Presentation on theme: "Federal Legislation Impacting Agricultural Education."— Presentation transcript:
Federal Legislation Impacting Agricultural Education
Morrill Act Established land-grant colleges –One in every state Agriculture and Mechanic Arts were emphasized Established for the common person
Hatch Act Established agricultural experiment stations Provided a scientific basis for what was taught in the land-grant colleges
2md Morrill Act Provided more funds to support land- grant colleges Established land-grant colleges for minorities
The Smith Acts
Smith-Lever Act (1914) Established the Cooperative Extension Service
Smith-Hughes Act (1917) –provided federal funds to support vocational education in the public schools
Smith-Hughes Provisions Provided federal funds to support the teaching of vocational agriculture, home economics and trade and industrial education Provide money to train vocational teachers Established a Federal Board for Vocational Education
Smith-Hughes Trivia: Teachers who received their salaries from the Smith-Hughes Act were often called “Smith-Hughes teachers” to distinguish them from teachers in schools not receiving Smith- Hughes funding. Agriculture and home economics was taught in many other schools but not all schools received Smith-Hughes monies because of limited funds.
Smith-Hughes Funding Specific amounts of money were allocated to each vocational discipline: –Agricultural appropriations were based on each state’s rural population –Home economics appropriations were based on each state’s urban population –Trade and industrial appropriations were based on each state’s urban population There was to be a federal-state match on all salaries
Smith-Hughes Act - Agriculture –“...under public supervision or control...” – “...controlling purpose...shall be to fit for useful employment…” –“...shall be of less than college grade…” –“...meet the needs of persons over fourteen years of age who have entered upon or who are preparing to enter upon the work of the farm or of the farm home…” Question: Does the previous phrase also mean adult education?
Smith-Hughes - Agriculture –“...that such schools shall provide for directed or supervised practice in agriculture, either on a farm provided for by the school or other farm, for at least six months per year” This was interpreted to mean that each student (including adults) is to have a “project” (crops or livestock). If the teacher is to supervise it, then the teacher will need to be employed during the summer. This is the basis for 12 month employment of agriculture teachers.
Federal Board for Vocational Education The Board Consisted of: –Secretary of Agriculture –Secretary of Commerce –Secretary of Labor –Commissioner of Education –Three citizens appointed by the President agriculture manufacturing and commerce labor
Federal Board The Federal Board hired a staff to handle the daily operations and do the real work. –Charles Prosser was hired as the Executive Director –Federal supervisors were hired in the areas of: Agriculture (N=7) Trades and Industries (N=7) Home Economics (N=3) Commercial Subjects (N=3) Research (3)
Original Federal Regions North Atlantic Southern Pacific North Central West Central Ag and T&I had regional offices.Two Ag supervisors worked the South; one was for Black schools.
Federal Regions North Atlantic Southern Pacific North Central In 1920 one region was eliminated and all the regional people moved to Washington.
Memorandum of Understanding In 1918 a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was established between federal officials responsible for vocational agriculture and for extension. This MOU was revised from time to time. A brief description of each program was provided, then specific duties of each were outlined.
George-Reed Act Provide additional financial support for vocational education Money was equally divided between agriculture and home economics –Ag money based on farm population –Home economics money based on rural population Funds were used to hire subject matter specialists in agriculture at the federal level
George-Elzy Act (1934) Provided additional funding for vocational education Money was evenly divided between –agriculture –home economics –trade and industrial education (amount determined by non-farm population)
George-Deen Act (1936) Provided additional funding for vocational education Recognized Distributive Education as a part of vocational education Federal funds could be used to support travel of vocational teachers President Roosevelt was reluctant to sign the bill because general education needed help also
World War II 4-H and FFA – Collected scrap metal, rubber, burlap, rags and paper (4-H bought ambulances with proceeds) – Sold war bonds –Grew victory gardens (Feed a Fighter was the H theme) – Repaired and built farm machinery
WWII Established food conservation centers Served as Victory Farm Volunteers FFA considered buying a bomber NC 4-H christens two liberty ships - USS Tyrell and USS Cassius Hudson
WWII After the war vocational agriculture launched major educational programs for servicemen under the provisions of the GI Bill of Rights
Ag Ed Enrollments
George-Barden Act (1946) Increased funding for vocational education Indicated federal funds could be used to support travel associated with the Future Farmers of America and the New Farmers of America Money could be used on vocational guidance
End of Era 1 The launching of the Sputnik by the Russians and the ensuing events of the 1960s heralded a new era in agricultural education The times, they are changing. We are about ready to leave the sow, cow, plow and the stitching and stirring era.
