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Self-Determination and PBIS: Keeping Kids in School Marianne Moore & John McNaught Virginia Department of Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Self-Determination and PBIS: Keeping Kids in School Marianne Moore & John McNaught Virginia Department of Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Self-Determination and PBIS: Keeping Kids in School Marianne Moore & John McNaught Virginia Department of Education

2 Question… Which is the greater influence on students’ intention to stay in school? Academic performance OR Students’ perceived competence and self- determined motivation High School Factors That Influence Students to Remain in School, by John Ainley, Jane Foreman and Michael Sheret The Journal of Educational Research © 1991

3 Why??? Why is a students’ perceived competence and self- determined motivation the greater influence to stay in school?

4 Statistics In the U.S. every school year approximately 1.3 million students- that’s 7000 every school day, do not graduate from high school as scheduled

5 Statistics Grades 3, 6, and 9 seem to be the most critical grades for potential dropout identification and need for immediate action.

6 Statistics Throughout the school years, most potential dropouts need help in making wise choices, controlling their behavior in purposeful ways, and in managing workloads.

7 Statistics Having at least one ADULT CONFIDANT who is ACCESSIBLE both in and out of school is important to many of these students.

8 Postsecondary Statistics Among SwD out of high school up to 6 years (2007) Ever attended an Institution: 4-year: 15.9% 2-year: 41.3% Vocational/Technical: 27.9% National Center on Education Statistics

9 Postsecondary Statistics Among SwD out of high school up to 6 years (2007) Currently attending an Institution: 4 year: 9.1% 2-year: 12.7% Vocational/Technical: 1.8% National Center on Education Statistics

10 Postsecondary Statistics Among SwD out of high school up to 6 years (2007) Graduated from Institution: 4 year: 10.1% 2-year: 18.9% Vocational/Technical: 50.1% National Center on Education Statistics

11 Helping All Students School approaches to encouraging self- determination skills can promote interventions that will help reduce their dropout rates and thus positively effect the lives of individuals, their families and our communities.

12 Proactive Prevention School Completion vs. Dropout Prevention We want students to feel motivated and competent for the challenges of the school environment and adult life. We want our focus to be on supporting students in completing school not preventing them from dropping out of school.

13 Elements that Promote School Completion Principle: Engage students in the educational process Schools that encourage incorporate these interventions: Take a proactive stance by teaching students the skills they need for academic success Facilitate the creation of meaningful relationships Manage the school environment in ways that enhance the student-school fit (Christenson, Sinclair, Lehr, & Godber, 2001)

14 Elements of Successful Dropout Prevention Programs: Principle: Engage students in the educational process Students in these programs: Experience academic success Perceive adults in school as people who care about them Receive support to manage immediate personal concerns Connect what they do in school to important personal goals (McPartland, 1994)

15 Promoting school completion through Evidence-based Practices Self-Determination Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports

16 Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems 1-5% 5-10% 80-90% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

17 What is Self-Determination? Acting as the primary causal agent in one’s life and making choices and decisions regarding one’s quality of life free from undue external influence or interference. Wehmeyer, 1996

18 What is Self-Determination?  Knowing & believing in yourself  Knowing what you want your future to be like and how to make plans to achieve this future.  Knowing the supports that you need to take control of your life.

19 Self-Determination & School Completion Young people with disabilities… who often experience low rates of school completion and adult success, also tend to experience lower levels of self- determination than their peers. (Wehmeyer & Kelchner, 1996; Wehmeyer & Metlzer, 1996).

20 Self-Determination and Adult Outcomes Young people with disabilities…who have higher levels of self-determination are more likely to obtain postschool employment and experience success in their adult lives. (Gerber, Ginsberg, & Reiff, 1992;vWehmeyer & Palmer, 2003; Wehmeyer & Schwartz, 1997;1998)

21 PBIS Is a decision making framework that guides selection, integration, and implementation of the best evidence- based academic and behavioral practices for improving important academic and behavior outcomes for all students. Improves student academic and behavior outcomes to ensure all students have access to the most effective and accurately implemented instructional and behavioral practices and interventions possible.

