Presentation on theme: "Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortia Sue Gendron Policy Coordinator South Carolina Assessment Conference November 12, 2012."— Presentation transcript:
Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortia Sue Gendron Policy Coordinator South Carolina Assessment Conference November 12, 2012
Common Core State Standards Define the knowledge and skills students need for college and career Developed voluntarily and cooperatively by states; more than 40 states have adopted Provide clear, consistent standards in English language arts/literacy and mathematics Source: www.corestandards.org
The Assessment Challenge How do we get from here......to here? All students leave high school college and career ready Common Core State Standards specify K-12 expectations for college and career readiness...and what can an assessment system do to help?
Next Generation Assessments Rigorous assessment of progress toward “ college and career readiness” Common cut scores across all Consortium states Provide both achievement and growth information Valid, reliable, and fair for all students, except those with “significant cognitive disabilities” Administer online Use multiple measures Operational in 2014-15 school year Source: Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 68 / Friday, April 9, 2010 pp. 18171-85 The U.S. Department of Education has funded two consortia of states with development grants for new assessments aligned to the Common Core State Standards
The Purpose of the Consortium To develop a comprehensive and innovative assessment system for grades 3-8 and high school in English language arts and mathematics aligned to the Common Core State Standards, so that......students leave high school prepared for postsecondary success in college or a career through increased student learning and improved teaching [The assessments shall be operational across Consortium states in the 2014-15 school year]
25 states representing 40% of K-12 students 21 governing, 4 advisory states Washington state is fiscal agent WestEd provides project management services A National Consortium of States
Work group engagement of 110 state-level staff: Each work group: Led by co-chairs from governing states 8 or more members from advisory or governing states, including 2 higher education representatives 1 liaison from the Executive Committee 1 WestEd partner Work group responsibilities: Define scope and time line for work in its area Develop a work plan and resource requirements Determine and monitor the allocated budget Oversee Consortium work in its area, including identification and direction of vendors Accessibility and Accommodations 1 Formative Assessment Practices and Professional Learning 2 Item Development 3 Performance Tasks 4 Reporting 5 Technology Approach 6 Test Administration 7 Test Design 8 Transition to Common Core State Standards 9 Validation and Psychometrics 10 Consortium Work Groups
Decision Making Grant Proposal Theory of Action Deliverables Grant Requirements Design World-Class Consultation State Review and Input Consensus on Policies Implement Enterprise Solutions Open Source Focus on Quality
Theory of Action Built on Seven Key Principles 1.An integrated system 2.Evidence-based approach 3.Teacher involvement 4.State-led with transparent governance 5.Focus: improving teaching and learning 6.Actionable information – multiple measures 7.Established professional standards
Using Computer Adaptive Technology for Summative and Interim Assessments Provides accurate measurements of student growth over time Increased precision Item difficulty based on student responses Tailored for Each Student Larger item banks mean that not all students receive the same questions Increased Security Fewer questions compared to fixed form tests Shorter Test Length Turnaround time is significantly reduced Faster Results GMAT, GRE, COMPASS (ACT), Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Mature Technology
A Balanced Assessment System Common Core State Standards specify K-12 expectations for college and career readiness Common Core State Standards specify K-12 expectations for college and career readiness All students leave high school college and career ready Teachers and schools have information and tools they need to improve teaching and learning Interim assessments Flexible, open, used for actionable feedback Summative assessments Benchmarked to college and career readiness Teacher resources for formative assessment practices to improve instruction
Assessment System Components Summative Assessment (Computer Adaptive) Assesses the full range of Common Core in English language arts and mathematics for students in grades 3–8 and 11 (interim assessments can be used in grades 9 and 10) Measures current student achievement and growth across time, showing progress toward college and career readiness Can be given once or twice a year (mandatory testing window within the last 12 weeks of the instructional year) Includes a variety of question types: selected response, short constructed response, extended constructed response, technology enhanced, and performance tasks
Selected Response Single Response – Multiple Choice Many experts will tell you that television is bad for you. Yet this is an exaggeration. Many television programs today are specifically geared towards improving physical fitness, making people smarter, or teaching them important things about the world. The days of limited programming with little interaction are gone. Public television and other stations have shows about science, history, and technical topics. Which sentence should be added to the paragraph to state the author’s main claim? A. Watching television makes a person healthy. B. Watching television can be a sign of intelligence. C. Television can be a positive influence on people. D. Television has more varied programs than ever before. Many experts will tell you that television is bad for you. Yet this is an exaggeration. Many television programs today are specifically geared towards improving physical fitness, making people smarter, or teaching them important things about the world. The days of limited programming with little interaction are gone. Public television and other stations have shows about science, history, and technical topics. Which sentence should be added to the paragraph to state the author’s main claim? A. Watching television makes a person healthy. B. Watching television can be a sign of intelligence. C. Television can be a positive influence on people. D. Television has more varied programs than ever before.