Vocational Education Act of 1963 This was a MAJOR piece of federal legislation. It replaced the Smith-Hughes Act. Categorical funding for specific vocational disciplines such as agricultural education was abolished. –Funding went to states on the basis of their population in certain age categories –States decided how to spend the money
Vocational Education Act of 1963 Expanded the scope of agricultural education to include all areas of agriculture, not just farming. –No longer required “supervised practice on a farm”. The idea was to expand the scope of SAE, not do away with it, but that is what some states did. Expanded the scope of home economics education to include all areas of home economics, not just homemaking.
Vocational Education Act of 1963 Established work study programs for vocational students to provide financial support States had to submit plans for what they planned to do Eliminated federal supervision/control of vocational programs Funding for vocational education was substantially increased
Educational Amendments (1968) Amended the 1963 Vocational Education Act –Increased funding for vocational education –Funds could be used for high school programs, people who have left school, retraining, special needs students, construction of area vocational schools, vocational guidance, contracting vocational education with private institutions, ancillary services (research, teacher training) and administering the state plan.
Educational Amendments (1968) Did not categorically fund specific vocational programs, with one exception –Specifically allocated money to Consumer and Homemaking Education Of the general appropriations to each state 25% had to be spent on disadvantaged populations 25% had to be spent on out-of-school individuals seeking employment 10% had to be spent on handicapped individuals
Educational Amendments (1968) Authorized money for: –Curriculum development (this is the only place agricultural education is mentioned in the act) –Residential vocational schools (schools with dorms) –Research (National Center for Vocational Education Research was established) –Leadership development (selected vocational leaders could get advanced degrees - my wife got her Ph.D. this way)
Educational Amendments (1976) The Educational Amendments of 1976 have five Titles, Title II is concerned with vocational education Authorized more money for vocational education Purpose of the act was to –extend, improve and maintain programs –overcome come sex discrimination/bias –develop new programs
Educational Amendments (1976) Monies could be spent on vocational education programs, work study, energy education, area school facilities, support sex equity positions, placement services, Industrial Arts (now Technology Education), support services for females in non-traditional programs, day care services, displaced homemakers, residential vocational centers.
Educational Amendments (1976) There were special appropriations for the disadvantaged Consumer and Homemaking received special funding Every vocational program had to be evaluated every five years
Carl Perkins Act (1984) This was the most significant rewrite of vocational education legislation since Two broad themes –Accessibility to all persons –Improve the quality
Carl Perkins Act (1984) Fifty-seven (57) percent of state funds were allocated to special populations - vocational education was to be accessible to everyone –handicapped (10%) –disadvantaged (10%) –adult retraining (12%) –single parents and homemakers (8 1/2%) –sex bias & stereotyping (3 1/2%) –incarcerated (1%)
Carl Perkins Act (1984) Forty-three (43) percent of state funds were allocated for program improvement –funds were not to be used to maintain existing programs Consumer and Homemaking received special funding but 1/3 had to be spent in economically depressed areas There will be a full time sex equity coordinator and $60,000 is allocated to that
Perkins II (1990) The Carl Perkins Act is rewritten Special populations is still a major focus, Money can be used to support existing programs Academic and vocational education was to be integrated Articulation between secondary and post- secondary institutions
School-to-Work Opportunities Act (1994) A variety of programs were established for students to get them more involved with the world of work and post-secondary education Grants were given to some states to develop programs This is for all students Funding is temporary
FAIR Act (1996) Our current farm bill is titled the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act.Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act –Some people call it the Freedom to Farm Act. Title VIII contains provisions for Research, Extension, and Education –However, because other sections of the bill were so controversial little attention was really paid to this section of the bill. For the first time has language for secondary agricultural education.
FAIR Act (1996) Authority for secondary and 2-year post secondary education in agriscience and agribusiness are added to the Secretary's food and agricultural education authorities –This was an attempt to transfer national leadership for secondary agricultural education to USDA from USDE –It partially succeeded, language is present in the bill authorizing it--but there is no money to do it, so nothing has happened
FAIR Act (1996) Even though the national leadership for agricultural education did not move (one representative in the house effectively blocked the move) a $500,000 challenge grant program to improve secondary agricultural education has been established under authority of the USDA. –USDE provides national leadership for agricultural education but USDA is providing funds to improve the program
Perkins III (1996) This is the legislation vocational education is currently operating under The purpose of this Act is to develop more fully the academic, vocational, and technical skills of secondary students and post- secondary students who elect to enroll in vocational and technical education programs (little emphasis on special populations) Perkins
Conclusion Legislation for agricultural education during the past 50 years has been influenced greatly by changing societal and environmental concerns. Federal legislation has often mandated what we are to do. The focus has shifted to helping certain groups of people.