Presentation on theme: "History of Agricultural Education What has brought us to where we are today in Agricultural Education?"— Presentation transcript:
History of Agricultural Education What has brought us to where we are today in Agricultural Education?
The Worlds Oldest Professions Education Agriculture
Before Governmental Support Father/family teaches sons(daughters) not much to teach in early times not much opportunity to do much other than gather food or farm. Records do show that farming/agriculture was being taught in Ancient times Several references to farming and knowledge of what to do in the Bible
Up until modern times In the dark ages the monks studied and learned about agriculture few experiments on what worked best Mostly related to technology of tools, seed, and some simple chemistry Also some breeding or genetics Few thesis were commissioned in the 1700s
In 1700s to 1900s Ben Franklin did some experiments Agricultural Societies began to grow and flourish -- Phili Ag Society As schools became more common some taught agriculture early 1800s (1837)
The Land Grant Act or the Morrill Act of 1862 Purpose- provide land in the amount of 30,0000 / representative from each state. Land to be sold and interest off the money was to support the development and maintenance of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College. The colleges were know as Land Grant College.
Background of the Act –Justin Morrill from Vermont –Previous attempts
The Homestead Act of 1862 Its affect on the sale of land The timing was bad
The Civil War Its affect on the sale of land. Its affect on Money and other resources.
Establishment of Ag College Progress was slow due to the war and to cheap land out west, progress was much slower in the south. University of Arkansas started in 1872 Mississippi State University 1868
Land Grant Act (Morrill Act) Established the Land Grant College System 1890 – Established Colleges for Blacks For Native Americans, western states
After the first Act they learned... You can only teach what you know. Many new questions arose –Like what seed works best in a given soil –What happens when crossing two breeds of hogs How do you answer those questions? CONDUCT RESEARCH
The Hatch Act of 1889 Provided funds to conduct research Much new information was being gained But two new problems arose –Research was limited to the site of the university/colleges –people who could use it best were not in college
Bit of history about the times. Most people did not go to college in 1880s. Who could afford to have sons going off to college? Farm work was labor intensive. Roads were bad 1887 Agriculture gained importance in the federal government; went from being headed by a commissioner in a department to being headed by a secretary as a cabinet level position.
History continued….. Industrial movement needed more workers new information and technology in farming released people from the farm. Agricultural Yearbooks were started in 1862 and continued to be a source of information for farmers and teachers.
Publications to distribute in the 1880s Another possibility of getting the information out to people was to send out publications. These were short publications on a specific topic these were cheaper to print than books.
Booker T Washington had a plan He was head of the well known College for blacks in the south call the Tuskegie Institute Very few blacks could go to college He started a traveling school in the 1890s
Society was changing by 1900s The Gay 1890s South was recovered from the war for the most part Getting information to the people who needed it was still a problem New legislation was proposed.
Smith-Lever Act 1914 It created the Cooperative Extension Service as we know it today It placed an ag agent in every county in every state. This approach had been tried in some Texas counties before this legislation. Seaman Knapp --the father of the Cooperative Extension Service
History of the Cooperative Extension Service
Needs Beyond Agriculture Well what is the result of all this information? What does that mean? So who else needs to be educated? Home Economics was added
The next step for the expansion of the CES All this information was available and helping build the knowledge base. What could they do to bring about the changes even faster? Who could they teach? The YOUTH -- 4-H
Commodity Clubs Clubs were already common –Corn, Tomatoes, Garden, Pig, etc
Extension Service in Arkansas
Next Legislation that directly affect the teaching of Agriculture Smith Hughes Act of 1917 This created Ag Ed in the Public schools
Vocational Education in the 20th Century
NSPIE National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education 1906 Formed specifically to secure federal aid to industrial education Eventually became the American Vocational Association
Douglas Commission Recommended formation of vocational schools in Massachusetts (Douglas was governor’s name)
Nelson Amendment 1907 Increased federal support for l-g colleges One provision: “the colleges may use a portion of this money for the preparation of instuctors for teaching the elements of agriculture and mechanic arts in the grade and high schools.” By 1910, 46 l-g colleges had teacher preparation programs in agriculture.