Selected Response Multiple Correct Options Which of the following statements is a property of a rectangle? Select all that apply. ☐ Contains three sides ☐ Contains four sides ☐ Contains eight sides ☐ Contains two sets of parallel lines ☐ Contains at least one interior angle that is acute ☐ Contains at least one interior angle that is obtuse ☐ All interior angles are right angles ☐ All sides have the same length ☐ All sides are of different length Which of the following statements is a property of a rectangle? Select all that apply. ☐ Contains three sides ☐ Contains four sides ☐ Contains eight sides ☐ Contains two sets of parallel lines ☐ Contains at least one interior angle that is acute ☐ Contains at least one interior angle that is obtuse ☐ All interior angles are right angles ☐ All sides have the same length ☐ All sides are of different length
Constructed Response The table below shows the number of students in each third-grade class at Lincoln School. There are 105 fourth-grade students at Lincoln School. How many more fourth-grade students than third-grade students are at Lincoln School? Show or explain how you found your answer. The table below shows the number of students in each third-grade class at Lincoln School. There are 105 fourth-grade students at Lincoln School. How many more fourth-grade students than third-grade students are at Lincoln School? Show or explain how you found your answer. Students in Third-Grade ClassNumber of Students Mrs. Roy24 Mr. Grant21 Mr. Harrison22 Ms. Mack25
Constructed Response Extended Response Ms. McCrary wants to make a rabbit pen in a section of her lawn. Her plan for the rabbit pen includes the following: It will be in the shape of a rectangle. It will take 24 feet of fence material to make. Each side will be longer than 1 foot. The length and width will measure whole feet. Part A Draw 3 different rectangles that can each represent Ms. McCrary’s rabbit pen. Be sure to use all 24 feet of fence material for each pen. Use the grid below. Click the places where you want the corners of your rectangle to be. Draw one rectangle at a time. If you make a mistake, click on your rectangle to delete it. Continue as many times as necessary. Use your keyboard to type the length and width of each rabbit pen you draw. Then type the area of each rabbit pen. Be sure to select the correct unit for each answer. [Students will input length, width, and area for each rabbit pen. Students will choose unit from drop down menu.] Pen 1: Length: (feet, square feet) Width: (feet, square feet) Area: (feet, square feet) Part B Ms. McCrary wants her rabbit to have more than 60 square feet of ground area inside the pen. She finds that if she uses the side of her house as one of the sides of the rabbit pen, she can make the rabbit pen larger. Draw another rectangular rabbit pen. Use all 24 feet of fencing for 3 sides of the pen. Use one side of the house for the other side of the pen. Make sure the ground area inside the pen is greater than 60 square feet. Use the grid below. Click the places where you want the corners of your rectangle to be. If you make a mistake, click on your rectangle to delete it. Pen 2: Length: (feet, square feet) Width: (feet, square feet) Area: (feet, square feet) Pen 3: Length: (feet, square feet) Width: (feet, square feet) Area: (feet, square feet) Use your keyboard to type the length and width of each rabbit pen you draw. Then type the area of each rabbit pen. Be sure to select the correct unit for each answer. Length: (feet, square feet) Width: (feet, square feet) Area: (feet, square feet)
Performance Task Student Directions: Part 1 (35 minutes) Your assignment: You will read a short story and article, watch a video, review research statistics, and then write an argumentative essay about your opinion on virtual schools. Steps you will be following: In order to plan and compose your essay, you will do all of the following: 1.Read a short story and article, watch a video, and review research statistics. 2.Answer three questions about the sources. 3.Plan and write your essay. Directions for beginning: You will now read the sources and watch a video. Take notes, because you may want to refer back to your notes while writing your essay. You can refer back to any of the sources as often as you like. (short story) (article 1) (video) (research statistics) Questions Use your remaining time to answer the questions below. Your answers to these questions will be scored. Also, they will help you think about the sources you’ve read and viewed, which should help you write your essay. You may click on the appropriate buttons to refer back to the sources when you think it would be helpful. You may also refer to your notes. Answer the questions in the spaces provided below them. 1.Analyze the different opinions expressed in “The Fun They Had” and the “Virtual High School Interview” video. Use details from the story and the video to support your answer. 2.What do the statistics from “Keeping Pace with K–12 Online Learning” suggest about the current trends of virtual schools in the U.S.? Use details from the charts to support your answer. 3.Explain how the information presented in the “Virtual High School Interview” video and the article “Virtual Schools Not for Everyone” differs from the information in the research statistics? Support your answers with details from the video and the articles. Part 2 (85 minutes) You will now have 85 minutes to review your notes and sources, and to plan, draft, and revise your essay. You may also refer to the answers you wrote to the questions in part 1, but you cannot change those answers. Now read your assignment and the information about how your essay will be scored, then begin your work. Your Assignment Your parents are considering having you attend a virtual high school. Write an argumentative essay explaining why you agree or disagree with this idea. Support your claim with evidence from what you have read and viewed.
