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An Age of Limits Chapter 32.

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1 An Age of Limits Chapter 32

2 The Nixon Administration (1969-1974)
New Federalism: Decrease size and influence of the Federal Government Great Society had given too much power to the Federal Government (give power to the state and local government) Revenue sharing-state and local governments can spend the federal money as they see fit When it ended in $6 billion given

3 New Federalism Welfare Reform: Nixon didn’t oppose welfare-
Family Assistance Act: every family of four with no outside income would receive $1600/year Can earn up to $4000/ year with incentives Take job training and accept any reasonable work available Bill fails in the Senate-Liberals- too low minimum payment Conservatives objected to guaranteed money

4 Two Faces of New Federalism
Enhanced some Federal programs dismantled some Increased Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid payouts, made food stamps more assessable, supported subsidized housing, expanded Job corps Nixon used impoundment to hold up laws he opposed-Means to withhold funds ($15 billion) Eventually federal courts forced him to release the money Abolished Office of Economic Authority-Johnson’s cornerstone to the Great Society

5 Law and Order Fought with Congress
Also more liberal elements of society Pledged to end Vietnam and the divisiveness it brought (1969 Campaign promise) Deescalated the war and upped the “Law and Order” of the United States Took on Urban rioting, anti-war demonstration “Silent Majority” Used full resources-sometimes illegally- FBI wiretapped left winged individuals, infiltrated groups such as SDS and radical African-American groups CIA compiled documents on thousands of American Dissidents Used the IRS to audit tax returns of antiwar and civil rights activists Built an “enemies list”-administration would harass and destroy Got help from Spiro T. Agnew, VP-scorned media

6 Southern Strategy Conservative coalition
Appeal to Southern conservative Democrats by appealing to their distaste for desegregation and the Supreme Court Southern Democrats thought party had become too liberal Went after the George Wallace>, Governor of Alabama, voters in the South (13.5% as an independent running for President in 1968) Integration slows: attract voters in the South Nixon: “There are those who want instant integration and those who want segregation forever. I believe we need to have a middle course between those two extremes.” Reversed several Civil Rights Policies Supreme court orders Nixon to abide by the 2nd Brown v. Board of Education ruling and integrate schools at all deliberate speed By % of children attended desegregated schools in the South Opposed busing

7 The Supreme Court Battle
Nixon criticized the Warren Court as too liberal Nixon changes four justices (death, retirement, resignation) including Warren Appointed Warren Burger> as Chief Justice Put 3 more conservative leaning justices on the bench Didn’t always go conservative-1971 ruling to integrate schools through busing

8 Economy Stagflation-High unemployment-and inflation
Causes-massive deficit spending by Lyndon Johnson Began to lose in international trade markets to Japan and West Germany, etc. Flood of new workers (Baby boomers) OPEC-oil cartel-1973 Yom Kippur War-sent massive aid to Israel against Syria and Egypt OPEC cut off oil sales to US

9 Nixon’s attempts to cure economy
Raised taxes and cut the budget (Congress refused to go along) Reduced the amount of money in circulation-by raising interest rates (sent US into a mild recession) Price and wage controls-froze worker’s wages and business prices for 90 days (inflation eased, but recession continued)

10 Foreign Policy Wins here Henry Kissinger-Realpolitik and détente
Nixon in China-take advantage of decade long rift between USSR and Chins 1972-visits-at Great Wall, Imperial Palace, and toasting top Communist leaders Nixon and Mao>

11 Foreign Policy USSR Trip: 1972 three months after China
Soviet Premier-Leonid Brezhnev Free access to West Berlin in return for recognizing East Germany Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I Treaty)limit ICBM and Sub launched missiles to 1972 limits

12 WATERGATE The Imperial Presidency: Executive Branch had taken an air of Imperialism (supreme authority) Nixon expanded the power of the Presidency

13 WATERGATE Men in Nixon’s inner circle: H.R. Haldeman: Chief of Staff
John Ehrlichman: Chief Domestic Adviser John Mitchell: Attorney General Secrecy and consolidation of power Somehow above the law Leads to cover-up

14 WATERGATE Nixon lived with the fear of losing elections
Campaign team sought advantages June 17, :30am-guard at the Watergate complex caught 5 men breaking into the headquarters of the DNC “the plumbers”-plug any government leaks and aid the Nixon administration in other ways Intended to photo documents and place “bugs” (wiretap0 phones Group’s leader-James McCord-former CIA agent also in a group called the Committee to re-elect the President H.R. Haldeman notes in diary of Nixon’s obsession with how to respond to the break-in

15 WATERGATE Should have disowned the break-in-fired anyone involved
Instead cover it up Workers shredded anything incriminating in Haldeman’s office Nixon urged the FBI to pressure the CIA from investigating (National Security) Bought silence from burglars for $500,000 Generated little interest from media throughout the ‘72 election Only the Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward> kept on the story.

