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Scholarship of Teaching & SCL/LCE (part II). Instructional Vs Learner Centered (1) Knowledge is transmitted from lecturer to students VS Students construct.

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Presentation on theme: "Scholarship of Teaching & SCL/LCE (part II). Instructional Vs Learner Centered (1) Knowledge is transmitted from lecturer to students VS Students construct."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scholarship of Teaching & SCL/LCE (part II)

2 Instructional Vs Learner Centered (1) Knowledge is transmitted from lecturer to students VS Students construct knowledge through gathering & synthesizing information & integrating it with the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, problem solving etc. Huba & Freed, Learner Centered Assessment on College Campuses, Allyn & Bacon, 2000

3 Instructional Vs Learner Centered (2) Students passively receive information VS Students are actively involved Huba & Freed, Learner Centered Assessment on College Campuses, Allyn & Bacon, 2000

4 Instructional Vs Learner Centered (3) Emphasis on acquisition of knowledge outside the context in which it will be used VS Emphasis is on using & communicating knowledge effectively to address enduring & emerging issues & problems in real life contexts Huba & Freed, Learner Centered Assessment on College Campuses, Allyn & Bacon, 2000

5 Instructional Vs Learner Centered (4) Lecturer’s role is to be primary information giver & primary evaluator VS Lecturer’s role is to coach & facilitate Huba & Freed, Learner Centered Assessment on College Campuses, Allyn & Bacon, 2000

6 Instructional Vs Learner Centered (5) Teaching & assessing are separate VS Teaching & assessing are intertwined Huba & Freed, Learner Centered Assessment on College Campuses, Allyn & Bacon, 2000

7 Instructional Vs Learner Centered (6) Assessment is used to monitor learning VS Assessment is used to promote & diagnose learning Huba & Freed, Learner Centered Assessment on College Campuses, Allyn & Bacon, 2000

8 Instructional Vs Learner Centered (7) Emphasis is on wright answers VS Emphasis is on generating better questions & learning from errors Huba & Freed, Learner Centered Assessment on College Campuses, Allyn & Bacon, 2000

9 Instructional Vs Learner Centered (8) Desired learning is assessed indirectly through the use of objectively scored tests VS Desired learning is assessed directly through papers, projects, performances,portfolios, etc Huba & Freed, Learner Centered Assessment on College Campuses, Allyn & Bacon, 2000

10 Instructional Vs Learner Centered (9) Focus is on single discipline VS Approach is compatible with interdisciplinary investigation Huba & Freed, Learner Centered Assessment on College Campuses, Allyn & Bacon, 2000

11 Instructional Vs Learner Centered (10) Culture is competitive & individualistic VS Culture is cooperative, collaborative & supportive Huba & Freed, Learner Centered Assessment on College Campuses, Allyn & Bacon, 2000

12 Instructional Vs Learner Centered (11) Only students are viewed as learners VS Lecturer & students learn together Huba & Freed, Learner Centered Assessment on College Campuses, Allyn & Bacon, 2000

13 DO YOU HAVE THESE PROBLEMS? Students forgot what you taught after the final examination Students can not apply their knowledge in a new situation (near transfer) Students can not solve problems (far transfer) P. Blumberg: Developing Learner Centered Teaching, p.3, Jossey Bass, 2008

14 Students are not Tough ??? Zebra vs Lion

15 Teaching the Content TOPIK PEMBICARAAN Teaching for Understanding Teaching for Transfer

16 TEACHING THE CONTENT TO OVERCOME RETENTION PROBLEMS

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18 Cognitive Theory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long Term Memory (permanent) Attention Encoding Retrieval Decay in 20 sec. Decay in 1-4 sec. Rehearsal Context

19 Menimbulkan Student’s Attention Identify key features → clear definition → lists critical features of the concept M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, p.15, Jossey Bass, 2004

20 Identify Key Features to be Learned 1. Carefully analyze any concept to be learned, identify key features → give clear definition. 2. Situations learners are going to use this new information → what will be present → what to pay attention & what to ignore M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, p.15, Jossey Bass, 2004

21 1.3THE STRESS AT A CRACK TIP (cont’) 1. Tegangan dekat ujung retak mendekati tak berhingga → terjadi singularitas. 2. Distribusi tegangan sangat curam disekitar ujung retak 3.Intensitas medan tegangan disekitar ujung retak digambarkan oleh suku  a

22 Focus Student Attention by Highlighting Key Features 1. Verbal cues (verbally) 2. Use of outlines 3. Underlining text 4. Using bold font 5. Contrasting colored text 6. Progressive disclosure 7. Bright vs dim M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, Jossey Bass, 2004

23 Focus Student Attention by Highlighting Key Features 1. Verbal cues (verbally) 2. Use of outlines 3. Underlining text 4. Using bold font 5. Contrasting colored text 6. Progressive disclosure 7. Bright vs dim M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, Jossey Bass, 2004

