6Smith-Lever Act (1914)Established the Cooperative Extension Service
7Smith-Hughes Act (1917)provided federal funds to support vocational education in the public schools
8Smith-Hughes Provisions Provided federal funds to support the teaching of vocational agriculture, home economics and trade and industrial educationProvide money to train vocational teachersEstablished a Federal Board for Vocational Education
9Smith-HughesTrivia: Teachers who received their salaries from the Smith-Hughes Act were often called “Smith-Hughes teachers” to distinguish them from teachers in schools not receiving Smith-Hughes funding. Agriculture and home economics was taught in many other schools but not all schools received Smith-Hughes monies because of limited funds.
10Smith-Hughes FundingSpecific amounts of money were allocated to each vocational discipline:Agricultural appropriations were based on each state’s rural populationHome economics appropriations were based on each state’s urban populationTrade and industrial appropriations were based on each state’s urban populationThere was to be a federal-state match on all salaries
11Smith-Hughes Act - Agriculture “...under public supervision or control...”“...controlling purpose...shall be to fit for useful employment…”“...shall be of less than college grade…”“...meet the needs of persons over fourteen years of age who have entered upon or who are preparing to enter upon the work of the farm or of the farm home…”Question: Does the previous phrase also mean adult education?
12Smith-Hughes - Agriculture “...that such schools shall provide for directed or supervised practice in agriculture, either on a farm provided for by the school or other farm, for at least six months per year”This was interpreted to mean that each student (including adults) is to have a “project” (crops or livestock).If the teacher is to supervise it, then the teacher will need to be employed during the summer. This is the basis for 12 month employment of agriculture teachers.
13Federal Board for Vocational Education The Board Consisted of:Secretary of AgricultureSecretary of CommerceSecretary of LaborCommissioner of EducationThree citizens appointed by the Presidentagriculturemanufacturing and commercelabor
14Federal BoardThe Federal Board hired a staff to handle the daily operations and do the real work.Charles Prosser was hired as the Executive DirectorFederal supervisors were hired in the areas of:Agriculture (N=7)Trades and Industries (N=7)Home Economics (N=3)Commercial Subjects (N=3)Research (3)
15Original Federal Regions North AtlanticWest CentralNorth CentralPacificSouthernAg and T&I had regional offices.Two Ag supervisors worked the South; one was for Black schools.
16Federal Regions -1920 North Atlantic Pacific North Central Southern In 1920 one region was eliminated and all the regional people moved to Washington.
17Memorandum of Understanding In 1918 a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was established between federal officials responsible for vocational agriculture and for extension.This MOU was revised from time to time.A brief description of each program was provided, then specific duties of each were outlined.
18George-Reed ActProvide additional financial support for vocational educationMoney was equally divided between agriculture and home economicsAg money based on farm populationHome economics money based on rural populationFunds were used to hire subject matter specialists in agriculture at the federal level
19George-Elzy Act (1934)Provided additional funding for vocational educationMoney was evenly divided betweenagriculturehome economicstrade and industrial education (amount determined by non-farm population)
20George-Deen Act (1936)Provided additional funding for vocational educationRecognized Distributive Education as a part of vocational educationFederal funds could be used to support travel of vocational teachersPresident Roosevelt was reluctant to sign the bill because general education needed help also
22World War II4-H and FFACollected scrap metal, rubber, burlap, rags and paper (4-H bought ambulances with proceeds)Sold war bondsGrew victory gardens (Feed a Fighter was the H theme)Repaired and built farm machinery
23WWII Established food conservation centers Served as Victory Farm VolunteersFFA considered buying a bomberNC 4-H christens two liberty ships - USS Tyrell and USS Cassius Hudson
24WWIIAfter the war vocational agriculture launched major educational programs for servicemen under the provisions of the GI Bill of Rights
26George-Barden Act (1946) Increased funding for vocational education Indicated federal funds could be used to support travel associated with the Future Farmers of America and the New Farmers of AmericaMoney could be used on vocational guidance
27End of Era 1The launching of the Sputnik by the Russians and the ensuing events of the 1960s heralded a new era in agricultural educationThe times, they are changing.We are about ready to leave the sow, cow, plow and the stitching and stirring era.
29Vocational Education Act of 1963 This was a MAJOR piece of federal legislation. It replaced the Smith-Hughes Act.Categorical funding for specific vocational disciplines such as agricultural education was abolished.Funding went to states on the basis of their population in certain age categoriesStates decided how to spend the money
30Vocational Education Act of 1963 Expanded the scope of agricultural education to include all areas of agriculture, not just farming.No longer required “supervised practice on a farm”. The idea was to expand the scope of SAE, not do away with it, but that is what some states did.Expanded the scope of home economics education to include all areas of home economics, not just homemaking.
