formally request, & secure supports and accommodations

36 Self-Exploration Strategies-Career Interest Inventories
Many youth programs use free career interest inventory tools that youth can access on the Internet/Others Develop Their Own. Programs adapt their methods and materials to suit individual youth needs. Programs use the career interest inventory results as a starting point for engaging youth in exploration and planning for careers and postsecondary education. Programs use other types of career assessment tools where appropriate. Innovative Strategies Practice Brief on Using Career Interest Inventories to Inform Career Planning

37 Self-Exploration Strategies
Using Career Assessments Shasta Co 21st Century Career Connections, CA Adapted RIASEC Inventory, Holland codes, universal design Created Multiple Intelligences and Interests tool Created TIPS for Success Guide to Transition document Ctr for Independent Living of North Central Florida (CIL/NCF) High School/High Tech Use state career info system: Work Values Sorter, Learning Styles

38 Adapting self exploration methods to suit Individual Needs
For example, the LEAP Job Link program uses Envision Your Career video for low/non-readers, deaf students, and ESL students.” “Language free” – occupations and work-related tasks are demonstrated silently, rather than described in text or with words. Instructions for how to rate each occupation/task are also demonstrated visually without words. The staff at Linking Learning to Life sometimes use a Picture Interest Career Survey, which they obtained from the local VR agency. Other times staff read career descriptions and instructions to youth and assist youth with writing their interests on paper as needed.

39 Using career interest inventory results as a starting point for engaging youth in exploration and planning STC3 developed TIPS for Success Guide to Transition document as a way for youth to document their own career interest survey results and other personal information. Career Pathway charts that define the course of study – the sequence of courses available at high schools throughout the region – that relate specifically to areas of career interest; and Mobility charts, which depict the possible career ladders in a particular industry or career cluster such as health care or business.

40 Self-Exploration Resources
Sample Lessons, Activities & Tools: I Am Who I Am … And As Others See Me (Guideposts for Success Activities) Identifying Personal Values (Utah Education Network) How Likes and Dislikes Can Influence Career Choices (Georgia Career Resource Network) O*NET Ability Profiler (identify your strengths), Interest Profiler (identify types of work activities you like), Work Importance Locator (identify what is important to you in a job) Find links in ILP How-to Guide:

41 Self-Exploration Resources
Using Career Interest Inventories to Inform Career Planning, Innovative Strategies Practice Brief, Career Planning Begins with Assessment Guide, O*NET Ability Profiler – A self-assessment tool that helps individuals find their strengths and the occupations that match them. O*NET Interest Profiler  – A self-assessment tool that helps individuals discover what types of work activities they would like.  O*NET Computerized Interest Profiler – A computer-generated version of the Interest Profiler vocational interest assessment. O*NET Work Importance Locator – A self-assessment tool that helps individuals pinpoint what is important to them in a job. O*NET Work Importance Profiler – A computer-generated version of the Work Importance Locator.

42 Career Exploration Strategies
Transitional Age Youth Program, Long Beach, CA Career Cruising: Airport visit exposed youth to 27 jobs Five-Day Checklist Extravaganza: Week-long job rotation Bay Cove Academy, Brookline, MA Job shadowing includes career scavenger hunt activity

43 Career Exploration Resources
Sample Lessons, Activities & Tools: Exploring Customer Service Jobs in Your Own Community; Generations at Work (Guideposts for Success Activities) Career Investigation (Utah Education Network) Career Clusters Review and Occupational Exploration (Georgia) My Next Move  - O*NET tool allows students to match a profile of interests with different kinds of careers Career One Stop videos (U. S. Department of Labor,  Employment and Training Administration) Find links in ILP How-to Guide:

44 Career Exploration Resources
Career Exploration in Action, Innovative Strategies Practice Brief How to Build Partnerships for Career Exploration: Using Job Shadows to Explore the World of Work, Monadnock Center for Successful Transitions, Bureau of Labor Statistics Career Exploration Resources My Skills My Future, O*NET tool for those with previous work experience,, from U.S. Defense, Commerce, Education & Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook, State Open Access Resources for Career Exploration and Labor Market Information California Occupational Guides, provides detailed descriptive information for over 800 occupations including what special training, licensing, or other requirements may be necessary to work in the state of California for each occupation. .

