3Before Governmental Support Father/family teaches sons(daughters)not much to teach in early timesnot much opportunity to do much other than gather food or farm.Records do show that farming/agriculture was being taught in Ancient timesSeveral references to farming and knowledge of what to do in the Bible
4Up until modern timesIn the dark ages the monks studied and learned about agriculturefew experiments on what worked bestMostly related to technology of tools, seed, and some simple chemistryAlso some breeding or geneticsFew thesis were commissioned in the 1700s
5In 1700s to 1900s Ben Franklin did some experiments Agricultural Societies began to grow and flourish -- Phili Ag SocietyAs schools became more common some taught agriculture early 1800s (1837)
6The Land Grant Act or the Morrill Act of 1862 Purpose- provide land in the amount of 30,0000 / representative from each state. Land to be sold and interest off the money was to support the development and maintenance of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College. The colleges were know as Land Grant College.
7Background of the ActJustin Morrill from VermontPrevious attempts
8The Homestead Act of 1862 Its affect on the sale of land The timing was bad
9The Civil War Its affect on the sale of land. Its affect on Money and other resources.
10Establishment of Ag College Progress was slow due to the war and to cheap land out west, progress was much slower in the south.University of Arkansas started in 1872Mississippi State University 1868
11Land Grant Act (Morrill Act) Land Grant Act (Morrill Act) Established the Land Grant College System – Established Colleges for Blacks For Native Americans, western states
12After the first Act they learned... You can only teach what you know.Many new questions aroseLike what seed works best in a given soilWhat happens when crossing two breeds of hogsHow do you answer those questions?CONDUCT RESEARCH
13The Hatch Act of 1889 Provided funds to conduct research Much new information was being gainedBut two new problems aroseResearch was limited to the site of the university/collegespeople who could use it best were not in college
14Bit of history about the times. Most people did not go to college in 1880s.Who could afford to have sons going off to college? Farm work was labor intensive.Roads were bad1887 Agriculture gained importance in the federal government; went from being headed by a commissioner in a department to being headed by a secretary as a cabinet level position.
15History continued….. Industrial movement needed more workers new information and technology in farming released people from the farm.Agricultural Yearbooks were started in 1862 and continued to be a source of information for farmers and teachers.
16Publications to distribute in the 1880s Another possibility of getting the information out to people was to send out publications.These were short publications on a specific topicthese were cheaper to print than books.
17Booker T Washington had a plan He was head of the well known College for blacks in the south call the Tuskegie InstituteVery few blacks could go to collegeHe started a traveling school in the 1890s
18Society was changing by 1900s The Gay 1890sSouth was recovered from the war for the most partGetting information to the people who needed it was still a problemNew legislation was proposed.
19Smith-Lever Act 1914It created the Cooperative Extension Service as we know it todayIt placed an ag agent in every county in every state.This approach had been tried in some Texas counties before this legislation.Seaman Knapp --the father of the Cooperative Extension Service
21Needs Beyond Agriculture Well what is the result of all this information?What does that mean?So who else needs to be educated?Home Economics was added
22The next step for the expansion of the CES All this information was available and helping build the knowledge base.What could they do to bring about the changes even faster? Who could they teach?The YOUTH H
23Commodity Clubs Clubs were already common Corn, Tomatoes, Garden, Pig, etc
27NSPIE National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education 1906Formed specifically to secure federal aid to industrial educationEventually became the American Vocational Association
28Douglas CommissionRecommended formation of vocational schools inMassachusetts (Douglas was governor’s name)
29Nelson Amendment 1907 Increased federal support for l-g colleges One provision: “the colleges may use a portion of this money for the preparation of instuctors for teaching the elements of agriculture and mechanic arts in the grade and high schools.”By 1910, 46 l-g colleges had teacher preparation programs in agriculture.