Technology-Enabled Brianna is running for class president. She needs to give a speech to the 4th grade class. Listen to the draft of her speech and then answer the questions that follow. (Test-takers listen to an audio version of the following speech.) “Hi, My name is Brianna. I am running for class president, and I hope you will vote for me. You know many of my friends said they would. I am involved in many activities, including track and theater. If I am elected, I will hold several fundraisers so that all students in the 4th grade can go on a trip at the end of the year. Also, we can donate a portion of the money to a charity of our choice. If you want a class president who will work hard for you and listen to your needs, please vote for me next week!” This speech needs to be revised before the student presents it. Which sentence should be omitted to improve the speech. A. I am running for class president, and I hope you will vote for me. B. You know many of my friends said they would. C. If I am elected, I will hold several fundraisers so that all students in the 4th grade can go on a trip at the end of the year. D. If you want a class president who will work hard for you and listen to your needs, please vote for me next week!” Selected or Constructed Responses that include Multimedia
Technology-Enhanced Below is a poem, a sonnet, in which the speaker discusses her feelings about a relationship. Read the poem and answer the question that follows. Remember by Christina Rossetti Remember me when I am gone away, Gone far away into the silent land; When you can no more hold me by the hand, Nor I half turn to go yet turning stay. Remember me when no more day by day 5 You tell me of our future that you plann'd: Only remember me; you understand It will be late to counsel then or pray. Yet if you should forget me for a while And afterwards remember, do not grieve: 10 For if the darkness and corruption leave A vestige* of the thoughts that once I had, Better by far you should forget and smile Than that you should remember and be sad. In the sonnet “Remember,” which two lines reveals a change in the speaker’s message to her subject? Collects Evidence through a Non-Traditional Response
The value of y is proportional the the value of x. The constant of proportionality for this relationship is 1. On the grid below, graph this proportional relationship. Technology-Enhanced Collects Evidence through a Non-Traditional Response
Assessment System Components Interim Assessment (Computer Adaptive) Optional comprehensive and content-cluster assessment to help identify specific needs of each student Can be administered throughout the year Provides clear examples of expected performance on Common Core standards Includes a variety of question types: selected response, short constructed response, extended constructed response, technology enhanced, and performance tasks Aligned to and reported on the same scale as the summative assessments Fully accessible for instruction and professional development
Assessment System Components Extended projects demonstrate real- world writing and analytical skills May include online research, group projects, presentations Require 1-2 class periods to complete Included in both interim and summative assessments Applicable in all grades being assessed Evaluated by teachers using consistent scoring rubrics The use of performance measures has been found to increase the intellectual challenge in classrooms and to support higher-quality teaching. - Linda Darling-Hammond and Frank Adamson, Stanford University “ ” Performance Tasks
Performance Task Guidelines Integrate knowledge and skills across multiple standards or strands Measure capacities such as depth of understanding, research skills, complex analysis, and identification/providing of relevant evidence Require student-initiated planning, management of information and ideas, interaction with other materials 27
Performance Task Guidelines Require production of more extended responses (e.g., oral presentations, exhibitions, product development, in addition to more extended written responses which might be revised and edited Reflect a real-world task and/or scenario-based Allow for multiple approaches Represent content that is relevant and meaningful to students 28
Performance Task Guidelines Allow for multiple points of view and interpretations Require scoring that focuses on the essence of the task Be feasible for the school/classroom environment 29
Performance Task Guidelines Allow for demonstration of important knowledge & skills, including those that address 21st century skills such as critically analyzing, synthesizing media texts 30
Grade 11 ELA Performance Task Nuclear Power: Friend or Foe? Task Overview ( 20 Minutes)
Grade 11 ELA Performance Task Nuclear Power: Friend or Foe?
Susquehanna Steam Electric Station in Pennsylvania
Grade 11 ELA Performance Task Nuclear Power: Friend or Foe? Part 1 (50 minutes) You are chief-of-staff for your local congresswoman in the U.S. House of Representatives. She has called you into her office to outline an urgent project. “I have received advance notice,” she says as you sit down, “that a power company is proposing to build a nuclear plant in the southeastern corner of our state. The plan will be announced to the public tomorrow morning, and citizens and journalists will want to know what my position is on this controversial issue. To be honest, I am not sure how I feel about it. We currently don’t have any nuclear power plants in this state, so I haven’t taken time to consider the issue deeply.” “I need you,” she continues, “to conduct a brief survey of the pros and cons of nuclear power. Summarize what you have learned and report back to me this afternoon.”
Grade 11 ELA Performance Task Nuclear Power: Friend or Foe? Part 1 (50 minutes) Students examine and take notes on the stimuli, a series of Internet sources that present both sides of the nuclear debate. Constructed- response questions call upon the students to summarize and evaluate the presented sources.
Grade 11 ELA Performance Task Nuclear Power: Friend or Foe?
2. Evaluate the credibility of the arguments and evidence presented by these sources. Which of the sources are more trustworthy and why? Which of the sources warrant some skepticism because of bias or insufficient evidence?
Grade 11 ELA Performance Task Nuclear Power: Friend or Foe? Part 2 (70 minutes) Back in the congresswoman’s office, you start to hand her your notes on the pros and cons of nuclear energy, but she waves away your papers. “Some emergency meetings have come up and I don’t have time to review your research notes,” she says. “Instead, go ahead and make a recommendation for our position on this nuclear power plant. Should we support the building of this nuclear plant in our state, or should we oppose the power company’s plan? Be sure that your recommendation acknowledges both sides of the issue so that people know that we have considered the issue carefully. I’ll review your report tonight and use it for the press conference tomorrow morning.”
Grade 11 ELA Performance Task Nuclear Power: Friend or Foe? Write an argumentative report that recommends the position that your congresswoman should take on the plan to build a nuclear power plant in your state. Support your claim with evidence from the Internet sources you have read and viewed. You do not need to use all the sources, only the ones that most effectively and credibly support your position and your consideration of the opposing point of view.