31Vocational Education Act of 1963 Established work study programs for vocational students to provide financial supportStates had to submit plans for what they planned to doEliminated federal supervision/control of vocational programsFunding for vocational education was substantially increased
32Educational Amendments (1968) Amended the 1963 Vocational Education ActIncreased funding for vocational educationFunds could be used for high school programs, people who have left school, retraining, special needs students, construction of area vocational schools, vocational guidance, contracting vocational education with private institutions, ancillary services (research, teacher training) and administering the state plan.
33Educational Amendments (1968) Did not categorically fund specific vocational programs, with one exceptionSpecifically allocated money to Consumer and Homemaking EducationOf the general appropriations to each state25% had to be spent on disadvantaged populations25% had to be spent on out-of-school individuals seeking employment10% had to be spent on handicapped individuals
34Educational Amendments (1968) Authorized money for:Curriculum development (this is the only place agricultural education is mentioned in the act)Residential vocational schools (schools with dorms)Research (National Center for Vocational Education Research was established)Leadership development (selected vocational leaders could get advanced degrees - my wife got her Ph.D. this way)
35Educational Amendments (1976) The Educational Amendments of 1976 have five Titles, Title II is concerned with vocational educationAuthorized more money for vocational educationPurpose of the act was toextend, improve and maintain programsovercome come sex discrimination/biasdevelop new programs
36Educational Amendments (1976) Monies could be spent on vocational education programs, work study, energy education, area school facilities, support sex equity positions, placement services, Industrial Arts (now Technology Education), support services for females in non-traditional programs, day care services, displaced homemakers, residential vocational centers.
37Educational Amendments (1976) There were special appropriations for the disadvantagedConsumer and Homemaking received special fundingEvery vocational program had to be evaluated every five years
38Carl Perkins Act (1984)This was the most significant rewrite of vocational education legislation since 1963.Two broad themesAccessibility to all personsImprove the quality
39Carl Perkins Act (1984)Fifty-seven (57) percent of state funds were allocated to special populations - vocational education was to be accessible to everyonehandicapped (10%)disadvantaged (10%)adult retraining (12%)single parents and homemakers (8 1/2%)sex bias & stereotyping (3 1/2%)incarcerated (1%)
40Carl Perkins Act (1984)Forty-three (43) percent of state funds were allocated for program improvementfunds were not to be used to maintain existing programsConsumer and Homemaking received special funding but 1/3 had to be spent in economically depressed areasThere will be a full time sex equity coordinator and $60,000 is allocated to that
41Perkins II (1990) The Carl Perkins Act is rewritten Special populations is still a major focus,Money can be used to support existing programsAcademic and vocational education was to be integratedArticulation between secondary and post-secondary institutions
42School-to-Work Opportunities Act (1994) A variety of programs were established for students to get them more involved with the world of work and post-secondary educationGrants were given to some states to develop programsThis is for all studentsFunding is temporary
43FAIR Act (1996)Our current farm bill is titled the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act.Some people call it the Freedom to Farm Act.Title VIII contains provisions for Research, Extension, and EducationHowever, because other sections of the bill were so controversial little attention was really paid to this section of the bill.For the first time has language for secondary agricultural education.
44FAIR Act (1996)Authority for secondary and 2-year post secondary education in agriscience and agribusiness are added to the Secretary's food and agricultural education authoritiesThis was an attempt to transfer national leadership for secondary agricultural education to USDA from USDEIt partially succeeded, language is present in the bill authorizing it--but there is no money to do it, so nothing has happened
45FAIR Act (1996)Even though the national leadership for agricultural education did not move (one representative in the house effectively blocked the move) a $500,000 challenge grant program to improve secondary agricultural education has been established under authority of the USDA.USDE provides national leadership for agricultural education but USDA is providing funds to improve the program
46Perkins III (1996)This is the legislation vocational education is currently operating underThe purpose of this Act is to develop more fully the academic, vocational, and technical skills of secondary students and post-secondary students who elect to enroll in vocational and technical education programs (little emphasis on special populations)Perkins
47ConclusionLegislation for agricultural education during the past 50 years has been influenced greatly by changing societal and environmental concerns.Federal legislation has often mandated what we are to do.The focus has shifted to helping certain groups of people.