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Applying Universal Design for Learning to the Online Classroom James L. Olive, Ph.D. Ashland University Sarah A. Hall, Ph.D. Ashland.

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Presentation on theme: "Applying Universal Design for Learning to the Online Classroom James L. Olive, Ph.D. Ashland University Sarah A. Hall, Ph.D. Ashland."— Presentation transcript:

1 Applying Universal Design for Learning to the Online Classroom James L. Olive, Ph.D. Ashland University Sarah A. Hall, Ph.D. Ashland University

2 Universal Design Universal Design (UD) is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design The intent is to simplify life for everyone by making products, communications, and the built environment more usable by as many people as possible at little or no extra cost UD benefits people of all ages and abilities (Center for Universal Design, 2008)

3 7 Principles of Universal Design 1)Equitable use 2)Flexibility in use 3)Simple and intuitive 4)Perceptible information 5)Tolerance for error 6)Low physical effort 7)Size and space for approach and use (Burgstahler, 2009)

4 Universal Design for Instruction “UDI comprises a framework for faculty to use in planning and delivering instruction and assessing of learning outcomes” (McGuire & Scott, 2006, p. 125). Values –High academic standards –Inclusive instructional approaches

5 9 Principles of UDI 1)Equitable use 2)Flexibility in use 3)Simple and intuitive 4)Perceptible information 5)Tolerance for error 6)Low physical effort 7)Size and space for approach and use 8)A community of learners 9)Instructional climate (McGuire & Scott, 2006)

6 Universal Design for Learning Provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and students are engaged Reduces barriers in instruction Provides accommodations, supports, and challenges Maintains high achievement expectations for all (CAST, 2012)

7 The principles of UDL Principle I Provide Multiple Means of Representation Principle II Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression Principle IIIProvide Multiple Means of Engagement (CAST, 2011)

8 Importance of UDL Reduce barriers Create flexible learning environments Accommodate for diverse student characteristics: –Cultural backgrounds –English Language Learners –Disabilities –Learning styles –Learning preferences

9 Strengths Students learn from peers (note-taking strategies) Students with disabilities expressed a feeling of equality (Smith & Buchannan, 2012) Reduces stigma associated with having a disability Increased enrollment of students from different cultures (Embry, Parker, McGuire, & Scott, 2005)

10 Challenges Faculty resistance Training issues Technology Lack of legal mandate (Embry, Parker, McGuire, & Scott, 2005)

11 Considerations in Planning Which course elements lend themselves to multiple formats? –Resources –Assignments –Assessments –Presentation of Information Who can provide assistance? –Office of Disability Services –Community Service Providers –Colleague mentor/teams

12 Multiple Means of Representation Learners differ in how they perceive and comprehend information presented to them –Allows students to make connections within, as well as between, concepts Provide the same information through different sensory modals Provide information in a format that will allow for adjustability by the user (CAST, 2013)

13 Course Resources Audio versions of articles Closed captioned videos & audio Textbook: print, audio, electric versions Disability statement in syllabus Rubric for all assignments Offer all content online Links to additional information Translator (Google translation features) Offer text-only, mobile, & offline options Email resources if requested (Elias, 2010; Rao & Tanners, 2011)

14 Assignments Interactive description with links to resources Provide an example or model Provide a rubric or template Web-based resources to define concepts PowerPoint presentations with audio Video or audio clip to highlight major points Interactive website assignments (Morra & Reynolds, 2010; Smith, 2012)

15 Presentations Record lectures to make podcasts –Students can replay lectures to reinforce learning Include captions on videos Allow for use of text-to-speech Lectures available in multiple formats –Audio, video, plain text transcriptions Provide transcriptions of podcasts Notes posted online –Color-coding or highlight key points –Graphic organizer to summarize topic (Smith, 2012; Smith & Buchannan, 2012)

16 Technology Considerations Easy-to-navigate windows Searchable content Mobile interface Text-only interface Screen readers Allow for use of a magnifier Allow change of background color Text-to-speech Captions, descriptors, & transcriptions Ability to edit after posting Confirmation before sending assignments (Elias, 2010; Smith, 2012)

17 Multiple Means of Expression Learners differ in how they navigate a learning environment and express what they know Learners are provided with alternatives for demonstrating what they know (CAST, 2013)

18 Importance of Choice Exams or Papers: Instructors may be measuring ability to take tests or write papers instead of ability to comprehend course material –When possible, allow for alternative ways of showing that a student knows the content (Morra & Reynolds, 2010) Learners may be able to express themselves well in writing but not speech, & vice versa –Offer the option of an oral exam (CAST, 2013)

19 UDL in Assessment Assessments should: -be available in digitized formats -be designed for accessibility -free of bias to the extent possible -amenable to accommodations -provide clear instructions -utilize comprehensible language and legible print (Ketterlin-Geller & Johnstone, 2006, p. 168)

