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Mary R. Callahan, Ed. D.. Study Description Mixed-methods study (April, 2013) Use of survey (PSSDS,2009) and 10 semi-structured interview questions Three.

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Presentation on theme: "Mary R. Callahan, Ed. D.. Study Description Mixed-methods study (April, 2013) Use of survey (PSSDS,2009) and 10 semi-structured interview questions Three."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mary R. Callahan, Ed. D.

2 Study Description Mixed-methods study (April, 2013) Use of survey (PSSDS,2009) and 10 semi-structured interview questions Three college sites (two medium sized 4-yr., one large 2- yr.) All four college years fairly evenly represented

3 Participants & Settings Survey Participants N=141 Primarily females, 18-29, attending 4-yr. colleges with invisible disabilities Three college and university settings included Interviewees N=14 Stratified sample to include students with different demographic characteristics (gender, institution type, disability type, year in college)

4 Rationale for Study 62% of college students with disabilities do not self- disclose and receive course accommodations to support their ability to succeed in college (NLTS-2, 2009) The NLTS-2(2011) found that only 41% of the 2-year college students and 34% of the 4-year college students with disabilities reported completing their programs up to eight years after completing high school By comparison, 51% of students in the general population reportedly graduate from 4-year colleges within the same time frame (Sanford et al. 2011)

5 Research Question : To what extent do college students with disabilities enrolled in two-and four-year colleges or universities report feeling socially integrated and/or stigmatized due to having a disability? The Total Stigma Score for the survey sample (N=141) indicated that as a group, they do not report significant postsecondary experiences of stigma. A significant difference was found between the mean Sense of Self factor scores for students with visible and invisible disabilities. Students with visible disabilities reported experiencing a significantly greater extent of stigma related to their self-identity (Sense of Self) than was indicated by students with invisible disabilities.

6 Research Question : Do student characteristics (gender, disability type, institution type, year in college) influence student perception of stigma? A standardized multiple regression analysis determined the impact of four variables (gender, disability type, institution type, year in college) in explaining or predicting the extent of perceived stigma reported by college students with disabilities. The group means for the total sample (N=141) did not differ significantly for students based on gender, year in college, institution type or disability type.

7 Research Question : How do students with disabilities describe their postsecondary experiences? What specific factors may account for their feeling stigmatized or their persistence? Nine out of 14 participants reported that difficult experiences of stigma and discrimination in high school created obstacles to their preparation for and ability to succeed in college. Several students expressed negative recollections of “Special Ed” in high school Persistence was linked to College Success Factors

8 Results Generally, postsecondary students with disabilities did not report a high extent of stigma experiences. A significant difference in Sense of Self (self-identity) scores for students with visible and invisible disabilities was found. Therefore, students with visible disabilities reported greater stigma related to their Sense of Self. The majority of students with disabilities reported experiencing stigma and discrimination for being in Special Education classes or having a disability in high school.

9 Qualitative Findings Grounded Theory Data Analysis Factors of Student Success determination & resilience positive attitudes belief in one’s abilities to succeed ability to overcome adversity ability to build supportive relationships (mentors) goal-setting desire for independence, self-regulation receiving appropriate course accommodations (formal or informal)

10 Qualitative Data: College Success Factors FIGURE A: A diagram of interconnected themes related to postsecondary success for students with disabilities.

11 Quantitative Data ANOVA RESULTS: F(1,138) = 11.514, p=.001 The interaction (Sense of Self Stigma Factor Score and Disability Type (Visible or Invisible) was statistically significant. The effect of having a specific disability type on self-identity as measured by the Stigma Factor entitled “Sense of Self” indicated a significant interaction. The Adjusted R Squared was.063, indicating that 6% of the variance or variability in the Sense of Self Stigma Factor Scores reported by participants in this model (or study). In order to determine the direction of the interaction, the simple effects or differences between means for Visible and Invisible Disability Types were analyzed. Results were as follows: t (-3.130), df = 138, p =.002 Comparison of the mean scores on the Sense of Self Stigma Factor for the two groups of students with disabilities indicated that students with Visible Disabilities experience more stigma related to self-identity. In order to determine statistically how perceived student stigma was influenced by the independent variables (gender, disability type, institution type, and year in college), multiple regression was employed. Using the enter method, the model that emerged was as follows: F(4, 35) = 1.017, p =.401, Adjusted R Squared =.000.

12 Quantitative Data (Continued) The variables are shown below: Variance could not be accounted for by this model as indicated by the Adjusted R Squared value. Therefore, extent of perceived stigma, if any, that students with disabilities reported on the PSSDS (Trammell, 2009) could not be predicted or explained by the independent variables listed above.

13 Implications Special education personnel -examine more closely the image associated with “special ed” in high school populations which may affect student disclosure Provide more effective transition training Enhance self-esteem of students with visible disabilities Make structural campus improvements to ensure safety and equal access to classrooms, bathrooms, and other student facilities

14 QR CODE Full dissertation by Mary R. Callahan Study method details (copies of survey and interview protocol) Study results in detail (additional tables, appendices) Reference list Contact information ( Link to dissertation:

15 QR CODE Scan this QR Code to view and download this presentation online! Link to Presentation:

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