Grade 11 ELA Performance Task Nuclear Power: Friend or Foe? Scoring – Statement of purpose – focus and organization – Elaboration of evidence – Conventions
Few initiatives are backed by evidence that they raise achievement. Formative assessment is one of the few approaches proven to make a difference. - Stephanie Hirsh, Learning Forward Assessment System Components Formative Assessment Practices Research-based, on-demand tools and resources for teachers Aligned to Common Core, focused on increasing student learning and enabling differentiation of instruction Professional development materials include model units of instruction and publicly released assessment items, formative strategies “ ”
43 Definition: Assessment that takes place continuously during the course of teaching and learning to provide teachers and students with feedback to close the gap between current learning and desired goals. Assessment Reform Group, 2002; Bell & Cowie, 2001; Black et al., 2003; Black & Wiliam, 1998; OECD, 2005; Sadler, 1989; Shepard, 2000)
Advantages of Formative Assessment Students learn faster Teachers know what students already know & adjust instruction Students aware of progress Most powerful moderator in student achievement Works for at risk students
Formative Assessment Strategies (Black, Wiliam,1998; Sadler, 1998; Stiggins, 2007;Heritage, 2007) Providing feedback/how to improve Self-assessments Peer- assessments Opportunities to close the gap Celebrations
Feedback Student Work Feedback Student work Feedback Student Proficient Celebrate
Grades Supported GradesSummativeInterim (Optional) Formative Tools and Professional Learning (Optional) ✔✔✔ 1-2 Performance Tasks as Required to Cover CCSS ✔ EOC and Comprehensive ✔ ✔✔ EOC and Comprehensive ✔ Optional ✔ EOC and Comprehensive ✔ 3 8 9 10 11 12
A Balanced Assessment System School Year Last 12 weeks of the year* DIGITAL CLEARINGHOUSE of formative tools, processes and exemplars; released items and tasks; model curriculum units; educator training; professional development tools and resources; scorer training modules; and teacher collaboration tools. English Language Arts and Mathematics, Grades 3-8 and High School Computer Adaptive Assessment and Performance Tasks Computer Adaptive Assessment and Performance Tasks Scope, sequence, number and timing of interim assessments locally determined *Time windows may be adjusted based on results from the research agenda and final implementation decisions. Summative Performance Tasks For Accountability Reading Writing Math Re-take option Summative End Of Year Adaptive Assessment for Accountability Optional Interim Assessment Optional Interim Assessment
Data are only useful if people are able to access, understand and use them… For information to be useful, it must be timely, readily available, and easy to understand. -Data Quality Campaign Assessment System Components Online Reporting Static and dynamic reports, secure and public views Individual states retain jurisdiction over access and appearance of online reports Dashboard gives parents, students, practitioners, and policymakers access to assessment information Graphical display of learning progression status (interim assessment) Feedback and evaluation mechanism provides surveys, open feedback, and vetting of materials “ ”
Support for Special Populations Accurate measures of progress for students with disabilities and English Language Learners Accessibility and Accommodations Work Group engaged throughout development Outreach and collaboration with relevant associations Common- Core Tests to Have Built-in Accommodations - June 8, 2011 “ ”
K-12 Teacher Involvement Support for implementation of the Common Core State Standards (2011-12) Write and review items/tasks for the pilot test (2012-13) and field test (2013-14) Development of teacher leader teams in each state (2012-14) Evaluate formative assessment practices and curriculum tools for inclusion in digital library (2013-14) Score portions of the interim and summative assessments (2014-15 and beyond)
Higher Education Collaboration Involved 175 public and 13 private systems/institutions of higher education in application Two higher education representatives on the Executive Committee Higher education lead in each state and higher education faculty participating in work groups Goal: The high school assessment qualifies students for entry-level, credit- bearing coursework in college or university
How it Fits Together Accessibility and Administration Item and Test Design Formative Practices, Professional Learning and Implementation Technology
Accessibility and Administration Enhance the Vision Inventory Current Practices Build Consensus and Systems Support Professional Learning Provide guidance to Smarter Balanced work groups Survey Smarter Balanced states’ practices, rules and laws: January 2012 Determine Consortium ELL and SWD definitions and test administration practices: 2012 Disseminate documents and training materials for field test: 2013
Accessibility and Administration Enhance the Vision Support the Technology, Item Development and Test Design work groups as they incorporate the principles of accessibility and universal design into the design of the Smarter Balanced system Identify the variables, attributes and components of tests that need to be dynamic to address the full range of student needs
Accessibility and Administration Inventory Current Practices Released RFP requesting a thorough review of literature review and Smarter Balanced member state policies, rules and laws regarding ELLs and SWD Identified the manuals and materials that will be necessary to support state implementation of the pilot and field test as well as the operational test
Accessibility and Administration Build Consensus and Systems Facilitate consensus among member states regarding common definitions of ELL and SWD, and common accommodations for ELL and SWD Draft manuals and materials to support state implementation of pilot and field test as well as operational test Materials will be used as part of an iterative design; build and revise approach to technology called agile development They will also be used to support the development of professional learning modules and other formative tools
Accessibility and Administration Support Professional Learning Initial materials will contribute to the body of work to support high-quality instruction and student learning State monitoring and consortium-wide research will improve and enhance the systems Deep connections with higher education will bring the knowledge to new teachers through teacher preparation programs Ongoing professional learning for state staff will increase state capacity
Technology Identify Tech Needs Design the Technology System Build the Systems Pilot and Field Test IT readiness survey: Available January 2012 System architecture: Available January 2012 Vendors start building the system: February 2012 Vendors start building the system: February 2012 Improve the technology throughout pilot and field test: 2012 and 2013
Technology Design the System System architect will create blueprints that allow vendors to build the system –Create prototype user profiles that clarify the various roles of people who need to use the various systems –Member states and vendor community will give feedback on profiles and flows to ensure system meets broad requirements –Architect will design more detailed specifications and technology governance structures, and recommend interoperability standards
Technology Identify Technology Needs Technology readiness application available for states, districts and schools to enter data regarding hardware, software, bandwidth, staffing, electrical systems and other infrastructure required for online testing –Data will be compared against minimum and recommended requirements –Application will support progress tracking –Data useful for state and national policymakers considering total cost of ownership of a high-quality assessment system