24 Focus Student Attention by Highlighting Key Features 1. Verbal cues (verbally) 2. Use of outlines 3. Underlining text 4. Using bold font 5. Contrasting colored text 6. Progressive disclosure 7. Bright vs dim M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, Jossey Bass, 2004

25 Focus Student Attention by Highlighting Key Features 1. Verbal cues (verbally) 2. Use of outlines 3. Underlining text 4. Using bold font 5. Contrasting colored text 6. Progressive disclosure 7. Bright vs dim M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, Jossey Bass, 2004

26 Focus Student Attention by Highlighting Key Features 1. Verbal cues (verbally) 2. Use of outlines 3. Underlining text 4. Using bold font 5. Contrasting colored text 6. Progressive disclosure 7. Bright vs dim M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, Jossey Bass, 2004

27 Focus Student Attention by Highlighting Key Features 1. Verbal cues (verbally) 2. Use of outlines 3. Underlining text 4. Using bold font 5. Contrasting colored text 6. Progressive disclosure 7. Bright vs dim M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, Jossey Bass, 2004

28 Focus Student Attention by Highlighting Key Features 1. Verbal cues (verbally) 2. Use of outlines 3. Underlining text 4. Using bold font 5. Contrasting colored text 6. Progressive disclosure 7. Bright vs dim M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, Jossey Bass, 2004

29 Do not Overload student’s short term memory Short term memory can only hold 7 (+ & - 2) pieces of informations at one time. Limit each lecture to 5 main ideas Flashing words & cute sounds divide learners attention When overloaded students will become verbatim M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, p.17, Jossey Bass, 2004

30 Cognitive Theory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long Term Memory (permanent) Attention Encoding Retrieval Decay in 20 sec. Decay in 1-4 sec. Rehearsal Context

31 Support Students Encoding Content 1. Organization 2. Elaboration 3. Imagery 4. Prior knowledge 5. Deep processing 6. Meaningfulness 7. Structural understanding M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, Jossey Bass, 2004

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33 Support Students Encoding Content 1. Organization 2. Elaboration 3. Imagery 4. Prior knowledge 5. Deep processing 6. Meaningfulness 7. Structural understanding M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, Jossey Bass, 2004

34 1.3THE STRESS AT A CRACK TIP (cont’) 1. Tegangan dekat ujung retak mendekati tak berhingga  terjadi singularitas. 2. Distribusi tegangan sangat curam disekitar ujung retak 3.Intensitas medan tegangan disekitar ujung retak digambarkan oleh suku  a

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36 Support Students Encoding Content 1. Organization 2. Elaboration 3. Imagery 4. Prior knowledge 5. Deep processing 6. Meaningfulness 7. Structural understanding M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, Jossey Bass, 2004

37 Exfoliation Corrosion INTRODUCTION TO DAMTOL

38 Exfoliation (cont’) Failure Modes in A/C Structures (cont’) Exfoliation attack follows elongated grain path planes created by forming processes e.g. rolling, extruding or forging The picture has to represent WHAT IS TO BE REMEMBERED

39 Support Students Encoding Content 1. Organization 2. Elaboration 3. Imagery 4. Prior knowledge 5. Deep processing 6. Meaningfulness 7. Structural understanding M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, Jossey Bass, 2004

40 THE IMPORTANCE OF PRIOR KNOWLEDGE

41 Fish is Fish

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43 Support Students Encoding Content 1. Organization 2. Elaboration 3. Imagery 4. Prior knowledge 5. Deep processing 6. Meaningfulness 7. Structural understanding M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, Jossey Bass, 2004

44 Deep processing of content involves making connections between what learners are trying to encode & whatever they already know about the topic → use examples the learners can connect with Meaningfulness: something that has a lot of connections to a learner’s prior knowledge or with other things also being learned → use more concrete examples M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, p.27 & p.29, Jossey Bass, 2004

45 Support Students Encoding Content 1. Organization 2. Elaboration 3. Imagery 4. Prior knowledge 5. Deep processing 6. Meaningfulness 7. Structural understanding M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, Jossey Bass, 2004

46 Encoding by Structural Understanding: encoding based on the organization of the material, how various parts fit together as a whole → e.g. creating outline, concept map M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, p.31, Jossey Bass, 2004

47 Give Students Opportunity to Actively Work with the Matetrial → Fluency & Transfer Multiple opportunity to use information they learned → automaticity → less cognitive processing capacity → can be used for more complex cognitive task Varied practice situations → learners pick out similar things across situations M.D. Svinicki, Learning & Motivation in the Postsecondary Classroom, p ,Jossey Bass, 2004

48 Teach Them Integrity Do Not Cheat


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