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© 2013, 2009, 2006, 2003, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. William L. Heward Exceptional Children An Introduction to Special Education Tenth Edition
Chapter 15 Transitioning to Adulthood
Focus Questions Why should postschool outcomes drive educational programming for secondary students with disabilities? What key factors influence the success of an individualized transition plan? How can teachers of elementary students with disabilities help them prepare for successful life as adults? Why is self-determination so important to students with disabilities success in postsecondary education? How do the philosophy and principles of supported living differ from traditional residential placement services? How can teachers help school-age children with disabilities achieve satisfying recreation and leisure as adults? Is quality of life for adults with disabilities the ultimate outcome measure for special education? Why or why not? 15-2 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
How Do Former Special Education Students Fare as Adults? Results of the National Longitudinal Transition Studies 2 Completing high school In , 72% of students with disabilities graduated from high school with either a regular diploma or a certificate of completion Employment status The unemployment rate for young adults with disabilities is 57% when they have been out of school during the first 4 years Postsecondary education 45% of youth with disabilities enrolled in postsecondary education compared with 41% of youth without disabilities 15-3 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
How Do Former Special Education Students Fare as Adults? (cont.) Results of the National Longitudinal Transition Studies 2 Community Involvement 49% of young adults participated in some type community social activities outside of work or school in the preceding year 28% of out of high school youth had been arrested at some time, compared to 12% of youth in the general population Only 60% of youth with disabilities ages reported that they thought of themselves as able to handle challenges or feeling useful and important 15-4 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Transition Services Models Will’s bridges model of school-to-work transition Three levels of service: – Generic – Time-limited transition services – Ongoing support Halpern’s three-dimensional model Three domains: – Quality of residential environment – Adequacy of social/interpersonal network – Meaningful employment 15-5 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
IDEA and Transition Services Transition is a process involving the coordination, delivery, and transfer of services from school to post-school agencies Definition of Transition Services in IDEA Results-oriented process based upon the student’s individual needs and preferences to facilitate movement to post-school activities Includes : ○ Postsecondary education ○ Vocational education ○ Integrated employment ○ Continuing and adult education ○ Adult services ○ Independent living ○ Community participation 15-6 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Individualized Transition Plan An ITP details the curricular programming and other supports that will prepare the student for a smooth and successful transition to adult life o When a student reaches age 16, IDEA requires the IEP team to begin transition planning o Annual review and update o Appropriate measurable postsecondary goals based on age- appropriate transition assessments o The transition services needed to assist the child in reaching those goals o Beginning not later than 1 year before the child reaches the age of majority, a statement that the child has been informed of the child’s rights that will transfer to the child at the age of majority 15-7 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Individualized Transition Plan (cont.) Age-appropriate Transition Assessment Includes a combination of formal and informal assessment methods Measurable Postsecondary Goals Those goals that a child hopes to achieve after leaving secondary school Transition Services A coordinated set of transition related instructional strategies and activities Annual IEP Goals Simultaneously teach academic and transition related skills Coordinate Transition Services with Adult Agencies Involve interdisciplinary teaming and interagency collaboration Summary of Performance Academic achievement, functional performance, and recommendation for continued progress 15-8 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Employment Work is defined as using one’s physical and/or mental energies to accomplish something productive For most adults with disabilities, obtaining and holding a job is a major life challenge and goal Begin career education early Elementary students-sample different types of classroom responsibilities Middle school students-spend time at actual community job sites High school students-develop and operate a school-based business enterprise 15-9 Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Employment (cont.) Competitive employment ○ Performs work valued by an employer ○ Functions in an integrated setting with coworkers without disabilities ○ Earns at or above the minimum wage Key characteristics of school program that increase likelihood of successful employment outcomes ○ Stress functional skills ○ Receive ample opportunities to learn social and interpersonal skills ○ Begin community-based work experiences as early as ages for students with severe disabilities Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Employment (cont.) Supported employment is defined as o Competitive employment in an integrated setting with ongoing support services for individuals with the most severe disabilities Four models of supported employment ○ Small business enterprise ○ Mobile work crew ○ Enclave (or clustered placement) ○ Individual placement Employment Specialist o Natural supports o Natural cues and self-management Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Employment (cont.) Sheltered employment Refers to work by people with disabilities at an accredited occupationally-oriented facility which employs people with disabilities Most common vocational setting for adults with severe disabilities, offer transitional and extended employment Sheltered workshops provide ○ Evaluation and training for community-based employment ○ Extended or long-term employment ○ Work activities – The problems with sheltered employment include limited opportunities for job placement and low pay Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Postsecondary Education Postsecondary education significantly improves chances of meaningful employment Increasingly, jobs require technical training, problem-solving, and interpersonal skills that can be attained through postsecondary education The percentage of first-time, full-time freshmen enrolled in college who indicate they have a disability is growing Participation in the labor force rises to 50.3% for individuals with disabilities who obtain a 4 year degree Even youths with significant disabilities (e.g., intellectual disabilities, autism, or multiple disabilities) can participate in some aspects of college life The success of students with disabilities as measured by graduation is well below that of students without disabilities Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Residential Alternatives Apartment living Apartment cluster Co-residence apartment Maximum-independence apartment Foster homes Provide temporary residential services also has more opportunities to interact with and be accepted by the community at large Group homes Provide family style living for a small group of individuals Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Residential Alternatives (cont.) Supported living Helping people with disabilities live in the community as independently and normally as possibly Institutions Criticized in the 1960s and 1970s for their inability to provide individualized services in a comfortable, humane, and normalized environment Deinstitutionalization - the movement of people with disabilities out of large institutions and into small, community-based living environments - has been an active reality for the past 40 years Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Recreation and Leisure Recreation and leisure activities do not come easily for many adults with disabilities Challenges to the use of community recreational resources include o Transportation o Physical ability or skills to play the game o Other willing and able friends with whom to play Special educators must realize the importance of including training for recreation and leisure in curricula for school-age children with disabilities Learning appropriate recreation and leisure skills is particularly important for adults with severe disabilities Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Ultimate Goal: A Better Quality of Life Adults with disabilities continue to face lack of acceptance as full members of society Misguided and limiting presumptions Handicapism - discriminatory treatment and biased reactions toward someone with a disability - occurs on personal, professional, and societal levels Self-advocacy and self-determination Persons with disabilities have begun to assert their legal rights challenging the view that persons with disabilities are incapable of speaking for themselves Still a long way to go Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
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