Technology Guidelines for New Purchases Minimum for New Hardware Processor Speed RAM Available Memory/Storage Resolution Display Size 1.0 GHz1 GB 1024x768 10” Class Desktops, laptops, netbooks (Windows, Mac, Chrome, Linux), virtual desktops, thin client, tablets (iPad, Windows, and Android), and hybrid laptop/tablets will be compatible devices provided they are configured to meet the established hardware, operating system, and networking specifications—and are able to be “locked down.” Operating Systems Windows 7 Mac 10.7 Linux (Ubuntu 11.10; Fedora 16) Chrome Apple iOS 6 Android 4.0 (June 2012) Minimum specifications for legacy systems and network requirements will be informed by the Technology Readiness Tool and will be available in August 2012. The most recent version of the document can be found at http://www.smarterbalanced.org/smarter-balanced-assessments/technology/. http://www.smarterbalanced.org/smarter-balanced-assessments/technology/
Technology Build the System Provide the system based on the system architecture Applications will include (subject to architecture): –Item authoring bank (based on Michigan Item Bank) –Test delivery –Reporting / hub –Digital library with formative assessment practices resources, curriculum resources and interactive collaboration for Smarter Balanced users
Technology Pilot and Field Test the System Pilot and field test will incrementally improve the technology used to support the system Pilot test a limited test of some of the components Field test a more comprehensive test and will include some integration of components Full system will be thoroughly quality controlled in advance of 2014-15
Item and Test Design Organize the Content Design the Items Design the Tests Write the Items Content Specifications: October 2011 Item Specifications: January 2012 Test Specifications: February 2012 Test Specifications: February 2012 Item Writing for Pilot Test: 2012-2013
Item and Test Design Organize the Content Use Evidence Based Design (EBD) as a disciplined approach to assessing the the Common Core State Standards –Test developers use specific outcomes for students (e.g., claims) as the starting point to ensure the test will meet the purposes for which it was designed (and therefore directly enhance validity) Once claims are established, build into test design the types of items that will create the evidence necessary to make claims
Models of Cognition Describe how students acquire knowledge and develop competence in a particular area Reflect recent and credible scientific evidence of typical learning processes and informed experiences of expert teachers Describe typical learning progression toward competence, including milestones (benchmarks)
Observation Models A set of specifications for assessment tasks that will elicit illuminating responses from students The tasks or situations are linked to the cognitive model of learning and should prompt students to say, do, or create something that provides evidence to support inferences about students’ knowledge, skills, and cognitive processes
Interpretation Interpretations use the evidence from observations to make claims about what students understand and can do Claims – Frame a manageable number of learning goals around which instruction can be organized – Guide the specification of appropriate evidence – Provides a basis for meaningful reporting to different interested audiences
An Overview of SBAC’s Approach Content Specifications … –Create a bridge between standards and assessment and, ultimately, instruction –Organize the standards around major constructs & big ideas –Express what students should learn and be able to do
Each claim is described for assessment Rationale for each claim – Why is this learning goal important for College & Career Readiness (CCR)? – What does the research say about learning in this area? What does ‘sufficient’ evidence look like? – What types of items/tasks? – What content/texts will be emphasized? What are some suggested reporting categories?
Summative Assessment Targets Indicate proposed prioritized content for the summative assessment- link CCSS to the kinds of items/tasks students will respond to Show how one or more (or parts) CCSS addresses the target – ‘bundles’ CCSS (examples on next slide) – Standards or parts of standards that relate to same type of understanding & comparable rigor/DOK demands – Several similar CCSS from different strands
Assessment Claims for English Language Arts/Literacy Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. Reading Students can produce effective and well- grounded writing for a range of purposes and audiences. Writing Students can employ effective speaking and listening skills for a range of purposes and audiences. Speaking/Listening Students can engage in research and inquiry to investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate, and present information. Research/Inquiry (a/o Round 2 – released 9/20/11)
Overall Assessment Claims for English Language Arts/Literacy OVERALL 3-8 OVERALL 9-12 (a/o Round 2 – released 9/20/11) Students can demonstrate progress toward college and career readiness in English language arts and literacy. Students can demonstrate college and career readiness in English language arts and literacy.
Assessment Claims for Mathematics “Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and interpret and carry out mathematical procedures with precision and fluency.” Concepts and Procedures “Students can solve a range of complex well-posed problems in pure and applied mathematics, making productive use of knowledge and problem solving strategies.” Problem Solving “Students can clearly and precisely construct viable arguments to support their own reasoning and to critique the reasoning of others.” Communicating Reasoning “Students can analyze complex, real-world scenarios and can construct and use mathematical models to interpret and solve problems.” Modeling and Data Analysis (a/o Round 2 – released 12/9/11)
What is a claim? “Claims” are the broad statements of the assessment system’s learning outcomes, each of which requires evidence that articulates the types of data/observations that will support interpretations of competence towards achievement of the claims
Assessment Targets (evidence) Describe the expectations of what will be assessed by the items and tasks within each claim. Prioritized content Shows how one or more of the Common Core State Standards (or parts of standards) address the target
ELA Claim 1 Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. 1.Targets 1–7 correspond with literary texts 2.Targets 8–14 correspond with informational texts 3.The assessment targets incorporate the content clusters from the Common Core State Standards
ELA Claim 2 Students can produce effective and well grounded writing for a range of purpose and audiences. – Targets 1, 3, & 6: Revise/Write Brief Texts – Targets 2, 4, & 7: Compose Full Texts including essays and narratives – Target 5: Use of text features, e.g., headings, subheadings, etc. – Target 8: Language & Vocabulary Use – Target 9: Edit/Clarify
Claim 2 - Writing A combination of shorter and longer writing assessment items/tasks collectively assess the ability of students to demonstrate their rhetorical skills and knowledge, including: (1) address purpose and audience (setting a context – topic, question(s) to be answered, and establishing a focus/thesis/claim; (2) organize and develop Ideas using a structure consistent with purpose (providing overall coherence using organizational patterns and transitions to connect and advance central ideas; (3) provide supporting evidence/details/elaboration consistent with focus/thesis/claim; (4) use language effectively (including word choice, sentence variety, precise/nuanced language, domain-specific language, and voice); and (5) apply conventions of Standard English.
