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History of Agricultural Education

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1 History of Agricultural Education
What has brought us to where we are today in Agricultural Education?

2 The Worlds Oldest Professions
Education Agriculture

3 Before Governmental Support
Father/family teaches sons(daughters) not much to teach in early times not much opportunity to do much other than gather food or farm. Records do show that farming/agriculture was being taught in Ancient times Several references to farming and knowledge of what to do in the Bible

4 Up until modern times In the dark ages the monks studied and learned about agriculture few experiments on what worked best Mostly related to technology of tools, seed, and some simple chemistry Also some breeding or genetics Few thesis were commissioned in the 1700s

5 In 1700s to 1900s Ben Franklin did some experiments
Agricultural Societies began to grow and flourish -- Phili Ag Society As schools became more common some taught agriculture early 1800s (1837)

6 The Land Grant Act or the Morrill Act of 1862
Purpose- provide land in the amount of 30,0000 / representative from each state. Land to be sold and interest off the money was to support the development and maintenance of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College. The colleges were know as Land Grant College.

7 Background of the Act Justin Morrill from Vermont Previous attempts

8 The Homestead Act of 1862 Its affect on the sale of land
The timing was bad

9 The Civil War Its affect on the sale of land.
Its affect on Money and other resources.

10 Establishment of Ag College
Progress was slow due to the war and to cheap land out west, progress was much slower in the south. University of Arkansas started in 1872 Mississippi State University 1868

11 Land Grant Act (Morrill Act)
Land Grant Act (Morrill Act) Established the Land Grant College System – Established Colleges for Blacks For Native Americans, western states

12 After the first Act they learned...
You can only teach what you know. Many new questions arose Like what seed works best in a given soil What happens when crossing two breeds of hogs How do you answer those questions? CONDUCT RESEARCH

13 The Hatch Act of 1889 Provided funds to conduct research
Much new information was being gained But two new problems arose Research was limited to the site of the university/colleges people who could use it best were not in college

14 Bit of history about the times.
Most people did not go to college in 1880s. Who could afford to have sons going off to college? Farm work was labor intensive. Roads were bad 1887 Agriculture gained importance in the federal government; went from being headed by a commissioner in a department to being headed by a secretary as a cabinet level position.

15 History continued….. Industrial movement needed more workers
new information and technology in farming released people from the farm. Agricultural Yearbooks were started in 1862 and continued to be a source of information for farmers and teachers.

16 Publications to distribute in the 1880s
Another possibility of getting the information out to people was to send out publications. These were short publications on a specific topic these were cheaper to print than books.

17 Booker T Washington had a plan
He was head of the well known College for blacks in the south call the Tuskegie Institute Very few blacks could go to college He started a traveling school in the 1890s

18 Society was changing by 1900s
The Gay 1890s South was recovered from the war for the most part Getting information to the people who needed it was still a problem New legislation was proposed.

19 Smith-Lever Act 1914 It created the Cooperative Extension Service as we know it today It placed an ag agent in every county in every state. This approach had been tried in some Texas counties before this legislation. Seaman Knapp --the father of the Cooperative Extension Service

20 History of the Cooperative Extension Service

21 Needs Beyond Agriculture
Well what is the result of all this information? What does that mean? So who else needs to be educated? Home Economics was added

22 The next step for the expansion of the CES
All this information was available and helping build the knowledge base. What could they do to bring about the changes even faster? Who could they teach? The YOUTH H

23 Commodity Clubs Clubs were already common
Corn, Tomatoes, Garden, Pig, etc

24 Extension Service in Arkansas

25 Next Legislation that directly affect the teaching of Agriculture
Smith Hughes Act of 1917 This created Ag Ed in the Public schools

26 Vocational Education in the 20th Century

27 NSPIE National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education
1906 Formed specifically to secure federal aid to industrial education Eventually became the American Vocational Association

28 Douglas Commission Recommended formation of vocational schools in Massachusetts (Douglas was governor’s name)

29 Nelson Amendment 1907 Increased federal support for l-g colleges
One provision: “the colleges may use a portion of this money for the preparation of instuctors for teaching the elements of agriculture and mechanic arts in the grade and high schools.” By 1910, 46 l-g colleges had teacher preparation programs in agriculture.

