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An Age of Limits Chapter 32. The Nixon Administration (1969-1974) O New Federalism: O Decrease size and influence of the Federal Government O Great Society.

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Presentation on theme: "An Age of Limits Chapter 32. The Nixon Administration (1969-1974) O New Federalism: O Decrease size and influence of the Federal Government O Great Society."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Age of Limits Chapter 32

2 The Nixon Administration ( ) O New Federalism: O Decrease size and influence of the Federal Government O Great Society had given too much power to the Federal Government (give power to the state and local government) O Revenue sharing-state and local governments can spend the federal money as they see fit O When it ended in $6 billion given

3 New Federalism O Welfare Reform: Nixon didn’t oppose welfare- O Family Assistance Act: every family of four with no outside income would receive $1600/year O Can earn up to $4000/ year with incentives O Take job training and accept any reasonable work available O Bill fails in the Senate- Liberals- too low minimum payment O Conservatives objected to guaranteed money

4 Two Faces of New Federalism O Enhanced some Federal programs dismantled some O Increased Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid payouts, made food stamps more assessable, supported subsidized housing, expanded Job corps O Nixon used impoundment to hold up laws he opposed-Means to withhold funds ($15 billion) O Eventually federal courts forced him to release the money O Abolished Office of Economic Authority-Johnson’s cornerstone to the Great Society

5 Law and Order O Fought with Congress O Also more liberal elements of society O Pledged to end Vietnam and the divisiveness it brought (1969 Campaign promise) O Deescalated the war and upped the “Law and Order” of the United States O Took on Urban rioting, anti-war demonstration O “Silent Majority” O Used full resources-sometimes illegally- FBI wiretapped left winged individuals, infiltrated groups such as SDS and radical African- American groups O CIA compiled documents on thousands of American Dissidents O Used the IRS to audit tax returns of antiwar and civil rights activists O Built an “enemies list”-administration would harass and destroy O Got help from Spiro T. Agnew, VP-scorned media

6 Southern Strategy O Conservative coalition O Appeal to Southern conservative Democrats by appealing to their distaste for desegregation and the Supreme Court O Southern Democrats thought party had become too liberal O Went after the George Wallace>, Governor of Alabama, voters in the South (13.5% as an independent running for President in 1968) O Integration slows: attract voters in the South O Nixon: “There are those who want instant integration and those who want segregation forever. I believe we need to have a middle course between those two extremes.” O Reversed several Civil Rights Policies O Supreme court orders Nixon to abide by the 2 nd Brown v. Board of Education ruling and integrate schools at all deliberate speed O By % of children attended desegregated schools in the South O Opposed busing

7 The Supreme Court Battle O Nixon criticized the Warren Court as too liberal O Nixon changes four justices (death, retirement, resignation) including Warren O Appointed Warren Burger> as Chief Justice O Put 3 more conservative leaning justices on the bench O Didn’t always go conservative ruling to integrate schools through busing

8 Economy O Stagflation-High unemployment-and inflation O Causes-massive deficit spending by Lyndon Johnson O Began to lose in international trade markets to Japan and West Germany, etc. O Flood of new workers (Baby boomers) O OPEC-oil cartel-1973 Yom Kippur War-sent massive aid to Israel against Syria and Egypt O OPEC cut off oil sales to US

9 Nixon’s attempts to cure economy O Raised taxes and cut the budget (Congress refused to go along) O Reduced the amount of money in circulation-by raising interest rates (sent US into a mild recession) O Price and wage controls- froze worker’s wages and business prices for 90 days (inflation eased, but recession continued)

10 Foreign Policy O Wins here O Henry Kissinger- Realpolitik and détente O Nixon in China-take advantage of decade long rift between USSR and Chins O 1972-visits-at Great Wall, Imperial Palace, and toasting top Communist leaders O Nixon and Mao>

11 Foreign Policy O USSR Trip: O 1972 three months after China O Soviet Premier-Leonid Brezhnev O Free access to West Berlin in return for recognizing East Germany O Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I Treaty)limit ICBM and Sub launched missiles to 1972 limits

12 WATERGATE O The Imperial Presidency: Executive Branch had taken an air of Imperialism (supreme authority) O Nixon expanded the power of the Presidency

13 WATERGATE O Men in Nixon’s inner circle: O H.R. Haldeman: Chief of Staff O John Ehrlichman: Chief Domestic Adviser O John Mitchell: Attorney General O Secrecy and consolidation of power O Somehow above the law O Leads to cover-up

14 WATERGATE O Nixon lived with the fear of losing elections O Campaign team sought advantages O June 17, :30am-guard at the Watergate complex caught 5 men breaking into the headquarters of the DNC O “the plumbers”-plug any government leaks and aid the Nixon administration in other ways O Intended to photo documents and place “bugs” (wiretap0 phones O Group’s leader-James McCord-former CIA agent also in a group called the Committee to re-elect the President O H.R. Haldeman notes in diary of Nixon’s obsession with how to respond to the break-in

15 WATERGATE O Should have disowned the break- in-fired anyone involved O Instead cover it up O Workers shredded anything incriminating in Haldeman’s office O Nixon urged the FBI to pressure the CIA from investigating (National Security) O Bought silence from burglars for $500,000 O Generated little interest from media throughout the ‘72 election O Only the Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward> kept on the story.