Dolliver-Davis 1908, 1910 First bill to propose federal support federal support of secondary vocational education AFL had endorsed federal support at its 1908 convention NSPIE does not favor the bill-- the need for federal support had not been carefully studied
Dolliver-Davis bill was identical to 1908 version Senator. Dolliver died and the bill lost its champion in the Senate Became the Page Bill
Page Bill Senator Carroll S. Page, Vermont Essentially the same as the Dolliver- Davis Bill Purpose included federal support for both extension and vocational education Referred to the Senate committee on Agriculture and Forestry
Charles A. Prosser Named secretary of NSPIE in 1912 Famous for “Prosser’s 16 Theorems of Vocational Education” Guided Page’s action in the Senate-- Leading advocate of vocational education
Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education Recommended federal support for vocational education Sen. Hoke Smith(GA) - chair Sen. Carroll S. Page(VT) Rep. D. M. Hughes(GA) Rep. S. D. Fess(OH) Charles A. Prosser John A. Lapp Florence M. Marshall Agnes Nestor Charles H. Winslow
Dudley Hughes Representative from Georgia Chair of the House Committee on Education The Hughes in Smith-Hughes
Smith-Hughes Act of Smith introduces in Senate Hughes introduces in House (added provisions for home economics) Preparation for World War I Provided for federal funding for agricultural education; trade, home economics, and industrial education; and the training of teachers of these subjects.
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1918 What had just happened to prompt this legislation?
Subsequent Vocational Education Acts George-Reed Act George-Ellzey Act George-Deen Act (1938) –increased $ ($14.5 million total) –also funded distributive education ($1.2 million) –1st to U.S. Territories –Distributive Education funded George-Barden Act (1946) –increased $ ($28.8 mil) –provided for veteran’s training
Vocational Education Act of 1963 This was a MAJOR piece of federal legislation. It replaced the Smith-Hughes Act. Categorical funding for specific vocational disciplines such as agricultural education was abolished. –Funding went to states on the basis of their population in certain age categories –States decided how to spend the money
Vocational Education Act of 1963 increased $ ($225 mil) repealed back to Smith-Hughes funding based on population and per capita income removed supervised farming requirement; placement in agribusiness eliminated categorical support (except from Smith-Hughes)
Vocational Education Act of 1963 Expanded the scope of agricultural education to include all areas of agriculture, not just farming. –No longer required “supervised practice on a farm”. The idea was to expand the scope of SAE, not do away with it, but that is what some states did. Expanded the scope of home economics education to include all areas of home economics, not just homemaking.
Vocational Education Act of 1963 Established work study programs for vocational students to provide financial support States had to submit plans for what they planned to do Eliminated federal supervision/control of vocational programs Funding for vocational education was substantially increased
Educational Amendments (1968) Amended the 1963 Vocational Education Act –Increased funding for vocational education –Funds could be used for high school programs, people who have left school, retraining, special needs students, construction of area vocational schools, vocational guidance, contracting vocational education with private institutions, ancillary services (research, teacher training) and administering the state plan.
Educational Amendments (1968) Did not categorically fund specific vocational programs, with one exception –Specifically allocated money to Consumer and Homemaking Education Of the general appropriations to each state 25% had to be spent on disadvantaged populations 25% had to be spent on out-of-school individuals seeking employment 10% had to be spent on handicapped individuals
Educational Amendments (1968) Authorized money for: –Curriculum development (this is the only place agricultural education is mentioned in the act) –Residential vocational schools (schools with dorms) –Research (National Center for Vocational Education Research was established) –Leadership development (selected vocational leaders could get advanced degrees)
Vocational Education Acts 1976 amendments Eliminate sex discrimination & bias Serve special populations Build area vocational schools Cooperative programs Vocational guidance and counseling Required 5-year state plans Homemaker retraining
Educational Amendments (1976) The Educational Amendments of 1976 have five Titles, Title II is concerned with vocational education Authorized more money for vocational education Purpose of the act was to –extend, improve and maintain programs –overcome come sex discrimination/bias –develop new programs
Educational Amendments (1976) Monies could be spent on vocational education programs, work study, energy education, area school facilities, support sex equity positions, placement services, Industrial Arts (now Technology Education), support services for females in non-traditional programs, day care services, displaced homemakers, residential vocational centers.