30 Dolliver-Davis 1908, 1910 First bill to propose federal support federal support of secondary vocational education AFL had endorsed federal support at its 1908 convention NSPIE does not favor the bill-- the need for federal support had not been carefully studied

31 Dolliver-Davis 1910 1910 bill was identical to 1908 version
Senator. Dolliver died and the bill lost its champion in the Senate Became the Page Bill

32 Page Bill --1911 Senator Carroll S. Page, Vermont
Essentially the same as the Dolliver-Davis Bill Purpose included federal support for both extension and vocational education Referred to the Senate committee on Agriculture and Forestry

33 Charles A. Prosser Named secretary of NSPIE in 1912
Famous for “Prosser’s 16 Theorems of Vocational Education” Guided Page’s action in the Senate--Leading advocate of vocational education

34 Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education
Recommended federal support for vocational education Sen. Hoke Smith(GA) - chair Sen. Carroll S. Page(VT) Rep. D. M. Hughes(GA) Rep. S. D. Fess(OH) Charles A. Prosser John A. Lapp Florence M. Marshall Agnes Nestor Charles H. Winslow

35 Dudley Hughes Representative from Georgia
Chair of the House Committee on Education The Hughes in Smith-Hughes

36 Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 1915 - Smith introduces in Senate
Hughes introduces in House (added provisions for home economics) Preparation for World War I Provided for federal funding for agricultural education; trade, home economics, and industrial education; and the training of teachers of these subjects.

37 Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1918
What had just happened to prompt this legislation?

38 Subsequent Vocational Education Acts
George-Reed Act George-Ellzey Act George-Deen Act (1938) increased $ ($14.5 million total) also funded distributive education ($1.2 million) 1st to U.S. Territories Distributive Education funded George-Barden Act (1946) increased $ ($28.8 mil) provided for veteran’s training

39 Vocational Education Act of 1963
This was a MAJOR piece of federal legislation. It replaced the Smith-Hughes Act. Categorical funding for specific vocational disciplines such as agricultural education was abolished. Funding went to states on the basis of their population in certain age categories States decided how to spend the money

40 Vocational Education Act of 1963
increased $ ($225 mil) repealed back to Smith-Hughes funding based on population and per capita income removed supervised farming requirement; placement in agribusiness eliminated categorical support (except from Smith-Hughes)

41 Vocational Education Act of 1963
Expanded the scope of agricultural education to include all areas of agriculture, not just farming. No longer required “supervised practice on a farm”. The idea was to expand the scope of SAE, not do away with it, but that is what some states did. Expanded the scope of home economics education to include all areas of home economics, not just homemaking.

42 Vocational Education Act of 1963
Established work study programs for vocational students to provide financial support States had to submit plans for what they planned to do Eliminated federal supervision/control of vocational programs Funding for vocational education was substantially increased

43 Educational Amendments (1968)
Amended the 1963 Vocational Education Act Increased funding for vocational education Funds could be used for high school programs, people who have left school, retraining, special needs students, construction of area vocational schools, vocational guidance, contracting vocational education with private institutions, ancillary services (research, teacher training) and administering the state plan.

44 Educational Amendments (1968)
Did not categorically fund specific vocational programs, with one exception Specifically allocated money to Consumer and Homemaking Education Of the general appropriations to each state 25% had to be spent on disadvantaged populations 25% had to be spent on out-of-school individuals seeking employment 10% had to be spent on handicapped individuals

45 Educational Amendments (1968)
Authorized money for: Curriculum development (this is the only place agricultural education is mentioned in the act) Residential vocational schools (schools with dorms) Research (National Center for Vocational Education Research was established) Leadership development (selected vocational leaders could get advanced degrees)

46 Vocational Education Acts 1976 amendments
Eliminate sex discrimination & bias Serve special populations Build area vocational schools Cooperative programs Vocational guidance and counseling Required 5-year state plans Homemaker retraining

47 Educational Amendments (1976)
The Educational Amendments of 1976 have five Titles, Title II is concerned with vocational education Authorized more money for vocational education Purpose of the act was to extend, improve and maintain programs overcome come sex discrimination/bias develop new programs

48 Educational Amendments (1976)
Monies could be spent on vocational education programs, work study, energy education, area school facilities, support sex equity positions, placement services, Industrial Arts (now Technology Education), support services for females in non-traditional programs, day care services, displaced homemakers, residential vocational centers.

