Presentation on theme: "Disability in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Karl S. Booksh Missy Postlewaite Lea Vest."— Presentation transcript:
Disability in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Karl S. Booksh Missy Postlewaite Lea Vest
Outline A bit about myself Provocative (hopefully) interpretation of statistics regarding students with disabilities in STEM Introduce panelists – There background and views Open discussion
Short CV Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Delaware (2005) – Prof. Arizona State University (1998) National Science Foundation (NSF), Committee on Equal Opportunity in Science and Engineering Chair, American Chemical Society, Committee on Chemists with Disabilities P.I., Summer Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) aimed at chemists with disabilities
Short Bio – Disability Perspective Brother – AVM at age 9 Self – broken neck at age 19 Wife – cerebral palsy Twin boys – One with ADHD – Both being tested for LD Been active with students since undergrad – Parents, Inc. and Easter Seals in Alaska – DO-IT at Univ. Washington
Failure to Adequately Serve Persons with Disabilities in STEM
History of Disability in Academic Science Ireland, they say, has the honour of being the only country which never persecuted the jews. Do you know that? No. And do you know why? He frowned sternly on the bright air. Why, sir? Stephen asked, beginning to smile. Because she never let them in, Mr. Deasy said solemnly James Joyce in Ulysses
Academic Distribution of Disabilities in STEM 7% Population 16 – 20 (1) 13% Population 18- 44 (2) 13% Population 20 – 65 (1) 1% of STEM doctorates (2008) (1) Biological Sciences76 Chemistry23 Agricultural Sciences23 Phys. and Astronomy13 Environmental Sciences 8 Math and Stats.14 Computer Science22 Psychology74 Sociology83 Engineering 50 Postdoctoral Associates suppressed by NSF (1) Increasing representation with age 1. National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering, 2009. NSF 09-305. Session 5 8
Baseline Data on Students with Disabilities 8.6% total school population under IDEA – 13.8% public school attendees 7% population between 16 and 21 13% population between 21 and 65 Interested in STEM fields at same rate as students without disabilities – In college: 21.7% v. 23.1% – In graduate school: 20.3% v. 21.3% National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering, 2009. NSF 09-305. The Condition of Education 2007 (NCES 2007064), National Center for Education Statistics, 2007.
No change in relative STEM Doctoral Attainment since ADA National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering, various years with data from NSF on US Citizens w/ disabilities.
Our (Poorly) Hidden Biases Cause Problems for Others Faculty prefer to hire themselves Gender Race Ethnicity Thought process Work habits Shared beliefs Schema Career trajectory Solo status / Tokenism Stereotype Threat Pogo Possum Session 5 11
Education Path Discrepancies 2-Year v. 4-Year College w/ disability 47% v. 42% w/o disability 42% v. 47% Full-time v. Part-time w/ disability 58.2% v. 41.8% w/o disability 63.4% v. 38.6% Graduate Students < 24-years old w/ disability 7.5% w/o disability 17.6% Returning students Retraining post disability Leave of absence for illness Military Commitments National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering, 2009. NSF 09-305. Session 512
The Matthew Effect Matthew 13:12 For whoever has, to him more shall be given, and he will have an abundance; but whoever does not have, even what he has shall be taken away from him. R.K. Merton “The Matthew Effect in Science”, Science 159: 56-63 (1968) The more accomplished scientist gets credit, even if lesser contribution Top universities recruit people with recognized successes (awards) Receiving small awards impacts receiving bigger awards Awards tend to go to people from top universities Same Schema in deciding nominations! RA supported graduate students w/ disability16.4% w/o disability 24.4% National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering, 2009. NSF 09-305. Session 5 13
Some Reasons Students with disabilities are – More likely to attend 2-year (47%) than 4-year (42%) institutions – More likely to go part-time (63.8%) than students w/o disabilities (58.2%) – Older in graduate school 17.6% v. 7.5% younger than 23 – Less likely to be on RA 16.4% v. 24.4% National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering, 2009. NSF 09-305
Civil Rights and/or Jobs Issue Vicious cycle – Not attaining educational goals – Under- or unemployment – Lack of role-models and avatars March 2013 Dept. of Labor statistics – Labor force participation: 20.7% v. 68.7% – Unemployment: 13.0% v. 7.4% Salary gap in S&E – 4% younger than 29 years old – 13% for 40 to 49 years old Dept. of Commerce – Predicts 17% increase in STEM jobs 2008 – 2018 – 2/3 require college degree – Verses 9% and 1/3 for non-STEM Daughtry, D., J. Gibson, and A. Abels, Mentoring Students and Professionals With Disabilities. Professional Psychology-Research and Practice, 2009. 40(2): p. 201-205 National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering, 2009. NSF 09-305 Langdon, D., G. McKittrick, D. Beede, B. Khan, and M. Doms, STEM: Good Jobs Now and for the Future, E.a.S.A. US Depatment of Commere, 2011.
Lack of Programs to Support Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education 2010 Federal STEM Education Inventory Data Set on broadening participation – All federal agencies with outreach – $397.8M to ‘Institutional Capacity’ or ‘Postsecondary STEM’ $378.3M to underrepresented minorities $19.6M to students with disabilities 19:1 ratio
Sampling of Biggest Programs NSF LSAMP (~$45M 2010 budget) NIH RISE (~$24M 2010 budget) NIH MARC U-STAR (~$21M 2010 budget), NOAA Educational Partnership with Minority Serving Institutions (~$15M 2010 budget), NASA University Research Centers for minority serving institutions (~$14M 2010 budget), DOE HBCU STEM Research Workforce Development Program (~$9M 2010 budget) NSF Research on Disability Education program (~$ 7 M 2010 budget) – ~35% of available federal funds
Only 3 Active Professional Societies American Advancement for Science and Engineering – Project on Science, Technology and Disability American Chemical Society – Committee on Chemists with Disabilities American Psychological Society – Committee on Disability Issues in Psychology
Where are the Role Models? Postdocs with Disabilities in pipeline? – NIH will fund but few apply. Faculty at R1 Universities who have successfully navigated the system? – Willing to add outreach to research and teaching (and home-life)? Educators at all levels who can see past ‘disabilities’?
Why are We Failing? Lack of financial support – Committing funds sends a message of priorities Need effort to focus at start of academic career – Losing students after transitions Identity – People primarily identify by race/gender, not disability status Lack data – To track, understand, and make compelling arguments ??
Transitions and Disclosure 28% of IEP students disclose disability at postsecondary level Disconnect between disclosure protocol at K12 vs. postsecondary
Support Services K-12 All support integrated under IDEA University Must reapply as adult Support services fragmented at federal, state, and local levels Must anticipate and articulate needs Needs to occur before classes start
Association of University Centers on Disabilities (AUCD) Self-determination should be the foundation for transition planning Transition should be viewed through a cultural lens Interagency collaboration is essential to effective transition Transition planning should include all the perspectives, disciplines, and organizations that will impact the transitioning student