22 Principles Develop a continuum of scientifically based behavior and academic interventions and supports Use data to make decisions and solve problems Arrange the environment to prevent the development and occurrence of problem behavior Teach and encourage prosocial skills and behaviors Implement evidence-based behavioral practices with fidelity and accountability Screen universally and monitor student performance & progress continuously

23 Outcomes Schools that establish systems with the capacity to implement SWPBS with integrity and durability have teaching and learning environments that are Less reactive, aversive, dangerous, and exclusionary, and More engaging, responsive, preventive, and productive Address classroom management and disciplinary issues (e.g., attendance, tardies, antisocial behavior), Improve supports for students whose behaviors require more specialized assistance (e.g., emotional and behavioral disorders, mental health), and Most importantly, maximize academic engagement and achievement for all students

24 Principles translated to practices for schoolwide support for ALL students Practices Define expectations Teach expectations Monitor expected behavior Acknowledge expected behavior Correct errors in behavior (continuum of consequences) Use data for decision- making Systems Administrative leadership Team-based implementation Defined commitment Allocation of resources Budgeted support Development of decision- driven information system Positive communication and relationships

25 How Do PBIS and SD work together?

26 Core Values Humanistic Approach Focus on: Improving quality of life Inclusion in the community

27 Shared Vision and Outcomes Take a proactive stance by teaching students the skills they need for academic success Facilitate the creation of meaningful relationships Manage the school environment in ways that enhance the student-school fit

28 Shared Vision and Outcomes Experience academic success Perceive adults in school as people who care about them Receive support to manage immediate personal concerns Connect what they do in school to important personal goals

29 Critical Features Comprehensive Lifestyle and Quality of Life Lifespan Perspective Ecological Validity Stakeholder Participation Social Validity

30 Critical Features Emphasis on Prevention Assessment Practices Intervention Strategies Training Extension to new populations

31 Think of one child’s future… What are some of the factors that influence student’s social/emotional competence long term?

32 Core Components (combination of skills, knowledge & beliefs)  Choice-making  Decision-making  Problem-solving  Goal-setting & attainment  Internal locus of control  Positive attributes of efficacy and outcomes expectancy  Self-Observation  Self-Evaluation  Self- Reinforcement  Self-Instruction  Self-Advocacy & Leadership  Self-Awareness  Self-Knowledge

33 5 Intervetions/strategies to help develop Self- Determination 1 Pagers Good Day Plan Student led conferences/IEPS Lesson Plans based on core components Goal Setting & Attainment

34 1 pagers

35 Learning Preferences I like to have new concepts modeled Enjoy working in groups I often get the “big” picture and have to work to note the details Accommodations that Work Extended time Help from my friends Working with people with different learning styles I Want You to Know I don’t like timelines I work hard I play hard Interests Animals Cooking Outdoors Name: John McNaught Address: Rabbits Foot Rd Hinton, VA DOB: You’re Invited Date: Time: 10:00 am

36 My Hobbies/ Interests Name: Address: Phone: DOB: You’re Invited To: Date: Time: With: What Got Me to DLC Changes I’d Like to Make Courses I’m Working On Goals I Want to Achieve What Helps Me Work

37 Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Triangle Activity: Applying the Three-Tiered Logic to Your School

38 Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Triangle Activity: Applying the Three-Tiered Logic Entire 9 th grade class during 1 st week of school Students at-risk for failing class Create one for teachers Individual students sends one to all Teachers prior to school year starting

39 Higher Education…

40 Good Day Plan

41 Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Triangle Activity: Applying the Three-Tiered Logic to Your School

42 Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Triangle Activity: Applying the Three-Tiered Intervention Logic Entire 10 th grade English class Creates class wide GDP Student gives to CICO coordinator Student presents GDP as part Of FBA/BIP meeting

43 Higher Education…

44 Student-led Conferences

45 Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Triangle Activity: Applying the Three-Tiered Logic to Your School