49 Educational Amendments (1976)
There were special appropriations for the disadvantaged Consumer and Homemaking received special funding Every vocational program had to be evaluated every five years

50 Career Education Incentive Act -- 1977
assisted states and local education agencies and institutions of postsecondary education in making preparation for work a major goal of all who teach and all who learn.

51 Subsequent Vocational Education Acts
Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act Amendment to 1963 act individuals who are inadequately served are assured access to programs 57% of basic grant for handicapped 43% given based on age categories & per capita income

52 Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act -- 1984
provided “tech prep” transition from school to work integration of academic and vocational subject matter

53 Carl Perkins Act (1984) This was the most significant rewrite of vocational education legislation since 1963. Two broad themes Accessibility to all persons Improve the quality

54 Carl Perkins Act (1984) Fifty-seven (57) percent of state funds were allocated to special populations - vocational education was to be accessible to everyone handicapped (10%) disadvantaged (10%) adult retraining (12%) single parents & homemakers (8 1/2%) sex bias & stereotyping (3 1/2%) incarcerated (1%)

55 Carl Perkins Act (1984) Forty-three (43) percent of state funds were allocated for program improvement funds were not to be used to maintain existing programs Consumer and Homemaking received special funding but 1/3 had to be spent in economically depressed areas There will be a full time sex equity coordinator and $60,000 is allocated to that

56 Perkins II (1990) The Carl Perkins Act is rewritten
Special populations is still a major focus, Money can be used to support existing programs Academic and vocational education was to be integrated Articulation between secondary and post-secondary institutions

57 School-to-Work Opportunities Act (1994)
A variety of programs were established for students to get them more involved with the world of work and post-secondary education Grants were given to some states to develop programs This is for all students Funding is temporary

58 Perkins III (1998) This is the legislation vocational education is currently operating under The purpose of this Act is to develop more fully the academic, vocational, and technical skills of secondary students and post-secondary students who elect to enroll in vocational and technical education programs (little emphasis on special populations) Perkins

59 Perkins III (1998) At the local levels funds can be spent on:
strengthening the academic, and vocational and technical skills of students providing students with strong experience in and understanding of all aspects of an industry developing, improving, or expanding the use of technology in vocational and technical education providing professional development programs to teachers, counselors, and administrators

60 Perkins III (1998) conducting evaluations of the vocational and technical education programs ...including how the needs of special populations are being met initiating, improving, expanding, and modernizing quality vocational and technical education programs linking secondary vocational and technical education and post-secondary vocational and technical education, including implementing tech-prep programs.

61 Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA– –P.L. 105–220)
Reforms Federal employment, adult education, and vocational rehabilitation programs to create an integrated, "one–stop" system of workforce investment and education activities for adults and youth. Entities that carry out post-secondary vocational and technical education activities assisted under the Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act are mandatory partners in this one–stop delivery system. Title I of WIA authorizes workforce investment programs and activities that are administered by the Employment and Training Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor. Learn more about the implementation of Title I of WIA.

62 Perkins IV 2006 The President signed the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 2006 into law on August 12, The new Act will provide: an increased focus on the academic achievement of career and technical education students, strengthen the connections between secondary and postsecondary education, and improve state and local accountability.

63 Key Legislation Vocational Education Act of 1963
Educational Amendments 1968 and 1976 Carl Perkins Act I (1984) Carl Perkins Act II (1990) School-to-Work, Opportunities Act (1994) Carl Perkins Act III (1998) Carl Perkins Act IV (August 12, 2006)

64 Conclusion Legislation for Vocational Education during the past 50 years has been influenced greatly by changing societal and environmental concerns. Federal legislation has often mandated what we are to do. The focus has shifted to helping certain groups of people.

65 Development of Vocational Education
The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 In Fall 1915, 90,708 students were enrolled in agriculture classes in 4,665 high schools. In 1885, there were very few. In the thirty years prior to Smith-Hughes, why was there such growth in agricultural education in elementary and secondary schools?

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