20 UDL in Assessment Define the construct to be measured –Reduce constructs that may act as barriers Use ‘built in’ accommodations in computers Allow as much time as needed Flexible options –Digital formats, text-to-speech, voice activated transcription of responses & automated translations (including Braille)

21 Possible Choices of Assessments –Tests & quizzes –Papers & discussion posts –Interactive online assignments –Create a web-based or digital product –Digital portfolio of products –Group or individual projects –Hands-on activity –Speech (videotaped or in person) –Personal scrapbook –Graphic organizer –YouTube video –Service activity (Morra & Reynolds, 2010; Smith, 2012; Smith & Buchannan, 2012)

22 Assessment Accommodations UDL does not completely remove need for accommodations Accommodations do not change difficulty, but change accessibility (standards are maintained) Changes may be made to the setting, timing, presentation, response mode, or equipment (Ketterlin-Geller & Johnstone, 2006)

23 Multiple Means of Engagement Affect is a crucial element to learning Learners differ markedly in how they are engaged or motivated to learn Neurology, culture, personal relevance, subjectivity, & background knowledge can influence affect Examples –Spontaneity and novelty –Working independently or with peers (CAST, 2013)

24 Personal Interests Students select own topic, assignment, or materials Work in groups or individually Students research areas of interest –Personal journal questions –Broad reflection questions –Videos –Website searches –Personal research (Morra & Reynolds, 2010; Smith, 2012)

25 Student Interactions Set up study groups & tools Peer feedback on assignments Share marked-up text with each other Discuss through text, audio, video Collaborative note-taking Provide links to support services –Library, administration, disability, writing labs, peer tutoring services, etc. (Elias, 2010; Smith & Buchannan, 2012)

26 Instructor Interactions Involvement in discussion forums Post announcements on the course management system (CMS) Regular contact through group emails, personal emails, Skype, phone Available for one-on-one meetings Teach how to navigate the course, use online tools, & organizational options (Elias, 2010)

27 Asynchronous Formats Asynchronous Technologies –Course management systems –Discussion forums –Websites, blogs –Videos –Emails –Posted assignments –Posted instructional resources

28 Asynchronous Tips Use CMS tools consistently List each week’s assignment Respond to each student’s assignment submission with specific comments Use collaboration tools (such as Voicethread) as a discussion forum Voicethread –Students watch multimedia presentations –Respond using text, audio, or video Use email for individual questions

29 Synchronous Formats Synchronous Technologies –Web-conferencing –Chats –Videoconferencing –Lectures, small/large group activities “Instructors can emulate some of the interactions that take place in a face- to-face class” (Rao & Tanners, 2011, p. 213)

30 Synchronous Tips Use a visual presentation (PowerPoint, etc.) Record each session and post Make resources available to review afterwards Make synchronous sessions optional Conferencing tools include: Elluminate Live!, Vsee, Skype, WebEx, etc.Elluminate Live!VseeSkypeWebEx (Rao & Tanners, 2011)

31 Resources & Examples UDL Guidelines: Examples and Resources Systemic Change Planner (K-12) esources Postsecondary Education & UDL BrainPOP HTML Books page_i.html

32 Questions? James L. Olive, Ph.D. Department of Leadership Studies Ashland University Sarah A. Hall, Ph.D. Department of Inclusive Services & Exceptional Learners Ashland University

33 References Burgstahler, S. (2009). Universal design: Process, principles, and applications. DO-IT. University of Washington. McGuire, J. M., & Scott, S. S. (2006). Universal design for instruction: extending the universal design paradigm to college instruction. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 19, 124-134. CAST. (2013). The three principles of UDL. Retrieved from: CAST (2011). Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.0. Wakefield, MA: Author. Retrieved from: CAST (2012) UDL and UD Provisions in the Higher Education Opportunity Act (P.L.110-315) Retrieved from: Center for Universal Design. (2008). About UD. Retrieved from: Elias, T. (2010). Universal instructional design principles for Moodle. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 11, 110-124. Embry, P. B., Parker, D. R., McGuire, J. M., & Scott, S. S. (2005). Postsecondary disability service providers’ perceptions about implementing universal design for instruction (UDI). Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 18, 34-48.

34 References Ketterlin-Geller, L. R., & Johnstone, C. (2006). Accommodations and universal design: Supporting access to assessments in higher education. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 19, 163-172. Morra, T., & Reynolds, J. (2010). Universal design for learning: Application for technology-enhanced learning. The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges, 15, 43-51. Rao, K., & Tanners, A. (2011). Curb cuts in cyberspace: Universal instructional design for online courses. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 24, 211-229. Smith, F. G. (2012). Analyzing a college course that adheres to the universal design for learning (UDL) framework. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 12(3), 31-61. Smith, R. E., & Buchannan, T. (2012). Community collaboration, use of universal design in the classroom. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 25, 259-265.

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