Educational Amendments (1976) There were special appropriations for the disadvantaged Consumer and Homemaking received special funding Every vocational program had to be evaluated every five years
Career Education Incentive Act assisted states and local education agencies and institutions of postsecondary education in making preparation for work a major goal of all who teach and all who learn.
Subsequent Vocational Education Acts Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act Amendment to 1963 act individuals who are inadequately served are assured access to programs – 57% of basic grant for handicapped – 43% given based on age categories & per capita income
Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act provided “tech prep” transition from school to work integration of academic and vocational subject matter
Carl Perkins Act (1984) This was the most significant rewrite of vocational education legislation since Two broad themes –Accessibility to all persons –Improve the quality
Carl Perkins Act (1984) Fifty-seven (57) percent of state funds were allocated to special populations - vocational education was to be accessible to everyone –handicapped (10%) –disadvantaged (10%) –adult retraining (12%) –single parents & homemakers (8 1/2%) –sex bias & stereotyping (3 1/2%) –incarcerated (1%)
Carl Perkins Act (1984) Forty-three (43) percent of state funds were allocated for program improvement –funds were not to be used to maintain existing programs Consumer and Homemaking received special funding but 1/3 had to be spent in economically depressed areas There will be a full time sex equity coordinator and $60,000 is allocated to that
Perkins II (1990) The Carl Perkins Act is rewritten Special populations is still a major focus, Money can be used to support existing programs Academic and vocational education was to be integrated Articulation between secondary and post- secondary institutions
School-to-Work Opportunities Act (1994) A variety of programs were established for students to get them more involved with the world of work and post- secondary education Grants were given to some states to develop programs This is for all students Funding is temporary
Perkins III (1998) This is the legislation vocational education is currently operating under The purpose of this Act is to develop more fully the academic, vocational, and technical skills of secondary students and post- secondary students who elect to enroll in vocational and technical education programs (little emphasis on special populations) Perkins
Perkins III (1998) At the local levels funds can be spent on: –strengthening the academic, and vocational and technical skills of students –providing students with strong experience in and understanding of all aspects of an industry –developing, improving, or expanding the use of technology in vocational and technical education –providing professional development programs to teachers, counselors, and administrators
Perkins III (1998) –conducting evaluations of the vocational and technical education programs...including how the needs of special populations are being met –initiating, improving, expanding, and modernizing quality vocational and technical education programs –linking secondary vocational and technical education and post-secondary vocational and technical education, including implementing tech-prep programs.
Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA– –P.L. 105–220) Reforms Federal employment, adult education, and vocational rehabilitation programs to create an integrated, "one–stop" system of workforce investment and education activities for adults and youth. Entities that carry out post-secondary vocational and technical education activities assisted under the Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act are mandatory partners in this one–stop delivery system. Title I of WIA authorizes workforce investment programs and activities that are administered by the Employment and Training Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor. Learn more about the implementation of Title I of WIA.
Perkins IV ndex.html ndex.html The President signed the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 2006 into law on August 12, The new Act will provide: – an increased focus on the academic achievement of career and technical education students, –strengthen the connections between secondary and postsecondary education, and –improve state and local accountability.
Key Legislation Vocational Education Act of 1963 –Educational Amendments 1968 and 1976 Carl Perkins Act I (1984) Carl Perkins Act II (1990) School-to-Work, Opportunities Act (1994) Carl Perkins Act III (1998) Carl Perkins Act IV (August 12, 2006)
Conclusion Legislation for Vocational Education during the past 50 years has been influenced greatly by changing societal and environmental concerns. Federal legislation has often mandated what we are to do. The focus has shifted to helping certain groups of people.
Development of Vocational Education The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 In Fall 1915, 90,708 students were enrolled in agriculture classes in 4,665 high schools. In 1885, there were very few. In the thirty years prior to Smith-Hughes, why was there such growth in agricultural education in elementary and secondary schools?