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Indonesian Language Policy Reversal: Impacts on Teachers’ Motivation to Develop Professionally Siti Fitriyah Manchester Institute of Education University.

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Presentation on theme: "Indonesian Language Policy Reversal: Impacts on Teachers’ Motivation to Develop Professionally Siti Fitriyah Manchester Institute of Education University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Indonesian Language Policy Reversal: Impacts on Teachers’ Motivation to Develop Professionally Siti Fitriyah Manchester Institute of Education University of Manchester

2 Outline 1.About this Study 2.Background to my study 3.Stories from the Narrative Interviews 4.Interpretation 5.Dissemination Ideas

3 Participants 4 Mathematics and Science Teachers Data Generation Methods Narrative Interview and Semi Structured Interview Data Analysis Methods Lieblich et al.’s (1998) Categorical Content Perspective Research Question: What insights with regard to teachers’ motivation to continue professional development post CLIL reversal can I draw from my participants’ narratives? A small part of my narrative inquiry Narratives of Educational Policy Reversal: Indonesian Teachers’ Experiences of Changes in the Language of Instruction

4 Indonesian Language Policy Before 2006 Bahasa Indonesia in all public schools English in Indonesian International Standard Schools 2013 Bahasa Indonesia in all public schools After declared being unconstitutional by The Constitutional Court After Judicial Review of Law no. 20/2003 (filed by public)

5 Policy Reversal: Why? Why? contradicts state obligation to provide education for all encourage the emergence of educational system dualism a form of educational neoliberalism trigger the occurrence of educational discrimination and segregation endanger Indonesian national identity with Bahasa Indonesia as the national language (CC, 2012)

6 Is an archipelago. Number of Vernacular Languages: More than 700 (Zein, 2011) National Language: Bahasa Indonesia Elementary and Secondary Education in public schools is free with varied quality.

7 Why Teachers? Who am I? Teachers are at the forefront of every policy change (Elmore and Mclaughin, 1988 and Firestone, 1989 as cited in Liddicoat and Baldauff Jr, 2008; O’Sullivan, 2002) Teachers’ voices concerning change, reforms, and educational policy are often unheard and often marginalised (Bailey, 2000; Zhao and Baldauf,2012; Kaplan & Baldauf, 1997 ) Unveiling teachers voices may provide pivotal information for teacher educators, educational policy makers, practitioners, researchers Teachers are those with - Experiences of past policy and current policy (Bailey, 2000)

8 Indonesian CLIL Teachers Survey on 27,000 ISS teachers (MoNE, 2009 as cited in Coleman, 2009) Almost 60% are Novice English user

9 CLIL Teacher Education Pre-service Teacher Education 2010 – English was started to be used as the language of instruction in Mathematics and Science Departments in the Faculty of Education in some major universities in Indonesia Pre-service Teacher Education 2010 – English was started to be used as the language of instruction in Mathematics and Science Departments in the Faculty of Education in some major universities in Indonesia Most attended pre-service teacher training with Bahasa Indonesia as the instructional language

10 CLIL Teacher Trainings

11 Challenges to learn English ‘We prepared ourselves by learning from colleagues, especially the English teachers…and also with the lecturers from the university…It was not as easy as what we imagined, because of our limited time and English proficiency, we developed really slowly’ ‘I was scared because of the language challenge. I did not like English at the time. I felt English was really difficult’ (Ning, Narrative Interview, 28 August 2013) Excitement to learn English ‘Teachers and students alike were really motivated to improve their English proficiency, and the efforts to keep up with other countries had been on the track by the use of English in the lessons’ (Bambang, Narrative Interview, 30 August 2013) Stories: Experiences of Learning English

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13 Stories: LP Reversal and Teachers’ TPD “For me, to be honest, I kind of lose motivation. If it’s just like this, yeah what can I do?” (Fanik, a Mathematics Teacher, Narrative Interview, ) “Now [in the training] we use Bahasa Indonesia and we are no longer challenged. Because it’s so common for us to use Bahasa Indonesia. In the past, when I attended RSBI trainings, I was happy, because I have a challenge, a challenge to speak English well while teaching” (Yayuk, a ScienceTeacher, Narrative Interview, ) “[after the reversal] We were a little bit loyo (feeling weak because of feeling disappointed) but now we are back on track. In my opinion, the more we are demanded to develop, although staggering, because we want that our school to be good in all respects.” (Ning, a Mathematics Teacher, Narrative Interview, ) ”ISSs were cancelled last year. Teachers’ motivation changed. I taught completely in Bahasa.” (Gunawan, a Mathematics Teacher, Narrative Interview, )

14 LP Reversal vis-à-vis CPD To a certain extent, the reversal may be an external force that reduce teachers motivation to continue their professional development, due to the lost of the ‘challenge’ and ‘excitement’. Demotivation refers to “Specific external forces that reduce or diminish the motivational basis of a behavioural intention or an ongoing action” (Dornyei, 2001:143) Teachers were both challenged and excited to improve their English at the onset of CLIL policy implementation. After the reversal – CLIL teachers said that they were to a certain extent demotivated to CPD

15 Dissemination Ideas Educational Policy Makers Sending Reports to Ministry of Education and Institute for Educational Quality Assurance and Development Indonesian FoE Dean Forums Teacher Trainers Seminars and Workshops Teacher Trainers Forums Teacher Education before Policy Implementation Motivation for TPD Challenge and Excitement -Gigs and getting on the road -Placing yourself in the key think tanks (Bridges, 2014) -Gigs and getting on the road -Placing yourself in the key think tanks (Bridges, 2014)

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17 References Bailey, B. (2000). The impact of mandated change on teachers. The sharp edge of educational change, Constitutional Court (CC) of Indonesia (2012) Putusan 5/PUU-X/2-12 (No. Verdict No. 5/PUU-X/2-12) Available at: sisdiknas%20-%20telah%20baca%208%20Januari% pdf [Accessed ] Dornyei, Z (2001). Teaching and researching motivation. Longman, Harlow. Kaplan, R. B., & Baldauf, R. (1997). Language planning: From theory to practice. Sydney, Australia: Multilingual Matters. Liddicoat, A. J., & Baldauf, R. B., Jr. (2008). ‘Language planning in local contexts: Agents, contexts, and interactions’, in A. J. Liddicoat & R. B. Baldauf, Jr. (Eds.), Language planning and policy: Language planning in local contexts (pp. 3–17). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Lieblich, A., Tuval-Mashiach, R., & Zilber, T. (Eds.). (1998). Narrative research: Reading, analysis, and interpretation (Vol. 47). Sage. O'Sullivan, M.C. (2002) ‘Reform Implementation and the Realities within which Teachers Work: A Namibian case study’, Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 32(2), pp Shouhui, Z., & Baldauf Jr, R. B. (2012). Individual agency in language planning: Chinese script reform as a case study. Language Problems & Language Planning, 36(1).

18 Data Analysis Narrative Data – Categorical

19 Demotivation vis-à-vis Amotivation Amotivation (in Dornyei, 2001)


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