30Dolliver-Davis1908, 1910First bill to propose federal support federal support of secondary vocational educationAFL had endorsed federal support at its 1908 conventionNSPIE does not favor the bill-- the need for federal support had not been carefully studied
31Dolliver-Davis 1910 1910 bill was identical to 1908 version Senator. Dolliver died and the bill lost its champion in the SenateBecame the Page Bill
32Page Bill --1911 Senator Carroll S. Page, Vermont Essentially the same as the Dolliver-Davis BillPurpose included federal support for both extension and vocational educationReferred to the Senate committee on Agriculture and Forestry
33Charles A. Prosser Named secretary of NSPIE in 1912 Famous for “Prosser’s 16 Theorems of Vocational Education”Guided Page’s action in the Senate--Leading advocate of vocational education
34Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education Recommended federal support for vocational educationSen. Hoke Smith(GA) - chairSen. Carroll S. Page(VT)Rep. D. M. Hughes(GA)Rep. S. D. Fess(OH)Charles A. ProsserJohn A. LappFlorence M. MarshallAgnes NestorCharles H. Winslow
35Dudley Hughes Representative from Georgia Chair of the House Committee on EducationThe Hughes in Smith-Hughes
36Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 1915 - Smith introduces in Senate Hughes introduces in House (added provisions for home economics)Preparation for World War IProvided for federal funding for agricultural education; trade, home economics, and industrial education; and the training of teachers of these subjects.
37Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1918 What had just happened to prompt this legislation?
38Subsequent Vocational Education Acts George-Reed ActGeorge-Ellzey ActGeorge-Deen Act (1938)increased $ ($14.5 million total)also funded distributive education ($1.2 million)1st to U.S. TerritoriesDistributive Education fundedGeorge-Barden Act (1946)increased $ ($28.8 mil)provided for veteran’s training
39Vocational Education Act of 1963 This was a MAJOR piece of federal legislation. It replaced the Smith-Hughes Act.Categorical funding for specific vocational disciplines such as agricultural education was abolished.Funding went to states on the basis of their population in certain age categoriesStates decided how to spend the money
40Vocational Education Act of 1963 increased $ ($225 mil)repealed back to Smith-Hughesfunding based on population and per capita incomeremoved supervised farming requirement; placement in agribusinesseliminated categorical support (except from Smith-Hughes)
41Vocational Education Act of 1963 Expanded the scope of agricultural education to include all areas of agriculture, not just farming.No longer required “supervised practice on a farm”. The idea was to expand the scope of SAE, not do away with it, but that is what some states did.Expanded the scope of home economics education to include all areas of home economics, not just homemaking.
42Vocational Education Act of 1963 Established work study programs for vocational students to provide financial supportStates had to submit plans for what they planned to doEliminated federal supervision/control of vocational programsFunding for vocational education was substantially increased
43Educational Amendments (1968) Amended the 1963 Vocational Education ActIncreased funding for vocational educationFunds could be used for high school programs, people who have left school, retraining, special needs students, construction of area vocational schools, vocational guidance, contracting vocational education with private institutions, ancillary services (research, teacher training) and administering the state plan.
44Educational Amendments (1968) Did not categorically fund specific vocational programs, with one exceptionSpecifically allocated money to Consumer and Homemaking EducationOf the general appropriations to each state25% had to be spent on disadvantaged populations25% had to be spent on out-of-school individuals seeking employment10% had to be spent on handicapped individuals
45Educational Amendments (1968) Authorized money for:Curriculum development (this is the only place agricultural education is mentioned in the act)Residential vocational schools (schools with dorms)Research (National Center for Vocational Education Research was established)Leadership development (selected vocational leaders could get advanced degrees)
46Vocational Education Acts 1976 amendments Eliminate sex discrimination & biasServe special populationsBuild area vocational schoolsCooperative programsVocational guidance and counselingRequired 5-year state plansHomemaker retraining
47Educational Amendments (1976) The Educational Amendments of 1976 have five Titles, Title II is concerned with vocational educationAuthorized more money for vocational educationPurpose of the act was toextend, improve and maintain programsovercome come sex discrimination/biasdevelop new programs
48Educational Amendments (1976) Monies could be spent on vocational education programs, work study, energy education, area school facilities, support sex equity positions, placement services, Industrial Arts (now Technology Education), support services for females in non-traditional programs, day care services, displaced homemakers, residential vocational centers.