ELA Claim 3 Students can employ effective speaking and listening skills for a range of purposes and audiences. 1.Language & Vocabulary Use 2.Clarify Message 3. Plan/Speak/Present 4. Listen/Interpret
ELA Claim 4 Students can engage in research / inquiry to investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate, and present information. 1. Plan/Research 2. Interpret & Integrate Information 3. Analyze Information/Sources 4. Use Evidence
Item and Test Design Design the Items Item specifications will guide item writing to ensure items are of high quality, consistent in appearance and able to be written in an efficient manner Item specifications will focus on five different areas: –Selected responses –Universal design and style guidelines –Technology enhanced constructed response –Traditional constructed response –Performance tasks RFP to write the specifications recently released; responses being reviewed by panel led by Item Development work group
Item and Task Specifications Sample assessment items and tasks are included in item/task specifications: www.smarterbalanced.org/itemspecs www.smarterbalanced.org/itemspecs – ELA/literacy: http://www.smarterbalanced.org/wordpress/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/TaskItemSpecifications/EnglishLanguageArtsLiteracy/ELAGeneralItemandTa skSpecifications.pdf http://www.smarterbalanced.org/wordpress/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/TaskItemSpecifications/EnglishLanguageArtsLiteracy/ELAGeneralItemandTa skSpecifications.pdf – Mathematics Grades 3-5: http://www.smarterbalanced.org/wordpress/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/TaskItemSpecifications/Mathematics/MathematicsGeneralItemandTaskSpecific ationsGrades3-5.pdfhttp://www.smarterbalanced.org/wordpress/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/TaskItemSpecifications/Mathematics/MathematicsGeneralItemandTaskSpecific ationsGrades3-5.pdf Grades 6-8: http://www.smarterbalanced.org/wordpress/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/TaskItemSpecifications/Mathematics/MathematicsGeneralItemandTaskSpecific ationsGrades6-8.pdfhttp://www.smarterbalanced.org/wordpress/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/TaskItemSpecifications/Mathematics/MathematicsGeneralItemandTaskSpecific ationsGrades6-8.pdf High school: http://www.smarterbalanced.org/wordpress/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/TaskItemSpecifications/Mathematics/MathematicsGeneralItemandTaskSpecific ationsHighSchool.pdfhttp://www.smarterbalanced.org/wordpress/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/TaskItemSpecifications/Mathematics/MathematicsGeneralItemandTaskSpecific ationsHighSchool.pdf – Performance Tasks: http://www.smarterbalanced.org/wordpress/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/TaskItemSpecifications/PerformanceTasks/PerformanceTasksSpecifications.pdf http://www.smarterbalanced.org/wordpress/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/TaskItemSpecifications/PerformanceTasks/PerformanceTasksSpecifications.pdf
Cognitive Rigor and Depth of Knowledge The level of complexity of the cognitive demand. – Level 1: Recall and Reproduction Requires eliciting information such as a fact, definition, term, or a simple procedure, as well as performing a simple algorithm or applying a formula. – Level 2: Basic Skills and Concepts Requires the engagement of some mental processing beyond a recall of information. – Level 3: Strategic Thinking and Reasoning Requires reasoning, planning, using evidence, and explanations of thinking. – Level 4: Extended Thinking Requires complex reasoning, planning, developing, and thinking most likely over an extended period of time.
Level 1 Example Grade 8 Select all of the expressions that have a value between 0 and 1. 8 7 ∙ 8 –12 7 4 7 –3 1313 2 ∙ 1313 9 (–5) 6 (–5) 10
Level 2 Example Grade 8 A cylindrical tank has a height of 10 feet and a radius of 4 feet. Jane fills this tank with water at a rate of 8 cubic feet per minute. How many minutes will it take Jane to completely fill the tank without overflowing at this rate? Round your answer to the nearest minute. A cylindrical tank has a height of 10 feet and a radius of 4 feet. Jane fills this tank with water at a rate of 8 cubic feet per minute. How many minutes will it take Jane to completely fill the tank without overflowing at this rate? Round your answer to the nearest minute.
Level 3 Example Grade 8 The total cost for an order of shirts from a company consists of the cost for each shirt plus a one-time design fee. The cost for each shirt is the same no matter how many shirts are ordered. The company provides the following examples to customers to help them estimate the total cost for an order of shirts. 50 shirts cost $349.50 500 shirts cost $2370 Part A: Using the examples provided, what is the cost for each shirt, not including the one-time design fee? Explain how you found your answer. Part B: What is the cost of the one-time design fee? Explain how you found your answer. The total cost for an order of shirts from a company consists of the cost for each shirt plus a one-time design fee. The cost for each shirt is the same no matter how many shirts are ordered. The company provides the following examples to customers to help them estimate the total cost for an order of shirts. 50 shirts cost $349.50 500 shirts cost $2370 Part A: Using the examples provided, what is the cost for each shirt, not including the one-time design fee? Explain how you found your answer. Part B: What is the cost of the one-time design fee? Explain how you found your answer.