16 WATERGATE O Wins ‘72 election in a landslide over George McGovern O All Watergate Burglars changed their pleas from innocent to guilty, except McCord who was found guilty by a jury O Judge John Sirica> makes it clear that this is just the beginning O Supervisors include G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt and hinted that higher authorities lied under oath. O Sirica receives a letter from McCord stating that he is guilty and it goes higher up

17 WATERGATE O April 30, 1973: Nixon dismisses John Dean and Ehrlichman and Haldeman resign O Nixon goes on TV to deny involvement in the Watergate Affair O May, Senate begins investigation O Special Committee headed by Sam Ervin paraded in testimony O The President’s Men one-by- one dropped bombshells

18 WATERGATE O John Dean-Howard Baker: “What did the President know and when did he know it?” O Deeply involved in the cover-up O Nixon sends John Mitchell to deny the claim-Mitchell also denied approving the break-in and the wiretap and Nixon had no knowledge of it O July-Alexander Butterfield>- Presidential aide-Nixon taped virtually all his presidential conversations to help write his memoirs. O Tapes are the key

19 WATERGATE O Saturday Night Massacre O Year-long battle for the tapes O Archibald Cox>-Special Prosecutor, took President to court to get the tapes O Cox appointed by Elliott Richardson-who Nixon appointed to Attorney General after Mitchell O Nixon refused to give up the tapes and ordered Richardson to fire Cox O Richardson refused the order and resigned O Deputy Attorney General refused and was fired O Solicitor General Robert Bork finally fired Cox- replace with Leon Jaworski O Jaworski demands the tapes O The House begins impeachment proceedings O Days before-Spiro Agnew resigned after it was revealed that he accepted bribes in Maryland before and during his term as VP O Nixon nominated Gerald Ford as Agnew’s replacement O Agnew’s scandal makes investigators look at Nixon’s finances and they found that Nixon paid $1000 on a $200,000 salary.

20 WATERGATE O “People have the right to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well I am not a crook.” Nixon response to investigation of his finance O March 1974-grand jury indicts Mitchell, Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and four others O April 30, 1974-Nixon released edited transcripts of the conversation about Watergate O Hoped to show he was truthful O Turned out his bad language-and lack of concern about the scandal turned people off O Edited manuscript was not enough for the investigators O Wanted the unedited tapes-Nixon refused O July 24, 1974-Supreme Court rules unanimously that he must give up the unedited tapes

21 WATERGATE O House Judiciary recommends Impeachment O July 27-three articles of impeachment adopted O Charges-obstruction of justice, abuse of power, contempt of Congress O August 5 releases transcripts of the tapes- mysterious 18 minute gap-evidence is still there O June 23, 1972 conversation with H.R. Haldeman-Nixon knew and planned the obstruction a week after the break-in O August 8, Nixon resigns-admitted no guilt-”some judgments are wrong” O Gerald Ford becomes the President O EFFECTS: O Deep disillusionment with the imperial presidency O Ford and Carter could not work on the image of the presidency, too involved in economic problems

22 Gerald Ford ( ) O “Our long national nightmare is over.” O Economy is the problem, however O Likable and honest: “I’m a Ford, not a Lincoln.” O September 8, 1974-pardons Nixon- move cost Ford O WIN (Whip Inflation Now)-cut back on use of oil and gas, other energy saving measures O Ford fights Congress on job package- vetoing 50 bills O Foreign Policy-relied on Kissinger O Helsinki Accords-greater cooperation between East and West O Communist Cambodia seizes the American ship, Mayaguez-Ford sends in air strikes, marines to rescue crew- 41 US troops die

23 Jimmy Carter ( ) O Former Governor of Georgia O Peanut Farmer O As far from Washington as you could get O Down-to-earth style O Carter walked rather than rode in the Limo O Energy crisis is domestic policy O Cut consumption of oil and gas energy O Turn down their thermostats to 65* and 55* at night O Proposed a Department of Energy cabinet position O National Energy Act-tax on gas guzzling cars- removed price controls from natural gas and oil made in the US O Crisis Worsens: Carter asks for voluntary price and wage freeze, spending cuts, deregulated trucking, railroad, shipping O Convinced Federal Reserve to raise interest rates O None worked and it looked like there was no policy at all

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