49Educational Amendments (1976) There were special appropriations for the disadvantagedConsumer and Homemaking received special fundingEvery vocational program had to be evaluated every five years
50Career Education Incentive Act -- 1977 assisted states and local education agencies and institutions of postsecondary education in making preparation for work a major goal of all who teach and all who learn.
51Subsequent Vocational Education Acts Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education ActAmendment to 1963 act individuals who are inadequately served are assured access to programs57% of basic grant for handicapped43% given based on age categories & per capita income
52Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act -- 1984 provided “tech prep”transition from school to workintegration of academic and vocational subject matter
53Carl Perkins Act (1984)This was the most significant rewrite of vocational education legislation since 1963.Two broad themesAccessibility to all personsImprove the quality
54Carl Perkins Act (1984)Fifty-seven (57) percent of state funds were allocated to special populations - vocational education was to be accessible to everyonehandicapped (10%)disadvantaged (10%)adult retraining (12%)single parents & homemakers (8 1/2%)sex bias & stereotyping (3 1/2%)incarcerated (1%)
55Carl Perkins Act (1984)Forty-three (43) percent of state funds were allocated for program improvementfunds were not to be used to maintain existing programsConsumer and Homemaking received special funding but 1/3 had to be spent in economically depressed areasThere will be a full time sex equity coordinator and $60,000 is allocated to that
56Perkins II (1990) The Carl Perkins Act is rewritten Special populations is still a major focus,Money can be used to support existing programsAcademic and vocational education was to be integratedArticulation between secondary and post-secondary institutions
57School-to-Work Opportunities Act (1994) A variety of programs were established for students to get them more involved with the world of work and post-secondary educationGrants were given to some states to develop programsThis is for all studentsFunding is temporary
58Perkins III (1998)This is the legislation vocational education is currently operating underThe purpose of this Act is to develop more fully the academic, vocational, and technical skills of secondary students and post-secondary students who elect to enroll in vocational and technical education programs (little emphasis on special populations)Perkins
59Perkins III (1998) At the local levels funds can be spent on: strengthening the academic, and vocational and technical skills of studentsproviding students with strong experience in and understanding of all aspects of an industrydeveloping, improving, or expanding the use of technology in vocational and technical educationproviding professional development programs to teachers, counselors, and administrators
60Perkins III (1998)conducting evaluations of the vocational and technical education programs ...including how the needs of special populations are being metinitiating, improving, expanding, and modernizing quality vocational and technical education programslinking secondary vocational and technical education and post-secondary vocational and technical education, including implementing tech-prep programs.
61Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA– –P.L. 105–220) Reforms Federal employment, adult education, and vocational rehabilitation programs to create an integrated, "one–stop" system of workforce investment and education activities for adults and youth. Entities that carry out post-secondary vocational and technical education activities assisted under the Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act are mandatory partners in this one–stop delivery system.Title I of WIA authorizes workforce investment programs and activities that are administered by the Employment and Training Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor. Learn more about the implementation of Title I of WIA.
62Perkins IV 2006The President signed the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 2006 into law on August 12, The new Act will provide:an increased focus on the academic achievement of career and technical education students,strengthen the connections between secondary and postsecondary education, andimprove state and local accountability.
63Key Legislation Vocational Education Act of 1963 Educational Amendments 1968 and 1976Carl Perkins Act I (1984)Carl Perkins Act II (1990)School-to-Work, Opportunities Act (1994)Carl Perkins Act III (1998)Carl Perkins Act IV (August 12, 2006)
64ConclusionLegislation for Vocational Education during the past 50 years has been influenced greatly by changing societal and environmental concerns.Federal legislation has often mandated what we are to do.The focus has shifted to helping certain groups of people.
65Development of Vocational Education The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917In Fall 1915, 90,708 students were enrolled in agriculture classes in 4,665 high schools. In 1885, there were very few.In the thirty years prior to Smith-Hughes, why was there such growth in agricultural education in elementary and secondary schools?