Level 4 Example Grade 8 During the task, the student assumes the role of an architect who is responsible for designing the best plan for a park with area and financial restraints. The student completes tasks in which he/she compares the costs of different bids, determines what facilities should be given priority in the park, and then develops a scale drawing of the best design for the park and an explanation of the choices made. This investigation is done in class using a calculator, an applet to construct the scale drawing, and a spreadsheet.
Mathematics Claim 1 Concepts and Procedures Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and interpret and carry out mathematical procedures with precision and fluency. Grade Level Number of Assessment Targets 311 412 511 610 79 8 1116
Mathematics Claim 1 Concepts and Procedures Grade 4 Operations and Algebraic Thinking Target A [m]: Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems. (DOK 1, 2) Tasks for this target will require students to use the four operations to solve straightforward, one-step contextual word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and finding an unknown number, including problems where the remainder must be interpreted. Some of these tasks will draw on contexts in 4.MD Target I using measurement quantities such as time, liquid volume, and masses/weights of objects, and money (with decimal representations limited to those described in standards 4.NF.6 and 4.NF.7).
Math Claim 1 Assessment Targets Grade 3 Operations and Algebraic Thinking A. Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division. B. Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division. C. Multiply and divide within 100. D. Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic. Number and Operations – Base 10 E. Use place value understanding and properties of arithmetic to perform multi-digit arithmetic.
Claim 1 Assessment Targets Grade 3 Numbers and Operations – Fractions F. Develop understanding of fractions as numbers. Measurement and Data G. Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects. H. Represent and interpret data. I. Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition. J. Geometric measurement: recognize perimeter as an attribute of plane figures and distinguish between linear and area measures. Geometry K. Reason with shapes and their attributes.
GradeFluency KAdd/subtract within 5 1Add/subtract within 10 2Add/subtract within 20 Add/subtract within 100 (pencil and paper) 3Multiply/divide within 100 Add/subtract within 1000 4Add/subtract within 1,000,000 5Multi‐digit multiplication 6Multi‐digit division Multi‐digit decimal operations 7 8Solve simple 2 2 systems by inspection 115
0 3/5 The numbers 0 and 3/5 are shown on the number line. Put a point on the line to represent the number 1. Claim 1: Concepts and Procedures Technology Enhanced (Grades 3 – 5)
Claim 1: Concepts and Procedures Technology Enhanced (Grades 5 – 7) 1 2/7 + 5 3/8 = ? 1 2/7 - 5 3/8 = ? Enter a key sequence that would allow you to perform these operations on the calculator.
Claim 1: Concepts and Procedures (Grades 7 – 11) Give two solutions to the equation 4y = 7x – 8 when 1 < x < 2. ( ☐, ☐ ) and ( ☐, ☐ )
Claims 2, 3, and 4 Assessment Targets for Claims 2, 3, and 4 are not divided into a grade-by-grade description. A general set of assessment targets applicable across grade levels.
Assessment Targets Claim 2 – Problem Solving A.Apply mathematics to solve well-posed problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace B.Select and use tools strategically C.Interpret results in the context of the situation D.Identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships. E.Relevant verbs include: – understand, solve, apply, describe, illustrate, interpret, and analyze Claim 2: Students can solve a range of complex well-posed problems in pure and applied mathematics, making productive use of knowledge and problem solving strategies.
Claim 2: Problem Solving (Grades 9 – 11) The figure below is made up of a square with height, h units, and a right triangle with height, h units, and base length, b units. The area of this figure is 80 square units. Write an equation for the height, h, in terms of b. Show all work necessary to justify your answer.
Assessment Targets Claim 3 – Communicating Reason A.Test propositions or conjectures with specific examples. B.Construct, autonomously, chains of reasoning that justify or refute propositions or conjectures. C.State logical assumptions being used. D.Use the technique of breaking an argument into cases. E.Distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in the argument—explain what it is. F.Base arguments on concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. G.Determine conditions under which an argument does and does not apply. Claim 3: Students can clearly and precisely construct viable arguments to support their own reasoning and to critique the reasoning of others.
Claim 3: Communicating Reasoning Constructed Response (Grades 3 – 5) A tent is 8 feet by 10 feet. A sleeping bag is 3 feet by 6 feet. A camper says that 4 sleeping bags will fit in the tent because 18 + 18 + 18 + 18 = 72. The tent is 80 square feet, so there is enough space. a. Is the camper correct? ______________ b. Explain.
Multi-Claim Evidence Constructed Response (Grades 7 – 8) In a sale, all prices are reduced by 25%. 1. Julie sees a jacket that cost $32 before the sale. How much does it cost in the sale? Show your calculations. In the second week of the sale, the prices are reduced by 25% of the previous week’s price. In the third week of the sale, the prices are again reduced by 25% of the previous week’s price. In the fourth week of the sale, the prices are again reduced by 25% of the previous week’s price. 2. Julie thinks this will mean that the prices will be reduced to $0 after the four reductions because 4 x 25% = 100%. Explain why Julie is wrong. 3. If Julie is able to buy her jacket after the four reductions, how much will she have to pay? Show your calculations. 4. Julie buys her jacket after the four reductions. What percentage of the original price does she save? Show your calculations.