46 Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Triangle Activity: Applying the Three-Tiered All students receiving special education Services participate in student-led IEP or students lead Parent/Teacher conference Use Its All About Me workbook As a guide Student-led conference with Parent/Teacher As a crisis intervention tool

47 Higher Education…

48 Lesson Plans

49 Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Triangle Activity: Applying the Three-Tiered Logic to Your School

50 Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Triangle Activity: Applying the Three-Tiered Intervention Logic 3 rd grade elementary classroom uses decision-making lesson decision-making lesson in conjunction with SOL 3.1 Booster session for targeted group Using lesson plans based on data Individual student works through Lesson plans based on need (data)

51

52 Higher Education…

53 Goal Setting Goal Setting & AttainmentAttainment

54 Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Triangle Activity: Applying the Three-Tiered Logic to Your School

55 Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Triangle Activity: Applying the Three-Tiered Logic to Your School 5 th grade class utilizes decision Making skills to attain entry into the schoolwide acknowledgement event Booster session for targeted group Looking at short term vs long term goals Individual student applies long term goal to what They’re currently learning in school

56 Higher Education…

57 Mentorship Programs

58 Mentoring Gap In Virginia Based on certain life circumstances, estimates suggest that more than 360,000 young people in Virginia could benefit from spending time with a caring adult mentor. Of the 1,823,201 young people under age 18 in Virginia*: 1 out of 8 teens between ages are not enrolled in school 1 out of 3 children lives in a single parent home 1 out of 7 lives in poverty 1 out of 24 children has an incarcerated parent This data indicates that many of our young people, nearly 20%, live in situations where they may need additional guidance and support in order to succeed.

59 Higher Education…

60 What do these interventions do…  Use a person-centered approach to planning for the immediate and long- term future.  Promote inclusion in the community  Foster relationships  Respect the individual and their  value in society  Help students make wise choices

61 Long Term Vision School Completion!!!

62 Working Smarter not Harder How can we use existing resources Use what you already have in place to your advantage Examples: schoolwide rules, lesson plans, booster sessions, check-in, check out

63 The Big Picture… Focus on student outcomes Aligning resources Schoolwide systems to promote social and academic competence across the curriculum

64 How do we do this… Support positive behavioral interventions and the development of self- determination skills for all students in order to infuse practices into your school and community.

65 Want more?

66 Resources Christenson, S., Sinclari, M., Lehr, C., & Godber, Y. (2001). Promoting successful school completion: Critical conceptual and methodological guidelines. School Psychology Quarterly, 16, Eisenman, L. (2007). Self-determination interventions: Building a foundation for school completion. Remedial and Special Education, 28(1), 2–8. Gerber, P., Ginsberg, R. & Reiff, H. (1192). Identifying alterable patterns in employment success for highly successful adults with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, Harde, P., & Reeve., J. (2003). A motivational model of rural students’ intentions to persist in, versus drop out of, high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, LaGuardia, J. & Ryan, R. (2002). What adolescents need. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds), Academic motivation of adolescents (pp ). Greenwich, CT: Information Age. McPartland, J. (1994). Dropout prevention in theory and practice. In R. Rossi (Ed.), Schools and students at risk: Context and framework for positive change (pp ). New York: Teachers College Press. Wehmeyer, M., & Kelchner, K. (1996). Perceptions of classroom environemnt, locus of control, and academic attributions of adolescents with and without disabilities. Career Development of Exceptional Individuals, 19, 15-29

67 Resources Wehmeyer, M., & Metzler, C.(1995). How self-determined are people with mental retardation? The National Consumer Survey. Mental Retardation, 33, Wehmeyer, M., &Plamer, S. (2003). Adult outcomes for students with cognitive disabilities three years after high school: The impact of self-determination. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 38, Wehmeyer, M., Schwartz, M. (1997). Self-determination and positive adult outcomes: A follow-up study of youth with mental retardation or learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 63, Wehmeyer, M., Schwartz, M. (1998). The relationship between self-determination and quality of life for adults with mental retardation. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 33, 3-12.


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