16 WATERGATE Wins ‘72 election in a landslide over George McGovern
All Watergate Burglars changed their pleas from innocent to guilty, except McCord who was found guilty by a jury Judge John Sirica> makes it clear that this is just the beginning Supervisors include G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt and hinted that higher authorities lied under oath. Sirica receives a letter from McCord stating that he is guilty and it goes higher up

17 WATERGATE April 30, 1973: Nixon dismisses John Dean and Ehrlichman and Haldeman resign Nixon goes on TV to deny involvement in the Watergate Affair May, Senate begins investigation Special Committee headed by Sam Ervin paraded in testimony The President’s Men one-by-one dropped bombshells

18 WATERGATE John Dean-Howard Baker: “What did the President know and when did he know it?” Deeply involved in the cover-up Nixon sends John Mitchell to deny the claim-Mitchell also denied approving the break-in and the wiretap and Nixon had no knowledge of it July-Alexander Butterfield>-Presidential aide-Nixon taped virtually all his presidential conversations to help write his memoirs. Tapes are the key

19 WATERGATE Saturday Night Massacre Year-long battle for the tapes
Archibald Cox>-Special Prosecutor, took President to court to get the tapes Cox appointed by Elliott Richardson-who Nixon appointed to Attorney General after Mitchell Nixon refused to give up the tapes and ordered Richardson to fire Cox Richardson refused the order and resigned Deputy Attorney General refused and was fired Solicitor General Robert Bork finally fired Cox-replace with Leon Jaworski Jaworski demands the tapes The House begins impeachment proceedings Days before-Spiro Agnew resigned after it was revealed that he accepted bribes in Maryland before and during his term as VP Nixon nominated Gerald Ford as Agnew’s replacement Agnew’s scandal makes investigators look at Nixon’s finances and they found that Nixon paid $1000 on a $200,000 salary.

20 WATERGATE “People have the right to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well I am not a crook.” Nixon response to investigation of his finance March 1974-grand jury indicts Mitchell, Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and four others April 30, 1974-Nixon released edited transcripts of the conversation about Watergate Hoped to show he was truthful Turned out his bad language-and lack of concern about the scandal turned people off Edited manuscript was not enough for the investigators Wanted the unedited tapes-Nixon refused July 24, 1974-Supreme Court rules unanimously that he must give up the unedited tapes

21 WATERGATE House Judiciary recommends Impeachment
July 27-three articles of impeachment adopted Charges-obstruction of justice, abuse of power, contempt of Congress August 5 releases transcripts of the tapes-mysterious 18 minute gap-evidence is still there June 23, 1972 conversation with H.R. Haldeman-Nixon knew and planned the obstruction a week after the break-in August 8, Nixon resigns-admitted no guilt-”some judgments are wrong” Gerald Ford becomes the President EFFECTS: Deep disillusionment with the imperial presidency Ford and Carter could not work on the image of the presidency, too involved in economic problems

22 Gerald Ford (1974-1977) “Our long national nightmare is over.”
Economy is the problem, however Likable and honest: “I’m a Ford, not a Lincoln.” September 8, 1974-pardons Nixon-move cost Ford WIN (Whip Inflation Now)-cut back on use of oil and gas, other energy saving measures Ford fights Congress on job package-vetoing 50 bills Foreign Policy-relied on Kissinger Helsinki Accords-greater cooperation between East and West Communist Cambodia seizes the American ship, Mayaguez-Ford sends in air strikes, marines to rescue crew-41 US troops die

23 Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Former Governor of Georgia Peanut Farmer
As far from Washington as you could get Down-to-earth style Carter walked rather than rode in the Limo Energy crisis is domestic policy Cut consumption of oil and gas energy Turn down their thermostats to 65* and 55* at night Proposed a Department of Energy cabinet position National Energy Act-tax on gas guzzling cars-removed price controls from natural gas and oil made in the US Crisis Worsens: Carter asks for voluntary price and wage freeze, spending cuts, deregulated trucking, railroad, shipping Convinced Federal Reserve to raise interest rates None worked and it looked like there was no policy at all

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