45 Work Experiences – Successful Strategies
Provide youth with soft skills training and guidance Train youth in technical skills, or hard skills, as needed for specific work experience setting Devote significant time to developing and maintaining relationships with employers Clearly communicate what is expected of employers, youth, and families upfront Carefully match youth to opportunities based on individual interests and skills Provide on-going support to youth and employers throughout the work experience

46 Career Planning & Management Skill Building Strategies
Career/Work Readiness Skills Training First Jobs Academy, ME All youth must complete 4 weeks (6 hr/week) of pre-employment life skills & job retention training (Curricula available online) Training on Communication, Critical Thinking & Problem-Solving, Professionalism, Teamwork & Collaboration; Employer partners assist in delivering training Open Meadow Alternative School, OR Several weeks of training hosted by employer partner Training in professional work culture, career planning, competitive interviewing strategies, self marketing techniques, and networking skills

47 Career Planning & Management Skill Building Resources
Soft Skills Training ODEP’s Skills to Pay the Bills: Mastering Soft Skills for Workplace Success curriculum, Helping Youth Develop Soft Skills for Job Success: Tips for Parents and Families InfoBrief Soft Skills Podcast series,

48 Career Planning & Management Skill Building Strategies
Work Experiences Linking Employment, Abilities and Potential, OH 10-week summer internship: various jobs at VA Medical Center and other work sites matching individual youth’s interests Internship Learning Contract clarifies expectations for all Worksite Progress Report, supervisor shares feedback Palm Bay High School/High Tech, FL Students obtain internships through various connections: program mentors, Chamber of Commerce, parents Internship Agreement defines intern duties, expectations Supervisor provides feedback via Student Evaluation form These examples are also in the Innovative Strategies Practice Brief on “Engaging Youth in Work Experiences”

49 Career Planning & Management Skill Building Resources
More Sample Lessons, Activities & Tools in the Online ILP How-to Guide address: Job Search Skills Youth Development and Leadership Career and Work Readiness Skills  Work-Based Learning  Financial Literacy A variety of lessons, activities and tools for this component of Career Development can be found in NCWD/Youth’s online guide for implementing Individualized Learning Plans.

50 Career Planning & Management Skill Building Resources
Work-based Learning Engaging Youth in Work Experiences: An Innovative Strategies Practice Brief, Work-based Learning Jumpstart: High School/High Tech Program Guide (Ch. 3: Career Preparation and Work-based Learning Experiences), Road to Self-Sufficiency: A Guide to Entrepreneurship for Youth with Disabilities, These are some additional resources from NCWD/Youth which are useful for work-based learning. This includes the link to the Innovative Strategies Brief on “Engaging Youth in Work Experiences”

51 Career Planning & Management Skill Building Resources
Work-based Learning Internships: The On-Ramp to Employment, A Guide for Students with Disabilities to Getting and Making the Most of an Internship, National Consortium on Leadership & Disability for Youth (NCLD-Youth), Quality Work-Based Learning and Postschool Employment Success: NCSET Issue Brief, Work-Based Learning and Future Employment for Youth: A Guide for Parents and Guardians – NCSET Information Brief, And more resources from NCWD/Youth and other organizations on work-based learning

52 Disclosure and Accommodations
Disclosure—youth should decide when and how much to tell others, and understand how their disability affects their capacity to learn and/or perform effectively; they should also be “aware”… Accommodations—youth should be empowered to determine what environmental adjustments, supports, and services they need in order to access, participate and excel in school, at work, and in the community. 52

53 Disability Disclosure Resources
The 411 on Disability Disclosure: A Workbook for Youth with Disabilities, The 411 on Disability Disclosure: A Workbook for Families, Educators, Youth Service Professionals, and Adult Allies Who Care About Youth with Disabilities, Cyber Disclosure for Youth with Disabilities, Disability Disclosure Videos, These are resources you can use to assist youth in learning about disability disclosure.

54 Accommodations Resources
The Job Accommodation Network (JAN), JAN’s Searchable Online Accommodation Resource, Entering the World of Work: What Youth with Mental Health Needs Should Know About Accommodations, ODEP, These are resources for helping youth understand what accommodations they might use depending on their disability

55 ODEP and NCWD/Y Resources
Individualized Learning Plans How-to Guide Blazing the Trail: A New Direction for Youth Development and Leadership: Youth Call-to-Action The Hidden Disabilities Quick Reference Guide, Paving the Way to Work: A Career Focused Mentoring Guide for Youth With Disabilities Professional Development: Knowledge, Skills, & Abilities (KSA). Innovative Strategies Database —

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