Assessment Targets Claim 4 – Modeling and Data Analysis A.Apply mathematics to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. B.Construct, autonomously, chains of reasoning to justify mathematical models used, interpretations made, and solutions proposed for a complex problem. C.State logical assumptions being used. D.Interpret results in the context of a situation. E.Analyze the adequacy of and make improvement to an existing model or develop a mathematical model of a real phenomenon. F.Identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships. G.Identify, analyze, and synthesize relevant external resources to pose or solve problems. Claim 4: Students can analyze complex, real-world scenarios and can construct and use mathematical models to interpret and solve problems.
Claim 4 Modeling and Data Analysis Relevant verbs include: – model, construct, compare, investigate, build, interpret, estimate, analyze, summarize, represent, solve, evaluate, extend, and apply
Item and Test Design Design the Test Test specifications will describe what each student’s test event will look like, including: –Total number of items –Allocation of content by grade based on content specifications –Number of each type of item a student will likely see –Number of items with each required level of Depth of Knowledge Will also include information about the adaptive algorithm and how it will create a test for each student
Item and Test Design Write the Items Item and test specifications will be used to drive item writing –Item specifications: ensure items are accessible and in the right form and format –Test specifications: ensure the right number of items will be written so the pool is sufficient Item writing led by vendors, states and Smarter Balanced Balance of item-writing burden will likely change from short-term to the long-term –Item writing in short-term needs to be aggressive to build the initial pool; time and volume will be a driving factor –Long-term, other priorities can take precedence
Formative Practices, Professional Learning and Implementation Design the Approach Understand the CCSS Understand the Test Improve Teaching and Learning Create the vision of the digital library: August 2011 Webinars on CCSS implementation and content specifications: 2011-12 Webinars on CCSS implementation and content specifications: 2011-12 Professional learning on assessment literacy: Summer 2012 Professional learning on assessment literacy: Summer 2012 Formative assessment practices, exemplars and curriculum products and a consumer report of publishers’ materials
Design the Approach Theory of action hinges on improving teaching and learning Identified current practices and gaps, and what the needs are likely to be before and after the Smarter Balanced system is implemented Leveraging initiatives and resources that are already in place Interim and summative assessments will: –Ensure validity of the assessment by providing opportunities for teachers to be involved in the scoring of student work –Serve as opportunities for professional learning Formative Practices, Professional Learning and Implementation
Understand the CCSS Teams of teachers from each state will: –Participate in identifying formative assessment practices and curriculum resources to put in Digital Library –Participate on a committee to complete voluntary alignment review of publishers’ materials to the content specifications and develop a “Consumers Report” to upload to the Digital Library National content experts to develop 54 (3 ELA and 3 math per grade) formative assessment practices exemplar modules that provide model products for Smarter Balanced teachers (housed in Digital Library) Existing CCSS curriculum projects are adapted to align with the Smarter Balanced content specifications (and uploaded to the Digital Library) Formative Practices, Professional Learning and Implementation
Understand the Test Produce high-quality test manuals that include administration guidelines and supports for teachers and students Support administration of test consistent with its purpose and intended use of data Offer trainings on how to administer the test, provide accommodations, use reporting system and other applications Enhance assessment literacy by providing well articulated training on interpreting assessment results Support connections with pre-service teachers Formative Practices, Professional Learning and Implementation
Improve Teaching and Learning Provide comprehensive support for formative assessment, including instructional modules aligned with CCSS Training modules help teachers focus their instruction on the CCSS and develop teaching practices that support more in- depth learning Enhance assessment literacy by training teachers to use formative assessment tools and interim assessment to determine next steps in instruction Provide supports for students to manage their own learning Formative Practices, Professional Learning and Implementation
Timeline Formative Processes, Tools, and Practices Development Begins Writing and Review of Pilot Items/Tasks (including Cognitive Labs and Small-Scale Trials) Field Testing of Summative and Interim Items/Tasks Conducted Content and Item Specifications Development Pilot Testing of Summative and Interim Items/Tasks Conducted Preliminary Achievement Standards (Summative) Proposed and Other Policy Definitions Adopted Operational Summative Assessment Administered Procurement Plan Developed Writing and Review of Field Test Items/Tasks (throughout the school year) Writing and Review of Field Test Items/Tasks (throughout the school year) Final Achievement Standards (Summative) Verified and Adopted Summative Master Work Plan Developed and Work Groups Launched
Addressing State Concerns PARCC and Smarter developing technology assessment tool to identify infrastructure gaps Paper/pencil option locally available during a 3-year transition 12-week administration window reduces pressure on computer labs Technology Compatibility Developing a business plan for post-2014 Seeking additional funding for ongoing support Member states will be actively involved in determining the future of the Consortium Long-term Governance Common protocols for item development: accessibility, language/cultural sensitivity, construct irrelevant variance Common accommodation and translation protocols Adoption of best practices On average, Smarter states pay $31 per student for current assessments Third-party cost estimate for Smarter Balanced: Summative assessment $19.81/ student; Optional interim assessments $7.50/ student Cost Common, interoperable, open-source software accommodates state-level assessment options Test-builder tool available to use interim item pool for end-of-course tests
Find Out More Smarter Balanced can be found online at: SmarterBalanced.org [SC DOE State Lead Elizabeth Jones, Director of Assessment]